Introductory Psych Midterm Study Guide
Introductory Psych Midterm Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lani Nguyen on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Made By Lani Nguyen Intro Psych Midterm Study Guide Prologue: Story of Psychology Overview A.) Important milestones in early development of psychology ● Before 300 BCE Aristotle theorized about personality, memory, and motivation ● First Psych Lab: ○ Dec. 1879 Germany, Wilhem Wundt and 2 grad students ○ built a machine to measure time lag of hearing a ball and pressing a button when perceiving the sound ○ Started scientific psychology, where there are ■ carefully measured observations ■ experiments ● 2 Branches of Psychology: ○ Structuralism i. introspection( saying what you feel) to reveal the mind, deemed unsuccessful ii. founded by Edward Bradford Titchener ○ Functionalism i. explores how mental and behavioral processes function and how it’s adaptive and advantageous ii. founded by William James B.) Psychological Develops ● Developments in Psychology 1920s present ○ Behaviorism i. 1920s, John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner defined psychology as the study of observable behavior ii. focused on behavior because it was more concrete data compared to introspection ○ Freudian Psychology i. emphasized on the unconscious thought that develops from childhood to be the reason behind behavior ii. lacked physical results iii. Freud founder of psychoanalysis *** Behaviorism and Freudianism were 2 major forces during 1920s1960s *** Made By Lani Nguyen ○ Humanistic Psychology i. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ii. focuses on how current environmental influences affect our mental capacity and personality iii. believes that people are inherently born good iv. as long as people have love and acceptance then they thrive ○ Cognitive Revolution i. 1960s, field returned to focus on inner thought rather than just outside behavior ii. explores ways we perceive, process, and remember information iii. Cognitive Neuroscience mixture and relationship between ● cognitive psychology and neuroscience ● studies brain activity and the resulting mental activity/behavior ***Modern Definition of Psychology*** Science of behavior and mental processes > behavior something an organism does, observable > mental process internal, sensations, dreams, thoughts C.) Contemporary Psychology ● Evolution and Behavior Genetics ○ Nature vs Nurture issue are traits innate or learned? i. Charles Darwin proposed Natural Selection as the reason why we see traits today because it’s genetic and has survived because they were advantageous at a time and were passed on through generations ii. are we a clean slate and learn and acquire behaviors from our childhoods and environments? iii. or is it in our genes? ○ Evolutionary Psychology i. focuses on how humans are alike because of common biology and evolutionary history through natural selection ○ Behavior Genetics i. focuses on differences of traits as a result of genetics and environment ○ Cross Cultural and Gender Psychology i. most psychological studies are done on W .E.I.R.D. cultures ● ( Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) ii. Culture shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes down onto the next ● There are many cultural differences in behavior, but dyslexia, smiling/frowning, loneliness are all universal Made By Lani Nguyen iii. Gender plays a role in certain behaviors and mental processes, but gender doesn’t influence many traits ○ Positive Psychology i. Martin Seligman ii. focuses on how to be happy, have meaningful lives iii. goal individuals and communities to thrive ex: positive psychology in the workplace, motivational speakers ● Psychology’s 3 Main Levels of Analysis: ○ biopsychosocial approach considers the influence of 1) biological factors/ genetics 2) psychological factors 3) socialcultural factors ● Different perspectives in Psychology: ○ neuroscience ○ evolutionary ○ behavior genetics ○ psychodynamics ○ behavioral ○ cognitive ○ socialcultural ● Psychology’s Subfields ○ Clinical psychologists deal with people with psychological disorders ○ Psychiatrists are considered medical doctors and also deal with patients with psychological disorders, but also prescribe drugs end of prologue Made By Lani Nguyen Ch.1 Psychological Science A.) Why Do We Need Science to Explain Psychology? ● False Confidence in Intuition ○ Hindsight Bias i. the “I knew it all along” ii. the tendency to believe, after already knowing the outcome, that you could have predicted it coming ○ Overconfidence i. most people feel like they know more than they actually do ex: in courts, eyewitness accounts are held very important when in reality, people often remember less than they think ○ Finding Patterns i. we try and find order amongst randomness even when there might not be any pattern or intentional order ● Critical Thinking is needed ○ the brain is designed for surviving and reproducing, but isn’t the best at perceiving reality clearly ○ examine assumptions, look for bias, looking at a problem from all angles B.) Research Strategies ● The Scientific Method ○ Theory > Hypotheses > Research/ See Observations ○ theory i. an explanation using a set of principles to organize observations and be able predict future outcome/behavior ○ Hypothesis a testable prediction implied by a theory ○ Replication next/ final step of scientific method, the experiment should be able to be repeated with the same outcomes ● Types of Research ○ Descriptive Research(systematic, objective, observational) > Case Studies a descriptive technique where one individual or group is studied in depth risk that case studies don’t represent the population > Naturalistic Observati observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring life risk because many factors can’t be controlled ex: putting a camera or microphone on someone as they go about their day > Survey questionnaire risk wording makes a huge difference on how people answer Made By Lani Nguyen ● Research Terminology ○ Population