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BSU / Biology / BIO 214 / What is translational medicine?

What is translational medicine?

What is translational medicine?

Description

School: Ball State University
Department: Biology
Course: Genetics
Professor: Hammersmith
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: Ch. 1 Genetics Notes
Description: These notes are strictly from the textbook and are from Ch. 1
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
8 Pages 214 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 1: Intro to Genetics

  • Translational medicine - process in which genetic findings are directly “translated” into new and improved methods of diagnosis and treatment
  • Genetics Has a Rich and Interesting History

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the scientific discipline that focuses attention on patterns of behavior?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is a period of intense social, political, and environmental disorder and chaos?

1600 - 1850: The Dawn of Modern Biology

  • William Harvey, studied reproduction and development and proposed the theory of epigenesis - states that an organism development event from the fertilized egg by a succession of developmental events that eventually transform the egg into an adult
  • The theory of epigenesis directly conflicted with the theory of preformation
  • Preformation states that the fertilized egg contains a complete miniature adult, called a homunculus
  • Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann proposed the cell theory
  • Cell theory - states that all organisms are composed of basic structural units called cells, which are derived from pre-existing cells
  • Spontaneous generation - creation of living organisms from non living components, was disproved by Louis Pasteur later in the century and living organisms were then considered to be derived from pre-existing organisms and to consist of cells

If you want to learn more check out Give an example of ordinary differential equations.

Charles Darwin and Evolution

  • Natural selection - an explanation of the mechanism of evolutionary Change
  • Alfred Russel Wallace, natural selection is based on the observation that populations tend to contain more offspring than the environment can support, leading to a struggle for survival among individuals.
  • Chromosomal theory of inheritance - heredity and development were dependent on genetic information residing in genes contained in chromosomes, which were contributed to each individuals by gametes
  • Genetics Progressed from Mendel to DNA in Less Than a Century

Don't forget about the age old question of Name the 3 main types of rhetorical appeals.

Mendel's work on Transmission of Traits

  • Genetics - defined as the branch of biology concerned with the study of heredity and variations

The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Uniting Mendel and Meiosis

  • Diploid number (2n) - members of each species have a Characteristic number of chromosomes
  • Homologous chromosomes - chromosomes in diploid cells exist in pairs
  • Mitosis - chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes identical to those in the parental cell
  • Meiosis - gamete formation, only one Chromosome from each chromosome pair and resulting number is called the haploid (n) number
  • Sutton and Boveri formulated the chromosome theory of Inheritance
  • Chromosome theory of inheritance - States that inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes, maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation

We also discuss several other topics like What is the stages of sleep?

Genetic Variations

  • Mutation - any heritable change in the DNA sequence and are the source of all genetic variation
  • Allele - alternative forms of a gene
  • Phenotype - different alleles may produce differences in the observable features
  • Genotype - set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism

We also discuss several other topics like What pertains to the judicial system in which opposing parties present evidence and an impartial judge or jury weighs the evidence?

The search for the Chemical Nature of Genes: DNA or Protein? 

  • Mutant trait could be traced to a single chromosome, confirming the idea that genes are carried on chromosomes
  • Avery, MacLeod and Mc Carty published experiments showing DNA was the carrier of genetic information in bacteria
  • Discovery of the Double Helix Launched the Era of - Molecular Genetics

The Structure of DNA and RNA

  • Watson and Crick described the structure of DNA
  • DNA is a long, ladder-like macromolecule that twists to form a double helix
  • Nucleotides - linear Strand of the helix and consists of nitrogenous bases - A, G, T, C

        

Gene expression from DNA to Phenotype

  • Transcription - nucleotide sequence in one strand of DNA is used to construct a complementary RNA sequence
  • Once an RNA molecule is produced, it moves to the cytoplasm, where the messenger RNA (MRNA) binds to a ribosome
  • Translation - synthesis of proteins under the direction of mRNA
  • Genetic code - information encoded in mRNA that consists of a linear series of nucleotides triplets
  • Codon - each triplet is complementary to the information stored In DNA and specifies the insertion of a specific amino acid into a protein
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