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AU / Psychology / PSYC 2010 / what is clinical psychology?

what is clinical psychology?

what is clinical psychology?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction Into Psychology
Professor: Jennifer daniels
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology Exam 1 Auburn Weathers Study guide
Cost: 50
Name: Psych 2010, exam 1 study guide
Description: These notes elaborate on the material Dr.Weathers provided us with
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
10 Pages 8 Views 17 Unlocks
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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Kala for help in class!



PSYCH 2010- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE  


what is clinical psychology?



Structuralism – breaking up the “conscious experience” into  basic elements, and studying how these elements were related  (sensation, feeling, images)

Functionalism- psychology should investigate the function of the conscious experience instead of the structure; what does it do?  

William James-  

- “consciousness is a continuous flow of thoughts” – stream of  consciousness  

- Lead the functionalist  

Sigmund Freud- psychoanalytic perspective  

- The unconscious = thoughts, memories, desires that people  are not actively thinking about, but have a great influence on behavior  

John B. Watson-  

- “forget about consciousness/unconsciousness”

- introduces Behaviorism – scientific psychology should study  only the behavior on the outside

- Because we can’t physically see conscious decision making,  we can only make 100% accurate statements on outside  behavior; VERIFIABILITY


what are the 7 unifying themes of psychology?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is superimposed political boundary?
Don't forget about the age old question of If we were the direct ancestors of chimpanzees, then there would happen?

- He took an extreme stance on Nature vs. Nurture; He was on team Nurture Don't forget about the age old question of Who is William Morris?

- Nature vs. nurture- is behavior determined by genetics  (Nature) or environment and experience (Nurture)

B. F. Skinner- No one has control over what they do - “human behavior is no freer than digestion”

- Free will is an illusion  

- he knew mental events happened, but found them useless  because we couldn’t scientifically study them

Fundamental principle of behavior- people will repeat  behavior that leads to good outcomes, and will avoid behavior  that leads to negative outcomes

Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow- Humanism approach  

Humanism- Theory emphasizing the unique qualities of humans,  especially their freedom and potential for personal growth  

- optimistic view of human nature

Clinical psychology- concerned with diagnosis and treatment of  psychological problems and disorders


what is neurotransmitters?



Cognition- mental processes when acquiring knowledge  

Cognitive perspective- mental processes influence how  we behave

- focusing only on the outside behavior doesn’t give us a full  picture of why we behave like we do  If you want to learn more check out What is the goal of integrated marketing communications?

Biological perspective- you can explain human behavior  because of their bodily processes and chemical processes  

Evolutionary psychology- examines behavioral processes in  terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the  course of many generations  

Positive psychology movement- to better understand positive  aspects of human existence (resilience, adapting, positive  attitudes)

Modern definition of psychology- The science that studies  behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that  underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the  accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems  

7 unifying themes of psychology

1) psychology is empirical

- conclusions are based on direct observation 2) psychology is theoretically diverse  

- seek to explain why the (direct observations) happen  3) psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context  4) behavior is determined by multiple causes  5) behavior is shaped by cultural heritage

6) heredity and environment jointly influence behavior - nature AND nurture

7) people’s experience of the world is highly subjective  - your individual reality is different than others, so you  experience things differently, even if you’re in the same  situation

Chapter 2 Study Guide

Scientific approach- assumes events are governed by some lawful order  Goals of the scientific enterprise

-- Measurement and description- create some system of measurement for behavior studies

 (ex. How to measure if men are more sociable than women) We also discuss several other topics like How to measure the strength of alcohol?

-- Understanding and prediction- to understand something is to explain  why it occurs  

-- Application and control- goal is to gather practical information that add  value and can help solve problems  If you want to learn more check out Where do you find the genomes of humans?

Hypothesis- uncertain statement about the relationship between 2 or more  variables  

Theory- a bunch of related ideas that try to explain something observable  

Operational definition- describes actions that will be used to measure/control a  variable  

Participants- people/animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study Data collection techniques in psychology

-- Direct observation- observers trained to watch and record behaviors as  objectively and precisely as possible. They may use some instruments (stopwatch,  video recorder)

-- Questionnaire

-- Interview

-- Psychological test

-- Physiological recording

-- Archival records

Journal- periodical that publishes technical & scholarly material, usually in a  narrowly defined area of inquiry  

Peer review process: see figure 2.3, page 35

Research methods- different approaches to to observation, measurement,  manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies  

Experiment- research method; manipulates a variable under controlled conditions  and observes whether any change occurs in second variable  

Independent variable- what the experimenter varies in order to see an impact on  other variable

Dependent variable- affected by the experiment, being observed  

Experimental group- subjects who receive some special treatment in an  experiment, they are administered the Independent variable  

Control group- not given the independent variable  

Extraneous variables (also known as third variables)- other variables that are  likely to influence results  

Confounding- two variables are linked very closely, so it’s hard to tell which effects come from which variable  

Random assignment- all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any  group or set of conditions  

Correlation (positive and negative)- exists when two variables are related (see  figure 2.7, page 41)

Correlation coefficient- numerical index of the degree of relationship between 2  variables  

Naturalistic observation- researcher engages in careful observation of behavior  without intervening directly with subjects

Reactivity- when subject’s behavior is probably altered by an observer  Case studies- really in depth study on one subject  

Surveys- researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about  specific aspects of particular participants’ backgrounds, attitudes, beliefs, or  behavior  

Replication- repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated  

Meta-analysis- combines the statistical results of many studies of the same  question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of the variables effects  

Sampling bias- when a sample is not representative of the population from which  it was drawn  

Placebo effects- participants’ expectations lead them to experience some change  even though they receive fake treatment

Distortions in self-report data

Experimenter bias- tendency for experimenters to be bias by their own  expectations  

Double-blind procedure- neither the subjects or observers know who has been  assigned to the experimental group  

Deception in psychological research: controversial topic between psychologists. Some researchers create fake situations in order to observe behavior, such as  robbery, fights, etc.