all those in a group that could possibly be in a study ideally you want a random sampling to fairly represent a population ○ Sample everyone who is actually in the study ○ Correlations measure how closely two factors vary together ■ correlation factor: a measure of the extent to which two things are related, the closer the correlation factor,r, is to 1 or 1 then the stronger the correlation ● if the factor is positive, they both increase together ● if the factor is negative, then while one factor increases, the other decreases ● scatterplots can be used to see correlation ***correlation doesn’t prove cause of either factor*** ● Experiment Terminology Experiments should control all variables and manipulate one or more factors to observe the effect if something is changed and have confidence it is because of the manipulated factor ○ random assignment i. assigning individuals randomly to each research group ii. aim to control other factors ○ experimental group group exposed to treatment ○ control group i. group not exposed to treatment ii. serves as a comparison for evaluating effects of treatment ○ double blind procedure i. where both participants and givers of treatment aren’t informed about the purpose of the treatment ii. done so placebo effect won’t occur ○ placebo effect i. results caused by expectations without any actual physical cause, mind over matter ○ independent variables i. factor that is manipulated ii. variable whose effects are being studied ○ dependent variables i. the outcomes that is measured by manipulating the independent variable ○ confounding variables i. any other factor than the independent variable that might produce an effect ii. major confounding variable are genetics Made By Lani Nguyen ● Statistic Terms ○ mode most common/ reoccurring value ○ mean average ○ median value in the very middle ○ range how much the values vary from the mean ○ normal curve symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes data ● How to Achieve Reliable Data ○ nonbiased sampling (representative of population) ○ consistency( same responses/observations) ○ many data points End of Ch. 1 Made By Lani Nguyen Ch.2 Biology of the Mind A.) Neural and Hormonal Systems: ● Biology, Behavior, and Mind ○ Phrenology i. 1800s German, Franz Gall believed in the idea of localization of function ii. studying the bumps and shape of your head to reveal mental features ex: if the area of anger was a more raised bump, they thought you must be angry a lot ● Neural Communication ○ neurons a nerve cell: consists of a cell body and it’s branching fibers ■ dendrite fibe receive electrical impulse messages→ conducts to cell body ■ axon fiber move electrical impulses away from the cell body, single lengthy passage from cell body to terminal branches ● myelin sheath ○ layer of fatty tissue, segmentally encasing the axon and insulates ○ enables faster electric transmission speed ○ as myelin grows, neural efficiency and self control grows(smarter) ○ as myelin decreases, conditions like multiple sclerosis can occur ■ glial cells ● “glue cells” ● supports, nourishes, and protects neurons ○ The Neural Impulse ■ resting potenti ● the charge of a neuron and its surroundings are different ● the outside is positively charged with Na+ ions ● the inside is negatively charged with K ions ■ action potenti ● a neural impulse, ● brief electrical charge that travels down an axon ■ excitatory signals ● signals that promote an electrical impulse to start ● “the accelerator of a neuron” ■ inhibitory signals ● opposite of excitatory ● “brakes” stops an electrical impulse Made By Lani Nguyen ● if excitatory outweigh inhibitory signals by the threshold that is needed, that it triggers an action potent al ○ How Neurons Communicate ■ synapse ● space between axon tip and dendrite of 2 neurons ● AKA synaptic cleft ● tiny space between the end and start of neurons ■ neurotransmitters ● are chemical messages that are released from axon tips that fit into specific receiving sites on dendrites ■ reuptake ● excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the neuron that released them ○ How Neurotransmitters Influence Us ■ specific neurotransmitters are responsible for certain effects ■ endorphins ● natural “morphine” opiatelike neurotransmitter linked to pain control and pleasure ■ Dopamine ● influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion ■ Ach(Acetylcholine) ● released from motor neurons ● cause muscles to contract ■ Serotonin ● affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal ■ Agonist ● molecules that increase a neurotransmitters actions because it fills the same receptor site and acts like the neurotransmitter because the shape is similar ● activates the neuron example: morphine, acts like endorphins ■ Antagonist ● decreases a neurotransmitters actions by blocking production or release ● It fits the same receptor site, but blocks the the actual neurotransmitters example: antihistamine, inhibits histamine(makes you have allergies) Made By Lani Nguyen B.) The Nervous System *** Central Nervous System(CNS) the brain and spinal cord *** Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) all the other neurons in the body, sensory and motor neurons that connect to the CNS ● Nerves ○ electrical cables formed of bundled axons connecting CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs ○ part of PNS ● Three Types of Neurons ○ Sensory ■ messages from environment go > IN ■ carry messages from the body’s tissues and sensory receptors inward to the CNS for processing ○ Motor ■ instructions from brain or spinal cord go > OUT ■ carry instructions from CNS to muscles/glands ○ Interneurons ■ neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs ■ the “thinking” in between receiving information and actually sending an output ● Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) ○ 2 Parts of PNS ■ Somatic Nervous System enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles ■ Autonomic Nervous System controls glands and internal organs ● ex: heartbeat, digestion ● Parasympathetic Nervous System ○ conserves