Anatomy & Physiology I
Anatomy & Physiology I BIOL 2404
Arkansas Tech University
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Stackhouse on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2404 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Jennifer A. Lewter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
A&P I Study Guide (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4) Highlight= Terms Highlight= Important Concept Anatomy vs Physiology o Anatomy- is the study of structure and form. o Physiology- is the study of the functioning of the body parts. Microscopic Anatomy o Examines the structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye. o Microscopic anatomy has many subdivisions, but the main two are cytology and histology. o Cytology- is the study of the body cells and their internal structures. o Histology- is the study of tissues. Gross Anatomy (also known as macroscopic anatomy) investigates the structure and relationships of the body parts that are visible to the unaided eye. (ex. Intestines, stomach, brain, heart, kidneys) o Gross anatomy can be approached in several different ways: systematic, regional, surface, comparative, and embryology. Division of Body o Many physiologist examine the body by separating them into small groups or systems, including: Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Urinary, Digestive, and Reproductive systems. Anatomy & Physiology Integrated o People integrate the two disciplines so we can more easily see that anatomic form and physiologic function are inseparable. o Ex. You cannot fully understand how the small intestine propels food and digests or absorbs nutrients unless you know about the form and structure of the intestine. Metabolism o The sum of all the chemical reactions in the body o Anabolism- when small molecules are joined to form larger molecules o Catabolism- when large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. Homeostasis o Refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a consistent internal environment or “steady state”. Negative & Positive Feedback o Negative feedback is generally the one that we want to stay alive. (Ex. When you sweat that is the body’s response to the internal temperature warming up) o Positive feedback is typically not good, but in some cases it is. (Ex. Your blood clotting in response to a cut) Levels of Complex Organization in Humans o Starts with cells, tissue, organ, organ system, then finally is organ system. o Organelles- microscopic structures found in cells to keep them functioning. o Atoms- smallest unit of matter o Molecule- when two or more atoms combine o Macromolecules- are more complex molecules The Language of Anatomy & Physiology o Anatomic Position Body Cavities Abdomen Region System Key Principles of Homeostasis o Receptor- the structure that detects the change in the variable, which is either the substance or process that is regulated. o Control Center- the structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector. o Effector- is the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus. o Set Point- the normal level of the variable Homeostatic Failure o When these homeostatic systems fail, a homeostatic imbalance or disease occurs ultimately threatening the life of an individual. o Diabetes is an example of a homeostatic imbalance, when the systems for regulating blood glycose are not functioning normally. Atoms & Periodic System o Atom- is the smallest particle that exhibits chemical properties of an element. o Periodic Table of Elements- a table into which all of the 92 elements are organized based on many properties. Subatomic Particles o Protons- positively charged particles in a atoms o Neutrons- neutrally charged particles in atoms o Electrons- negatively charged particles in atoms Radioisotopes o These are unstable atoms that contain an excess number of neutrons. o They come in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma particles. o They also have a half- life, which refers to the amount of time it takes for 50% of that atom to become stable. Octet Rule o This is the idea that the atoms outer shell of electrons will lose, gain or share electrons to obtain 8 electrons and become stable. Ions o These are groups of atoms with either a positive or negative charge. o Anions- these are ions with a negative charge by acquiring electrons. o Cations- these are ions with a positive charge by losing electrons. Ionic Bonds o Positively charged ions may bind with negatively charged anions to form ionic compounds using electrostatic interactions. o These form salts. (ex. Table salt or Sodium Chloride) Covalent Bonds o This is when electrons are shared between atoms. o Atoms can form single (ex. hydrogen), double (ex. oxygen), and triple (ex. nitrogen) covalent bonds. Electronegativity o This is the term used to define how atoms share electrons. o Increases from left to right on the periodic table. o Nonpolar covalent bonds- share electrons equally so they have a low difference in electronegativity. o Polar covalent bonds- share electrons unequally resulting in a higher difference in electronegativity. Intermolecular Attractions o Hydrogen bonds- form between the partial negative of a polar molecule and the partial negative of another polar molecule. Hydrophobic forces- when a nonpolar substance is placed in water or another polar substance and repels it. Hydrophilic forces- when a polar substance is placed in water or another nonpolar substance and attracts it. Acid & Bases o Acid- is a substance that disassociates in water to produce both an H+ and an anion. These are proton donors. o Base- is a substance that accepts an H+ when put in water. Triglycerides o These are the most common forms of lipids present in living things. o They are used for long term energy