Ethical principles in psychological research – research with humans: -- Must be voluntary

-- Must not be harmful or dangerous

-- Studies involving deception must include debriefing

-- Right to privacy must be protected

check the study guide he gave us for charts and images you should  consult

Chapter 3 Study Guide

Key terms – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter.  Neuron- specialized cell sending out nerve impulses

Soma- body of the cell  

Dendrites- receives signals from other cells

Axon- sends signals to other cells

Myelin sheath- insulating material that encases some axons  

Terminal buttons- small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters- the messengers that activate neighboring neurons  Synapse- the space where information is sent from one neuron to another  

Glia- cells found all around the nervous system that provide many types of support  for neurons  

Resting potential- stable, negative charge while the cell is inactive  

Action potential- brief shift in the electrical charge of a neuron that travels along  an axon

All-or-none-law- a neuron cannot half fire an impulse; it sends, or it doesn’t Think of this: You can’t halfway fire a gun

Synaptic cleft: microscopic gap between neurons  

Presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron:  

Pre-synaptic neuron- neuron that is sending signal across the gap  Post-synaptic neuron- neuron that receives the signal  

Postsynaptic potential- voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell  membrane  

Peripheral nervous system-consists of the nerves and ganglia on the outside of the brain  and spinal cord.

-- Somatic nervous system- ‘Soma’ meaning body; nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles (chewing, walking, clapping)

-- Afferent nerve fibers- axons that carry information inward, from  the periphery of the body to the central nervous system  

-- Efferent nerve fibers- axons that carry information outward, from  the central nervous system to periphery  

-- Autonomic nervous system- ‘Auto’; running by itself; involuntary  functions (blinking, breathing, heat beating)

-- Sympathetic- arousal; fight or flight, gets the body working –  mobilizes body’s resources for emergencies  

-- Parasympathetic divisions- ‘brake system’; calms body down  after arousal, balances electric charge- conserves bodily resources  

Central nervous system- brain and spinal cord

-- Spinal cord- connects brain to the rest of body through peripheral nervous system; from base of brain to just below waist  

-- Brain- in skull, main part of central nervous system; coordinates body’s  actions, enable people to talk & think  

Hindbrain: parts listed below, lower part of brainstem

-- Cerebellum- “little brain”, adjacent to back surface of the brainstem:  coordination of movement, equilibrium  

-- Medulla- attaches to spinal cord, largely unconscious; controls breathing,  circulation, etc.

-- Pons- bridge of fibers connecting cerebellum to brainstem; cell clusters  dealing with sleep and arousal  

Midbrain: between hindbrain and forebrain  

-- Reticular formation- regulation in sleep and waking up  

Forebrain: largest and most complex

-- Thalamus- handles incoming and outgoing signals; relay center for cortex  

-- Hypothalamus- regulating basic human needs (hunger, temperature,  thirst)

-- Limbic system- several structures, not very well defined; some pleasure  centers

-- Hippocampus- learning and memory  

-- Amygdala- emotion and aggression  

-- Cerebrum and cerebral cortex

-- Cerebral hemispheres- two sides of brain, eft and right;  

-- Corpus callosum- collection of fibers that attach the cerebral  hemispheres together

-- Occipital lobe- eyesight

-- Parietal lobe- sensations  

-- Temporal lobe- auditory, hearing

-- Frontal lobe- voluntary movements

-- Prefrontal cortex- huge part of brain, still not fully  

understood

Mirror neurons – neurons activated when seeing a human performing a task, or  preforming one yourself

Brain plasticity- the brain isn’t set in stone; experiences can sculpt features in the brain

Neurogenesis- creation of new neurons  

Split-brain surgery- cutting corpus callosum to reduce severity in epileptic  seizures  

Hemispheric specialization- tasks and actions that are designated to one side of  the brain (ex. Language is left brain)

Endocrine system- glands that release chemicals into body/bloodstream to help  control bodily functioning  

Hormones- the chemical substances that the glands release  

Chromosomes- threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid  

Genes- DNA segments that are the key to hereditary transmission  

Family studies- researcher’s asses hereditary influence by examining blood  relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait  

Twin studies- researcher’s asses hereditary influence by comparing a trait shared  by identical twins, or fraternal twins  

Adoption studies- researcher’s asses hereditary influence by examining the  resemblance between an adopted child and their adoptive parents and biological  parents  

Epigenetics- study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve  modifications to the DNA sequence  

Evolutionary fitness- reproductive success of an individual organism compared to the reproductive success of the other organisms in that population  

Natural selection- hereditary traits that give organisms a “1 up” advantage in  survival and reproduction, are more likely to be passed on to later generations,  making them a “selected trait”

Adaptation- inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction

Behavioral adaptations- adaptations made to behavior patterns to help  organisms survive and successfully reproduce

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