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Bio study guide

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by: Danielle Nickinello

Bio study guide Biocore012

Danielle Nickinello

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Biology study guide senior
Exploring Biology
Dr. Alison Brody & Dr. Mellissa Pespeni
Study Guide
50 ?




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1 review
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"If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!"

Popular in Exploring Biology

Popular in Biomedical Engineering

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nickinello on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biocore012 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Alison Brody & Dr. Mellissa Pespeni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Exploring Biology in Biomedical Engineering at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Study Guide    Vocab Review:  Active transport The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its  concentration gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure  of energy   Amphipathic​ : Having both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region  Aquaporin​: A channel protein in a cellular membrane that specifically facilitates osmosis, the  diffusion of free water across the membrane  Bulk Transport:   Cell ­ Cell Recognition:   Cholesterol​: A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts  as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as  many hormones  Concentration Gradient:  Cotransport​: The coupling of the “downhill” diffusion of one substance to the “uphill” transport  of another against its own concentration gradient  Diffusion: Tendency for particle to fill a space  Electrochemical Gradient:​ The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the  concentration difference of an ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion’s  tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force)  Electrogenic Pump: ​An active transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane  while pumping ions  Endocytosis​: Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of  vesicles from the plasma membrane  Exocytosis​: The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing  them with the plasma membrane  Extracellular Matrix (ECM): The meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of  glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by cells  Facilitated DiffusionThe passage of molecules or ions down their electrochemical gradient  across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport  proteins, requiring no energy useage  Glycolipids: A lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates  Glycoproteins​: A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates  Hydrophilic: Water lover  Hydrophobic​ : Water hater; tending to coalesce and form droplets of water  Hypertonic​: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, will cause the cell to lose  water  Hypotonic​: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, will cause the cell to take  up water  Integral proteins A transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into and  often completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and with hydrophilic regions  in contact with aqueous solution on one or both sides of the membrane (or lining the channel  in the case of a channel protein)  Isotonic: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, causes no net movement of  water into or out of the cell  Osmosis​ : The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane   Osmotic Lysis:   Passive Transport: The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no  expenditure of energy  Peripheral Proteins: A protein loosely bound to the surface of the membrane or to part of an  integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer  Phagocytosis​: A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances or small organisms  are taken up by a cell. It carries out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals    Phospholipid: A lipid made up of glycerol and 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. The  hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the  molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as  biological membranes  Pinocytosis: A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved  solutes  Plasma membrane: ​ The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective  barrier, regulating the cell’s chemical composition  Plasmolysis​: A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma  membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic  environment   Proton Pump:​  An active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport  hydrogen ions out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane  potential in the process  Selective Permeability: ​A property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the  passages of substances across them  Signal Transduction:​  The linkage of mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a  specific cellular response  Simple Diffusion​:   Sodium­Potassium Pump:​  A transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that  actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell  Supramolecular Structure Rate of Diffusion:  Tonicity: The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause the cell to gain or lose water  Transport Protein:​ A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely  related substances to cross the membrane   Turgor Pressure:​  The force directed against a plant cell wall after the influx of water and  swelling of the cell due to osmosis  Water Potential:​ The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, govern  by a solution concentration and applied pressure     


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