Bio study guide
Bio study guide Biocore012
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Nickinello on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biocore012 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Alison Brody & Dr. Mellissa Pespeni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Exploring Biology in Biomedical Engineering at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Study Guide Vocab Review: Active transport The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy Amphipathic : Having both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region Aquaporin: A channel protein in a cellular membrane that specifically facilitates osmosis, the diffusion of free water across the membrane Bulk Transport: Cell Cell Recognition: Cholesterol: A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as many hormones Concentration Gradient: Cotransport: The coupling of the “downhill” diffusion of one substance to the “uphill” transport of another against its own concentration gradient Diffusion: Tendency for particle to fill a space Electrochemical Gradient: The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion’s tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force) Electrogenic Pump: An active transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane while pumping ions Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane Exocytosis: The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane Extracellular Matrix (ECM): The meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by cells Facilitated DiffusionThe passage of molecules or ions down their electrochemical gradient across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins, requiring no energy useage Glycolipids: A lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates Glycoproteins: A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates Hydrophilic: Water lover Hydrophobic : Water hater; tending to coalesce and form droplets of water Hypertonic: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, will cause the cell to lose water Hypotonic: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, will cause the cell to take up water Integral proteins A transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into and often completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and with hydrophilic regions in contact with aqueous solution on one or both sides of the membrane (or lining the channel in the case of a channel protein) Isotonic: Referring to a solution that, when surrounding the cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell Osmosis : The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane Osmotic Lysis: Passive Transport: The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy Peripheral Proteins: A protein loosely bound to the surface of the membrane or to part of an integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer Phagocytosis: A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances or small organisms are taken up by a cell. It carries out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals Phospholipid: A lipid made up of glycerol and 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes Pinocytosis: A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes Plasma membrane: The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell’s chemical composition Plasmolysis: A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment Proton Pump: An active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport hydrogen ions out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane potential in the process Selective Permeability: A property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passages of substances across them Signal Transduction: The linkage of mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a specific cellular response Simple Diffusion: SodiumPotassium Pump: A transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell Supramolecular Structure Rate of Diffusion: Tonicity: The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause the cell to gain or lose water Transport Protein: A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane Turgor Pressure: The force directed against a plant cell wall after the influx of water and swelling of the cell due to osmosis Water Potential: The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, govern by a solution concentration and applied pressure
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