storage in adipose tissue and for structural support, cushioning, and insulation of the body. o Composed of a glycerol and three fatty acids. o Saturated fats- have single carbon bonds o Unsaturated Fats- have double carbon bonds Phospholipids o These are made up of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate functional group with various organic groups attached to it. o They are amphipathic molecules containing a polar head and two nonpolar tails that form membranes. Steroids o These are distinct multi-structural structures formed predominantly of hydrocarbons and include cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile salts. Eicosanoids o Are modified 20 carbon fatty acids that are synthesized as needed from arachidonic acid, a common component of both plasma membranes and nuclear membranes. They act locally. Carbohydrates o They exist as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. o Glucose is the most common monosaccharide in the human body and is used for energy. Nucleic Acids o These include DNA and RNA, which are polymers formed from nucleotide monomers o These molecules ultimately determine the type of proteins synthesized in cells. o ATP (Adenosine Phosphate) is the energy currency of a molecule. Protein Structures o The three dimensional structure of proteins is dependent upon the linear sequence of its amino acids. o There are 20 different amino acids found in the body and they can be categorized as nonpolar, polar, charged, and those with special functions. o Protein organization includes the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, and a quaternary structure if there are two or more protein chains. These levels of organization ultimately determine the function and structure of the protein. o Denaturation usually results in the loss of biological activity of a protein in response to the change in its three dimensional shape that may have occurred through an increase in temperature or change in pH. Energy o States of energy: energy exists in two states based on position, potential energy and kinetic energy, energy of motion. o Energy can be converted from potential energy to kinetic energy or vice versa. Examples are the movement of a substance down the concentration gradient, or the movement of electrons from a higher energy state to a lower energy state. o Energy exist in many different forms, including: chemical, electrical, mechanical, sound, radiant, and heat. o The Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. o The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that some energy is lost to heat with every energy conversion. Chemical Reactions o Metabolism is the collective term for all chemical reaction in the body. o Reactants become products in a chemical reaction, and an arrow indicates the direction of change. o Chemical reactions can be classified using many different criteria: change in chemical structure, change in chemical energy, and if the reaction if irreversible or reversible. o Reaction rate is the measure of how quickly the chemical reaction takes place and the activation energy is the amount of energy required for the reaction to proceed. Enzymes o Enzymes are biological active catalyst that increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energy. o Generally, enzymes are globular proteins with an active site that bind a specific substrate. Enzymes can be located within cells, embedded in the plasma membrane, or present in the fluid outside of the cells. o Enzymes are catalysts that are present in both synthesis and decomposition reactions. o Enzymes often end with the suffix ase. o The reaction rates are dependent upon the concentrations of both the enzyme and the substrate, temperature, and pH. o Enzymes can be either controlled by either competitive inhibitors or noncompetitive inhibitors. Metabolic Pathways o This is a series of enzymes that subsequently converts a substrate to a final product. Metabolic pathways are regulated by negative feedback to maintain the needed amount of the final product. o Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group, and dephosphorylating is the removal of a phosphate group. This a common way to regulate enzymes. Cellular Respiration o Cellular Respiration is the metabolic process for oxidizing organic molecules (glucose) to release energy to synthesize ATP. o Glucose oxidation occurs within a cell: glycolysis (anaerobic cellular respiration) within the cytosol, and aerobic cellular respiration (the intermediate stage, the citric acid cycle, and the election transport system) within the mitochondria. o The amount of oxygen present determines the type of cellular respiration. o CELLULAR RESPIRATION LINK TO VIDEO = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00jbG_cfGuQ Introduction to Cells o Cells vary in size, shape, but have certain common features and functions. o Cells are microscopic and can be studied using a light microscope, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. o Some cells are round or cubelike in shape, while other cells are flat, cylindrical, oval, or quite irregular in shape. Main structures of Cells o The three main structural components of cells are the nucleus, plasma membrane, and cytoplasm. o All cells must maintain their integrity and shape, obtain nutrients and chemical building blocks, dispose of wastes, and if possible replace cells. Plasma Membrane o The plasma membrane is composed of a bilayer of phospholipids with embedded cholesterol molecules. Glycolipids are lipids with carbohydrates extending from the outer surface of the cell. o Functionally, the plasma membrane proteins include several types of transport proteins, receptors, identity markers, enzymes, attachment sites for the cytoskeleton, and cell- adhesion proteins. Membrane Transport