PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Psychology 110
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donna Park on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Psychology Notes (EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE) PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING -Psychology- scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior -Psychology involves.. -multiple levels of analysis -multiple determinants for observable phenomena -accounting for individual variation -multiple methods for studying phenomenon Defining Psychology -so what do psychologists actually study? -some use mice and some use people to experiment SCIENTIFIC THOERY -an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world -based on observations -e.g. gravity, tectonic plates, genetics -allow us to make predictions about that which we have not yet observed -how quickly an item will fall to the ground, locations of future earthquakes, likelihood of inheriting a genetic disorder HYPOTHESES -A prediction made based on a scientific theory THE ISSUE -Confirmation Bias -the tendency to seek out the evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them -Meta-Physical Claims -cannot betted with the scientific method PSEUDOSCIENCE -A set of claims that seem scientific, but are not -Rampant in “pop psychology” -Apophenia -tendency to perceive meaningful connections among unrelated phenomena -Pareidolia -tendency to perceive meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli -Thinking scientifically -Foundations of scientific evaluation -ruling out rival hypothesis -differentiating correlation from causation (shark attacks and ice cream sales have nothing to do with each other, yet they correlate) -Falsifiability - (we want to be proven wrong) -Replicability - for any findings to be accurate, you have to repeat it several times for it to be accurate -Parsimony (Occam’s Razor) - the simplest explanation is often the most accurate -applies to things like schizophrenia (it carries from issues within the brain. It is easier to say that schizophrenia has to do with the shape of your brain than to say you are possessed by a demon, because that is including things from the outside world AN EXAMPLE -The Theory (example) -human sneeze reflex arises from localized pressure on the ventral abdominal wall during increased dorsal nasal pressure -The Hypothesis (example) -pressing your finger into your bellybutton while pressing your tongue on the rood od your mouth will make you sneeze -It didn’t work so you have to make up another theory HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY -Descartes -“pre-psychology” -until later, psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy -first one to say there is a difference between our body and our soul -Wilhelm Wund -first psychological Laboratory -this was the time were people were testing for diseases and chemicals and advancing -he applied this method to study human behavior -used eye movement or how high up you move your arm when you’re shot (used these to see human behavior) -influenced by Charles Darwin - said humans are adaptive (what a person is doing no matter how bad it looks to us, to that organism may be adaptive to them) 1 -example is humans smoking. it may look bad to us but may be a stress reliever to someone else -we were made to survive in the wild. like how our heart speeds up on an oncoming car like an animal seeing a tiger -we use our life or death reflexes on things like bombing an exam, we spend a lot of time worrying about something that our reflex of worrying wasn’t meant to do. we use small things on whether we live or die -John Watson -1920’s behaviorism- one of the major schools of thoughts about how people work -based entirely on learning, rejected mental activity -they didn’t care much about what you thought, they were measuring observable behavior (things we can see) -arose in America Cognitivism- established that every human has thoughts -arose as response to behaviorism -conceptualized mental activity as a form of behavior that itself was worth studying -arose in America -they used these “thought” words -most modern psychologists are a combination of both. they think about things with both types of thinking Sigund Freud- father of modern psychological treatment -psychoanalysis -there was no such thing as social worker or psychologist or no one to treat it -rise of psycho analysis (pretty much first psychologist to help people) -arose in Europe Psycho Analysis - why do you drink so much/ linked to parents or something (they see what others can’t see) -first time anyone has done this. analyzing ones’ feelings (like how you see it on TV) Heuristics -humans are bad at acting in an accurate way. Like the jungle example: we aren’t going to sit around and do nothing, or else we will get eaten. we use heuristics to think about shortcuts on how to guide our behavior. also like spelling, i before e except after c -mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently and streamline our experiences “I before E except after C" -we use these shortcuts to figure our feelings which leads us to inaccurate conclusions Representativeness Heuristic -judging by superficial similarity to a prototype -example is orange is the new black. The prototype is a whole food shopping upper middle class lady and she doesn’t fit our idea/judgment of what an American prisoner should look like Availability Heuristic -estimating likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to min -e.g. number of people who die by shark attacks each year versus number of transgendered veteran people of color in US prisoners -we are reliant on what we already know and how we make decisions in life (press of shark attacks vs veterans) Validity - finding out the truth and the findings are accurately representing what is going on in nature Random Selection- procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate -ideally you want all kinds of people participating to get answers from all people External Validity- extent to which we can generalize findings to real world settings. “my findings from my samples is a valid explanation of what is going on in nature” -can arises from random selection Internal Validity- what caused what. extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences Naturalistic observation - watching people at the mall but you just sit there and don’t do anything -bringing humans into lab and telling them to act natural is hard because they act weird in labs versus natural setting Measurement Operational Definition- a working definition of what the researcher is measuring -Example of a koosh (the spiky ball thing)- how would you define this to someone who had no idea what this is?