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BSC 215 Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Exam 3 Study Guide BSC 215

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 215 > BSC 215 Exam 3 Study Guide
Regan Dougherty
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Exam date: 4/13/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Study Guide
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
Exam Date: 4/13/16 BCS 215 Exam 3 Study Guide - The Nervous System • Neuron Classification - Multipolar - single axon and multiple highly branched dendrites • motor neurons, interneurons - Bipolar - single axon and single dendrite • sensory neurons - Pseudounipolar - began as bipolar neuron, but the two processes fused together; the axon splits into two processes (one transmits signals to the cell body and one transmits signals away from the cell body. Sensory neurons • Neuron Functional Grouping Groups of cell bodies are called… Groups of axons are called… CNS nuclei tracts PNS ganglia nerves Neuroglia - support cells • - Functions • hold neurons together • maintain extracellular fluid • assist neural function • repair damaged tissue 1 Exam Date: 4/13/16 Neuroglia in the CNS Astrocytes •anchor neurons and blood vessels in place •regulate the extracellular environment of the brain •assist in the formation of the blood-brain barrier •repair damaged brain tissue Oligodendrocytes •form myelin sheath Microglial cells •phagocytic activity Ependymal cells •circulation of cerebral spinal fluid •formation of cerebrospinal fluid monitor composition of cerebrospinal fluid • Neuroglia in the PNS Schwann cells • form myelin sheath • repair damaged axons Satellite cells • enclose and support cell bodies - Myelin Sheath - electrical insulator; increase the speed of conduction of action potentials composed of multiple layers of phospholipid bilayers • Myelin Sheath: CNS vs. PNS CNS PNS • formed by oligodendrocytes which reach out with • formed by Schwann cells which wrap around an numerous extensions that wrap around multiple axon axons • cells wrap from the outside in • cells wrap from the inside out • no neurolemma • neurolemma are present neurolemma - concentration of organelles and • cytoplasm found on the outer surface of a myelinated axon • Myelination begins after birth. • Myelination begins in the early fetal period. • Node of Ranvier - the unmyelinated part of an axon between two myelinated segments White matter is myelinated, gray matter is not. • • Nervous Tissue Regeneration 2 Exam Date: 4/13/16 - CNS • Astrocytes form scar tissue (but this scar tissue is not the same as the original nervous tissue). • Damaged neurons cannot be replaced. - PNS Axon regeneration is possible as long as the cell body and part of the myelin • sheath are still intact. • Neurons cannot undergo mitosis because they do not have centrioles (so they cannot divide). Regeneration of an Axon 1. Wallerian degeneration - phagocytes digest the portion of the axon that is distal to the damaged part 2. Growth processes form from the proximal end of the axon. 3. Regeneration tube forms from Schwann cells and basal lamina. 4. Regeneration tube directs growth. 5. Connection with the target cell is reestablished. Schwann cells form myelin sheaths. Muscle atrophy ceases. - Neural Electrophysiology - Ion channels • Leak Channels - always open; continually allow ions to flow down their concentration gradients • Gated Channels - Ligand-gated - specific ligand causes the cannel to open - Voltage-gated - change in voltage across the membrane opens the channel - Mechanically-gated - mechanical deformation opens the channel • Resting membrane potential - the voltage difference across the plasma membrane of a cell when it is not being stimulated. - Na+/K+ pump - 3 Na+ move out, 2 K+ move in 3 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • More positive ions move out than in, causing the resting membrane potential to be negative (inside of the cell is more negative). - Leak channels • There are Na+ and K+ leak channels embedded in the membrane. There are more K+ leak channels. K+ diffuses out of the cell, contributing to the greater positive charge on the outside of the cell. • Depolarization - a temporary increase in a cell’s membrane potential (the charge is becoming less negative) • Repolarization - return of a cell’s membrane potential back to the resting state • Hyperpolarization - a change in membrane potential to a charge that is less negative than resting membrane potential • Local potential - a small change in the membrane potential in a specific region of a cell’s plasma membrane - Local potentials are caused by ligand-gated ion channels in dendrites and the cell body. • useful for short-distance signaling, not for long distance signaling • Na+ and K+ Voltage Gated Channels - K+ Channel • Resting state - closed by activation gate • Active state - open • The voltage across the membrane determines whether the channels will be open or closed. - Channels open at +30 mV. - Repolarization causes the gates to close. • The K+ channel is the second gate that opens during the action potential. - K+ passively flows into the cell. - Na+ Channel • Resting state - closed by activation gate; inactivation gate open 4 Exam Date: 4/13/16 - Repolarization (> -55 mV) closes the activation gate and opens the inactivation gate. • Activated state - both gates are open - The activation gate is opened at -55 mV. • Inactivated state - closed by inactivation gate; activation gate open - The inactivation gate closes at +30 mV. • The Na+ channel is the first channel to open during the action potential. - Na+ passively flows out of the cell. • The Action Potential: Trigger Zone - There is a large concentration of voltage-gated Na+ channels is in the axon hillock. Events of an Action Potential 1. A local potential depolarizes the axolemma of the trigger zone to threshold. Activation gates of Na+ channels open. 2. Na+ channels activate, Na+ enters, and the axon section depolarizes. More Na+ channels open (activation gates), resulting in further depolarization as Na+ flows down its electrochemical gradient into the cell. 3. Na+ channels inactivate and K+ channels activate. Na+ stops flowing in and K+ starts flowing out. Depolarization begins. Na+ inactivation gates close. 4. Na+ channels return to the resting state and depolarization continues. Na+ activation gates close and inactivation gates open. 5. The axolemma may hyperpolarize before K+ channels return to the resting state. After hyperpolarization, the axolemma returns to the resting membrane potential. Hyperpolarization occurs because K+ channels are slow to close. • Following the action potential, the Na+/K+ pump brings Na+ and K+ ions back to their original side of the membrane. • Refractory period - the period during which and excitable cell either cannot respond to a stimulus (absolute refractory period) or requires a stronger stimulus to respond (relative refractory period) - The Integumentary System • Associated organs: 5 Exam Date: 4/13/16 - Skin • Epidermis - outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue; not vascularized • Dermis - inner layer of loose and dense irregular connective tissues; vascularized (supplies epidermis with nutrients) • Hypodermis - the deepest layer; loose connective and adipose tissues; not considered part of the integumentary system - Hair - loose connective tissue derived from dermal cells - Nails - Exocrine glands • Sebaceous glands - secrete oil • Sweat glands - Sensory receptors - Arrector pili - muscles that surround hair follicles and allow hair to “stand on edge” • Integument Functions - protection - sensation - thermoregulation - excretion - vitamin D synthesis Cells That Make up the Epidermis Keratinocytes produce keratin • contain desmosomes that link cells together and provide strength • make up about 95% of epidermal cells • Dendritic cells • phagocytes • found mostly in the stratum spinosum Merkel cells • sensory cells associated with neurons • found in the stratum basale 6 Exam Date: 4/13/16 Melanocytes •produce the protective pigment melanin •found in the stratum basale Layers of the Epidermis Stratum Basale • single layer of stem cells that rest on the deepest layer basement membrane keratinocytes are most metabolically active here • because they are closest to the blood supply Stratum Spinosum • thickest layer • cells are still metabolically active Stratum Granulosum • lipid coating acts as a water barrier Stratum Lucidum • dead keratinocytes • only found in thick skin Stratum Corneum • dead, flattened keratinocytes most superficial layer Thin vs. Thick Skin • - Thick skin - skin that has 5 epidermal layers; located on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet - Thin skin - skin that lacks a stratum lucidum and has thinner epidermal layers; located everywhere on the body except for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet • Layers of the Dermis - Papillary - the layer just below the epidermis that is composed of loose connective tissue • Dermal papillae - projections of the papillary layer that indent the overlying epidermis and house capillary loops and sensory receptors - Reticular - the layer of the dermis that is deep to the papillary layer; composed of dense irregular collagenous connective tissue • Skin Markings - Epidermal ridges - folded patterns of the epidermis in thick skin that enhance gripping ability • Fingerprints - pattern of sweat pores that release sweat along the epidermal ridges 7 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • Flexure lines - result of the tight anchoring of the reticular layer to deeper structures • Tension lines - gaps between the bundles of collagen in the dermis indent the epidermis Skin Pigments • - Melanin - a pigment produced by melanocytes in the epidermis that ranges in color from brown-black to orange-red; protects the DNA in skin cells - Carotene - yellow-orange pigment that is consumed through the diet; lipid-soluble - Hemoglobin - iron containing protein in blood that turns red-orange when oxidized • Accessory Structures - Hair - composed of dead, keratinized cells 2 main components: root and shaft (portion projecting from the skin’s surface) • • terminal hair - thicker, pigmented hair found on the scalp and around the eyes • vellus hair - thinner, non pigmented hair found on the remainder of the body - Nails - composed of dead, keratinized cells - Glands - The Skeletal System • Components - Bone - Cartilage - Ligament • Skeletal Cartilages - Hyaline - Elastic - Fibrocartilage • The human skeleton has 206 bones on average. 