2 Chapter 2: India & China
1/28/16 Lo Hinduism religion played a huge part in shaping their culture
) Karma-deed d effect; totality of our actions reactions
-) Reincarnation--eliminates death; a rebirth into another physical birth If you want to learn more check out What is the main use of biotechnology?
after death, returns as a diff. form
4) Darhna- how the law is represented - Dharma We also discuss several other topics like What was the outcome of mating between gaia and uranus?
A major difference
h Indian philosophy was often concerned with the individual
• Hinduism Books
Vedas 1500 B.C.E.: A Bible you could never read Upanishads : Expanded teachings on the Vedas
a to Think liner or cliff notes
• Central Tenants . Dharma: Universal laws
Karma: Universes' balance through cause & effect
Life is one eternal circle.
Hinduism has an issue: this b Androcentrism: males and masculinity form the center of the
• Castes We also discuss several other topics like What can be found in lymph fluid?
The idea of Karma supported the idea of castes. Brahmins - Kings Kshatriyas - Warriors & Nobles
Vaishyas - Merchants, Crafts workers
2 Slaves, Cleaners Shudras - Bad Karma Untouchables people who did unclean things
MO MIQUELRIUS We also discuss several other topics like What is the term for the rules used in combining simple signs?
1128116 Hinduism * Cognition We have different processes
Seavana - bearing
• Manana - reflecting
• Nidid hy asana - meditating site
We don't perceive "reality" (as humans Transcendence: Knowledge beyond empirical experience
Yoga where it was designed
• to meditate on reality Soul: An infinite cycle of reincarnation based on your Karma
Buddhism 1) Life is suffering 2 feeling of attachment & desire leads to suffering If you want to learn more check out What was often considered the representative of the birth of psychology as a discipline?
3) Neutralize & expel all your ego achieve denena nirvana
4) seek wisdom 4 Noble Truths
1) Life is suffering
to Physical or Psychological 2) This suffering comes from ignorance 3) We can escape this suffering to 4) Seek to reduced suffering in oneself din other Don't forget about the age old question of What is the cocktail party effect?
The Middle W ay Ascetism : Abstinence from all worldly pleasures
We should not self-indulge nor self-punish
Buddhism The Soul -When the body dies, the soul lives on dis born again - This creates a new self - Thought experiment: What is the self?
Nirvana : perfect and profound peace and enlightenment. The Self
Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do. Indian Philosophy
Ti) Human Behavior 2) The Self
* China *
Confucious - Refused any idea of predestination
Lo men could be as virtuous as they wished to - Easily the most famous atheist ; refused gods & - Effort not the destination . Morality
Confucious and his students
Mencius: Humans are inherently good
- Only difference between the animals Hsun Tzu: Humans are inherently evil
Need education Philosophy e Law
• Holistics. Holism: Everything is interconnected La Concept of yin and yang ang asubu
Yin: Dark, soft, hidden feminine.
Yang : Bright, firm, open, mas culine * These balances brought about personality of human nature
Summary Indian Tradition:
Cognition tits abnormalities Chinese Tradition
Social issues Interconnectedness of physical & spiritual processes * The Roman Empire
212/16 to Western Roman Empire
- persisted 500 C.E.
- preserved greek kawowledge Galen - Doctor IPhilosopher - Romans did not just regurgitate - Medicine
* Three forms of pneuma:
- 1) Всіп
3) Liver Gave us •Nervous System
• Catalogued reflexes
• Balance of humors
Morality Stoics greatly influenced Marcus Aurelius
so o Governed based on ethical principles The presence of an emperor employing Greek philosophy :
ensured those ideals pacientes perserved
• Fall of the Empire.
What happened to Europe after the fall of Rome? Would you be in class Thursday if the White House was bombed? No....
Unremarkable until 2nd millennium C.E.
Where did it go & come from?
• Eastern Roman Empire.
Byzantine Empire Arabic world kept Greek philosophy alive Middle East through North Africa
Al-Farabi. 1st Social Psychologist
studied how humans interacted in groups 4
Cities as analogies:
Dissolute Cagainst all virtues)
Ignorant (not knowing ) Turn coat (betrayal)
Dissected the eye il correctly explained a nd doen of
Lo How the eye perceived light on and class
t Binocular vision Why the sun gets bigger on the horizon
Iba Sina (Avicenna).
Described how ideal images exist in the soul
Creativity Sensory Information Lo Memory
to Results of perceptions Emotions effect on the mind body
• Morality Greek asceticism blended nicely w/ Islamic teachings
Mohammed as an example of behavior Refrain from worldly pleasures
4 Fidwasi & Nizami Islam and Science Mutazilites & Abul-Walid Ibn Rushd
Greek philosophy & Islamic religion free will, rationalism, Aristotelian logic
• " Dark Ages" in Europe.
Before the fall of the Western Romans to Christianity had become the dominant religion.
Roman Knowledge was preserved in monasteries - Scientific & Religions Knowledge become intermingled
•Scholastic Tradition: - Scholasticism: Catholic church teachings intermixed w/ Greek Philosoof - Philosophy & Theology are almost indistinguishable
• Plotinus Stated that the mind was an active force, not a possive receptacle
Cognitive Poycology The power of the soul Beauty could be defined to Gestalt LEctomorphis (perfectly symmetrical face)
Became fascinated with why people sin
Free will not Caritas: Ethical virtuous, controlled cupiditats: Desirous, violent, selfish Present in everyone
Importance of the soul Fundamentally altered perception on sexuality Lepure carnality Quickly adopted into Church teachings
Sin was experienced through guilt
• Formation of Guilty How often do you blame yourself for something you have no control
• Guilt as a coping mechanism •
Self-blame functions logically Lo Guilt motivates to Guilt gives us control Europe's Middle Ages. 1000 CE
The Catholic Church (Parental figure that people had to listen to)
to powerful enough to stabilize continent Warming
Farming growth & cities developed Cities support cities & gain wealth
• Middle Ages Mutazilites and Ibn Sina to Keeping Greek traditions alive Their Greek roots made it easy for Augustinian Europe to connect to Led to a resurgence in Psychological study
Thomas Aquinas Dominican friar
Soul unique to the loody Active state of soul in thought
Helped popularize Greek theories by placing them in Christian terms
•Back into the light
The integral nature of the soul & the specter of guilt and sin would Shape how Europe viewed Psychology for centuries to come
• Greek philosophy was shared around Europe & the Middle East by the
The Arab would incubated & built on these ideas white Europe went dark
• As Islam began to suppress scientific pursuits Europe was reawakening
& rediscovered their Greek roots
* No matter where o
- Importance of the soul Jewish, Christion, or Muslim
to Human exceptionality
- Emotional states Buddism, Hinduism
- Sensation & Perception
- Order to the World Confucianism More similarities than differences Religion at heart