- squishy, colorful, round. -Example- self esteem. if you wanted to be an engineer, do you have enough self capability to get there? do you think you’ll be an important engineer, or a worth while human being. self-liking. -Example of Bae, Basic, etc. We have to find a way to measure these words Correlational Research -measures the extent to which two things are related to one another Issues with correlational research -correlations can be an illusion -third variables (shark attacks and ice cream sales) (other factors that cause weird correlations) -Does not determine causation - you can’t determine what causes another Experimental Research -attempts to measure the effects of one (or several) things on another random assignment to groups (sometimes blinded) -experimental groups -control groups Independent variable -manipulated by the experimenter (e.g. temperature in room) Dependent variable -variable that an experimenter measures to see if it is affected by the manipulated variable (e.g. performance on exam) Placebo and nocebo effect -nocebo - when you think something isn’t going to work for you so it doesn’t -placebo - your body has a huge effect on how your mind works - (example) - voodoo death- curse laid on them and they can die from heart problems like heart attack and stress because the placebo affect allows them to believe that they really are cursed Issues with experimental research -placebo and nocebo effect -experimenter expectancy effects -when researchers hypothesis lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of study -which is reason for double blinded studies Demand characteristics -cues that participants can pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researchers’ hypothesis -(Example) – breast-eraunts (Hooters) and self esteem. -demand characteristic- tell me about how damaging your job is. you’re leading the question to the girl with a thought already in mind. you have to be careful though because your confirming what you believe. STATISTICS application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data Descriptive -numerical categorization of the data just describes what the data looks like Inferential -used to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the general population -there is a fundamental assumption in nature (anything to do with number in environment) that things fall in the normal curve -research studies often assume “normal curves” -negatively skewed is if tail is on left side -positively skewed is tail is on the right side -normal is no skew -Negatively skewed examples -number of red blood cells (gets too low, almost never too high) -Positively skewed example -income, number of children QUALITATIVE RESEARCH -uses narratives (rather than statistics) to investigate claims -focuses on words people say Ethics -institutional review board -informed consent -informing participants about what a study involved before they agree t participate Debriefing informing participants about the true purpose of a study if procedure involves conceit Correlational research -measures the extent to which two things are related to one another -positive correlation is up up or down down - (EXAMPLE) - measured daily mood, sexual quality, and relationship satisfaction -independent variable : frequency of sex -dependent variable: mood, sexual quality, and relationship satisfaction CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Cerebral cortex -outmost part of brain -“folded” part -frontal lobe -prefrontal cortex 2 -thinking, planning, language -motor cortex 3 -body movement -parietal lobe --touch -temporal lobe (puts together sound to send to frontal lobe for it to put it together and find meaning) -hearing -occipital lobe -sight -corpus callosum -limbic system -emotional center of brain -memory, fight or flight response -thalamus -“sensory relay station” between sense organs and sensory cortex -hypothalamus -regulation of our hormones, how much testosterone we release, chemicals that release hunger 4 -homeostasis, hormones, internal body states -amygdala 5 -fear, excitement, arousal 6 -size of cashew 7 -built to keep you alive, constantly responding to perceived 8 threats in our environment -hippocampus 9 -memory 10 -think about most stressful moment in life versus other moments 11 -things that trigger amygdala will activate the hippocampus -brain stem 12 -midbrain 1 -visual stimuli, startle to noise reflex -pons -connective area between midbrain and medulla, sleep 13 medulla -basic functions such as heartbeat and breathing -cerebellum -movement 1 -balance 2 -really response to training like dancers -peripheral nervous system 3 -somatic nervous system 1 -voluntary movement and responses 2 things you do on purpose 3 behavioral reflexes (pulling back hand from fire) -autonomic nervous system 4 -sympathetic nervous system -activates body to move, nerves to turn heart beat up when u run, turning of digestive system -parasympathetic nervous system 1 -calms body down -endocrine system 5 -glands and hormones that controls secretion and blood-borne chemical message -hormones 6 -chemicals released into the blood stream that influence particular organs and glands 7 -slower than neurotransmitters, harder to metabolically degrade, and often affect the entire body system rather than just one location MEASURING BRAIN ACTIVITY -phrenology -electroencephalography (EEG) -tries to read what brain activity is happening where (how much electricity is right underneath he skull) -not always very reliable -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -uses magnet field to see brain structure at one time point -2 dimensional -better for soft tissues because detect energy output from water after being polarized -computer tomography (CT) -uses x rays to use magnetic field to see brain structure at one time point -3 dimensional -you can actually turn the brain and see if there is an issue -positron emission tomography -measures consumption of glucose like molecules tagged with radioactive molecules -show “living” brain activity -functional magnetic resonance imaging -measures BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependence) changes in aloof oxygen level -Behavioral genetics -based on idea of behavioral adaption to environmental demands (which can be heritable) -the idea of this is deeply rooted in evolution -idea that you adapt to the environment, same thing is said about behavior -example: depression; there is a reason why being sad is adaptive. if an organism never gets angry, they can never defend themselves. but your amount of anger can be traced back to your genetic makeup -genotype - genetic makeup -phenotype - observable traits -twins studies -look at what qualities twins share when reared specialty versus together -one a that split into two. they have the same genetic makeup. -adoption studies -look at which qualities adopted children share with their biological birth parents
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