8 Exam Date: 4/13/16 - Axial skeleton - consists of the head, neck, and trunk • main job: protect internal organs • Bones Included: - skull - auditory ossicles (ear bones) - hyoid bone (found in the throat) - vertebral column - thoracic cage - The number of bones a person has can vary because: • Infants are born with about 270 bones, some of which fuse together with age. • Additional sesamoid bones (bones formed within tendons) may form due to stress in those areas. • The number of bones in the skull varies (wormian/sutural bones). • Bone Markings - Depression • facet - shallow convex or concave surface where two bones articulate • fossa - indentation of a bone into which another structure fits • fovea - shallow pit • groove - long indentation along which a narrow structure travels - Opening • canal - tunnel through a bone • fissure - narrow slit in a bone or between adjacent parts of bones foramen - hole in a bone • - Projection • condyle - rounded end of a bone that articulates with another bone • crest - ridge or projection 9 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • head - round projection from a bone’s epiphysis • tubercle and tuberosity - small, rounded bony projection; a tuberosity is a large tubercle • process - prominent bony projection • protuberance - sharp process • trochanter - large projection found only on the femur • line - long, narrow ridge PEST OF 6 - Cranial Bone Memorization Parietal (2) Ethmoid Sphenoid Temporal (2) Occipital Frontal **Cranial bones are the bones that encase the brain. Virgil Is Now Making My Pet Zebra Laugh - Facial Bone Memorization Vomer Inferior nasal concha (2) Nasal (2) Maxilla (2) Mandible Palatine (2) Zygomatic (2) Lacrimal (2) **Facial bones form the framework of the face. 10 Exam Date: 4/13/16 Every Student Fancies Learning Zillions More Parts - Orbital Bone Memorization Ethmoid Sphenoid Frontal Lacrimal Zygomatic Maxilla Palatine **The orbital bones house the eyeball. For Easy Sinus Memorization - Paranasal Sinus Bone Memorization Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxilla • The Fetal Skull - Fontanel - “soft spots;” membranous areas that result from the ossification of cranial bones anterior and posterior • - Suture - sutures are not yet fused together • Vertebral Column - Cervical (7 vertebrae) most superior - Thoracic (12 vertebrae) - Lumbar (5 vertebrae) - Sacral (5 fused vertebrae) - Coccyx (3-5 fused vertebrae) most inferior • Thoracic Cage - 12 ribs on each side 11 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • 7 true (attach to the sternum through their own cartilage) • 3 vertebrochondral (do not attach to the sternum directly) • 2 floating (no attachment to the sternum) • Components of the Sternum - manubrium - superior portion - body - largest part of the sternum - xiphoid process - inferior portion • Axial Accessory Bones - Hyoid - a small “C” shaped bone in the superior neck - ossicles - Articulations • Joint/Articulation - the joining of two bones • Joint Functions - stability - movement - bone growth (epiphyseal plate) Functional Classifications Synarthrosis no movement Amphiarthrosis small degree of movement Diarthrosis wide variety of movements • As the degree of movement increases, stability decreases. 12 Exam Date: 4/13/16 Structural Classifications Fibrous joint • dense regular collagenous • sutures connective tissue • gomphoses - immovable fibrous joints between a tooth and its corresponding pocket • syndesmoses - articulating bones are joined by a long membrane composed of dense regular connective tissue (some movement) Cartilaginous joint • cartilage between articulating bones • synchondroses - bones united by hyaline cartilage (no movement) • symphyses - amphiarthroses in which bones are united by fibrocartilage Synovial joint • layer of hyaline cartilage on the surface of articulating bones • space filled with synovial fluid between bones • All synovial joints are diarthroses. • Structural Elements of Synovial Joints - Synovial cavity - the region around/between bones that contains synovial fluid • Articular capsule - double-layered structure surrounding synovial joints that holds the articulating bones together - Outer fibrous layer • dense irregular collagenous connective tissue - holds bones together - insulates joint cavity from blood vessels (to protect blood vessels) - Inner areolar layer (synovial membrane) • loose connective/areolar tissue - provides nutrients, waste removal, and gas exchange through synovial fluid • Articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage on the end of the bones that allows the bones to rub against each other in a friction-less way - covers all exposed surfaces of articulating bones in joint cavity - smooth (friction-reduced) surface 13 Exam Date: 4/13/16 - absorbs shock (due to GAG composition - water is a great shock absorber) - derives nutrients, gas exchange from synovial fluid • Synovial fluid - fluid secreted by the synovial membrane - Functions: • Lubrication - reduces friction which protects the articulating ends of the bones) Metabolic • - supplies nutrients and removes waste products • Shock absorption - Other Components • Adipose tissue - provides protective padding • Blood supply (in surrounding connective tissues) • Nerves (in