o Substances are moved into and out of the cells by processes of passive and active transport. Active processes require energy while passive processes do not. Passive Processes o Diffusion is the movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. o The rate of diffusion is dependent upon the steepness of the concentration gradient and temperature. o Simple diffusion is the unassisted movement of small nonpolar molecules through the phospholipid bilayer. o Channel-mediated diffusion is the transport of ions through channels that are either always open (leak channels) or they open and close as a result of stimulus (gated channels). o Carrier-mediated diffusion is the transport of small nonpolar molecules through a carrier that is induced to change shape to move the molecules across the plasma membrane. Osmosis o Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a semipermeable membrane down a water concentration gradient. o Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane due to a difference in solution concentration; the greater the difference, the greater the osmotic pressure. o Isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic describe the relative concentration of solutions. Active Processes o These processes require energy and include both active transport and vesicular transport. o The two types of active transport are primary active transport, which obtains its energy directly from ATP, and secondary active transport, which is powered by the movement of the second substance down its gradient. o A symporter moves the two substances in the same direction, while an antiporter moves the two substances in opposite directions. o Exocytosis moves material out of the cell, while Endocytosis moves substances into the cell. o Three types of endocytosis are phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis. Cell Communication o Cell communication occurs through either direct contact or through binding or chemicals released from other cells. o Direct contact is used as a means of cell communication by the cells of the immune system in protecting the body from potentially harmful substances. It is also used during development and cellular repair. o Three general types of receptors are distinguished by their different response to the binding of a ligand: they include channel linked receptors, enzymatic receptors, and G protein coupled receptors. Cellular Structures o Membrane bound organelles are surrounded by a membrane that separates the organelles contents from the cytosol so that the specific activities of the organelle can proceed without being disrupted by other cellular activities. The membrane bound organelles often include the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. They are involved in the various forms of metabolic processes, including synthesis and the degradation processes that occur within a cell. o Non membrane bound organelles are composed of either protein alone or protein and RNA; they include ribosomes, the cytoskeleton, centrosomes with centrioles, and proteasomes. Cell’s External Surface o Cilia are numerous hairlike structures for sweeping materials along the cells outer surface; a flagellum, located only on sperm, moves the sperm through the female reproductive tract. o Microvilli are extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area for more efficient membrane transport. Membrane Junctions o Tight junctions between adjacent cells prevent dissolved substances from passing through the interstitial space, forcing them to move through the cell’s cytoplasm. o Desmosomes hold adjacent cells together at a single region and resist mechanical stress; each cell contributes half of the desmosome structure. o Gap junctions link adjacent cells via a group of six connexon proteins that form pores between the cells; they serve as a passage way for flow of substances. Structure of the Nucleus o The nucleus is a large, spherical structure within a cell. o The nuclear envelope is a double phospholipid bilayer that serves as a boundary between nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. o A cell typically contains one nucleolus within its nucleus. It is a structure meant for synthesizing the large and small subunits of ribosomes. DNA, Chromatin, and Chromosomes o DNA is wrapped around the histone proteins and packaged as chromatin. o Chromatin is super coiled into chromosomes only when a cell is proceeding through nuclear division. o DNA contains functional units called genes; a gene is a segment of DNA that carries instructions for making a protein, and it is transcribed into RNA for synthesizing a specific protein. Function of the Nucleus and Ribosomes o The nucleus and ribosomes are required to synthesize proteins, a process that involves transcription and translation. o RNA is formed through DNA transcription; a process that occurs in the nucleus and requires DNA, free ribonucleotides, and the enzyme RNA polymerase. o Translation occurs in the cytoplasm and requires ribosomes, messengers, transfer RNA, and large numbers of free amino acids. o DNA is responsible for directing the synthesis of proteins. Cell Division o Mitosis in one of two types of cell division that occur within a cell. o Mitosis producing two identical cells when one divides, and is a necessary process for development, tissue growth, replacement of old or dying cells, and tissue repair. Cell Cycle o The cell cycle consists of a series of changes the cell undergoes between its formation and the time it divides into two identical cells, called daughter cells. It is divided into two major phases: interphase and mitosis. o A process called apoptosis is when a cell purposefully kills itself to reduce the risk of cancer or other mechanical damage.
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