surrounding connective tissues) • Synovial Joint Stability - Synovial joints are the least stable since they allow for the most mobility. - Ligament - a strand of dense regular connective tissue that connects one bone to another to strengthen/reinforce an articulation - Intrinsic ligament - thickened regions of the articular capsule; inside the joint - Extrinsic ligament - outside the joint - Tendon - connect muscle to bone - Factors Determining Range of Motion: • shape of articular surface ligament number (the more ligaments, the stronger, but the less mobile) • • muscle tone • Bursa - a synovial fluid-filled structure located between bones, tendons, and muscles of certain synovial joints; minimizes friction between moving parts 14 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • Tendon Sheath - a long bursa that surrounds some tendons in high-stress areas • Arthritis - Joint inflammation - immune response to damaged articular cartilage and the associated bone • associated with wear and tear Managed with: Osteoarthritis (old age) •pain medication •anti-inflammatory medication •joint movement (circulates synovial fluid, allowing for tissue repair) • immune system attacks Managed with: Rheumatoid arthritis connective tissue surrounding •pain medication synovial joints •anti-inflammatory medication •immunosuppressants • excess uric acid forms deposits Managed with: Gouty arthritis in the connective tissue •pain medication surrounding a joint •anti-inflammatory medication •anti-uric acid • Classification of Diarthroses (Synovial Joints) - Non-axial - allows motion to occur in one or more planes but does not move around an axis - Uni-axial - allows motion around one axis - Bi-axial - allows motion around two axes - Multi-axial - allows motion around multiple (more than two) axes - The Muscular System • Origin - less moveable, anchoring point on a bone • Insertion - attached to the bone or structure that will move during muscle contraction Muscle Shapes Parallel evenly spaced fascicles attached to tendons that ex. sartorious (in the thigh) are about the same width as the muscle Convergent a broad muscle that uniformly tapers to a single ex. pectoralis major tendon Unipennate muscle fascicles feather out from one side of the ex. flexor pollicis longus tendon 15 Exam Date: 4/13/16 Bipennate fascicles angle out from both sides of the tendon ex. rectus femoris Multipennate composed of several areas where fascicles angle ex. deltoid away from connective tissue separators Circular encircles a structure ex. orbicularis oculi Spiral wraps around a bone or has a twisted appearance ex. supinator (in the forearm) Fusiform thicker in the belly (middle) and tapered at the ex. biceps brachii ends Naming Muscles Shape/Appearance •deltoid •gastrocnemius (stomach shaped) Size adductor longus • •vastus (wide) lateralis Structural characteristics •biceps (2 heads) Location •tibialis anterior Body region •biceps brachii Points of attachment •sternocleidomastoid Action •abductor pollicis longus • Skeletal Muscle Functions - locomotion - breathing (contraction of the diaphragm) - initiation of swallowing - sound modification (stapedius in the ear) - voluntary control over defecation and urination - shivering • Muscle twitch - the response of a muscle fiber to a single action potential - 3 Phases of the Myogram: • Latent - the time it takes for the action potential to spread • Contraction - crossbridge cycles Relaxation - tension decreases • 16 Exam Date: 4/13/16 • Wave summation - repeated stimulation of a muscle fiber by a motor neuron results in twitches with progressively greater tension - The amount of tension produced during wave summation depends on the frequency of stimulation by the motor neuron. - Unfused tetanus - muscle fiber is not allowed to relax completely between stimuli resulting in a sustained contraction - Fused tetanus - muscle fiber does not relax at all between stimuli resulting in constant tension at a maximal level • The Length-Tension Relationship - The number of crossbridges that can form within each sarcomere depends on the length of the sarcomere prior to contraction. Classes of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Slow-Twitch (Type I) Fast-Twitch (Type II) • Low myosin ATPase activity (breaks ATP down •High myosin ATPase activity into ADP and Pi) • Maintain extended periods of contraction •Powerful but quickly fatigued • Mainly oxidative metabolism (produces a lot of •Mostly anaerobic metabolism (produces a small ATP, but takes a long time) amount of ATP quickly) • Well developed blood supply, myoglobin, and •Smaller blood supply; less myoglobin and mitochondria mitochondria • “dark meat” •“light meat” • Motor unit - the group of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron - A motor unit is either completely type I or completely type II fibers. - Muscles that require fine control will contain motor units with as few as 10 fascicles per unit. Large, powerful muscles can have 2000-3000 fascicles per motor unit. - Slow motor units contain type I fibers. Fast motor units contain type II fibers. • Recruitment - “deciding” how many/which motor units to use in a given motion • Muscle tone - alternating motor unit contractions to maintain muscle tone 17


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