energy ○ and calms you down ○ tries to achieve homeostasis(internal balance) ● SympatheticNervous System ○ arouses and expends energy ○ causes accelerated heartbeat, raises blood pressure ○ slows digestion ○ makes you alert and ready for action ○ can be stimulated by panic moments, stress, nervousness ○ adrenaline rush ● Central Nervous System(CNS) ○ neural networks neuron cluster work groups, that are interconnected to perform a certain function Made By Lani Nguyen ○ spinal cor 2 way information highway connecting PNS to the brain ○ interneuronin the spinal cord ■ spinal cord is full of interneurons that have “minds of their own” and produce an output without the output coming from the brain ■ causes reflexes ○ reflexe automatic response to a sensory stimulus ● Endocrine System(hormone system) ○ hormones ■ chemical messengers that are made by endocrine glands ■ travel through blood system and affect other tissues ■ slower than nervous system but effects last longer ○ adrenal glands ■ on top of the kidneys ■ release epinephrine and norepinephrine(adrenaline/noradrenaline) ■ stimulates sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system response ○ pituitary gland ■ most influential endocrine gland ■ directs other glands to release hormones ■ pea sized in the middle of the brain ■ is controlled by the hypothalamus ■ releases growth hormone, oxytocin(promotes nursing, labor, pair bonding, group cohesion) C.) Areas of the Brain and Their Functions ● brainstem and cerebellum: coordinates the body ● the limbic system: manages emotions, and connects thought to body ● the cortex(outer brain covering): integrates information(newest part) ● Less Complex Parts/ Earliest Evolutionally Brainstem Medulla controls heart rate, breathing, basic functions Pons helps coordinate automatic and unconscious movements Midbrain regulates motor and sensory processes Thalamus “ inner chamber” “sensory switchboard” receives information from senses and sends it to the higher brain regions Reticular enables alertness Formation Cerebellum “little brain” helps with coordinating voluntary movement, many other functions including non verbal learning and memory ● The Limbic System ○ manages emotions and connects thought to body, middle evolutionally Made By Lani Nguyen Hippocampus memory formation, processes memories works with amygdala to emotionally charged memories Amygdala processes emotions, especially rage and fear Hypothalamus lies below the thalamus regulates body temperature, ensures adequate food, involved in sex drive maintains homeostasis directs endocrine system via pituitary gland also related to reward system ● The Cerebral Cortex/ Newest Evolutionally ○ integrates information Cerebral Cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the body’s ultimate control and information processing system Structure of Cortex split into 4 lobes fissures:folds that separate lobes frontal lobes(blue) parietal lobes(yellow) occipital lobes( red) temporal lobes(green) Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements making plans and judgement motor cortex: rear of frontal lobe that controls voluntary movements Parietal Lobes receives sensory input for touch and body position somatic sensory cortex: front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations, the more sensitive the body region , the larger the space in the cortex Occipital Lobes holds visual cortex: processes visual information input Temporal Lobes auditory cortex: hearing processing Made By Lani Nguyen ● Association Areas ○ areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor/sensory functions that are involved in higher mental functions ○ ex: learning, remembering, thinking, speaking ○ found in all 4 lobes ● Brain plasticity ○ brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing or by building new pathways ○ neurogenesis process of producing new brain cells ○ corpus callosum wide band of axon fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres of the brain and carries messages between them ■ the left and right side of your brain control the opposite side of your body, the left hemisphere of the brain controls and is connected to the right side of the body End of Ch. 2 Made By Lani Nguyen Ch. 3 Consciousness and the Two Track Mind A.) Brain States and Consciousness ● consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment ● Biology of consciousness ○ cognitive neuroscien the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition(perception, thinking, memory) ○ dual processin principle that information is often simultaneously processed in separate tracks ○ blind sig a condition where your eyes can see, but you don’t consciously see the image input ○ selective atten the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimuli, our ability to choose what we focus on ■ inattentional blindn failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere ■ change blindnes failing to notice changes in the environment because attention is focused on something else ● Dual Track Mind: Conscious vs Unconscious ○ Conscious”High” Track thinking and knowing you’re thinking ○ Unconscious”Low” Track “autopilot” examples: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sound C.) Sleep and Biological Rhythms ● Circadian Rhythms ○ body’s natural 24 hr cycle ○ roughly matches rising and setting of sun ○ cycle varies from person to person and with age ○ general peaks: evening peak~ 20 year olds, morning peak~50 year olds ● Sleep Stages ○ cycle lasts around 90 minutes ○ Beta→ to Alpha Alert to Sleepiness(falling asleep) ■ breath slows ■ brain waves become slow and irregular ■ may have hypnagogic hallucinations during falling asleep ■ waves then change from alpha(sleepy)> NREM 1 waves ○ Non REM Sleep Stages ■ NREM 1 light sleep, most shallow ■ NREM 2 regular sleep ■ NREM 3 deepest sleep ○ REM Sleep ■ Rapid Eye Movement ■ dreams occur, wild brain activity, brain acts awake, sleep paralysis occurs Made By Lani Nguyen ■ heart rate increase and breathing becomes rapid ○ Order ■ Beta→ Alpha→ NREM 1→ NREM 2→ NREM 3→ NREM 2→ REM→ 2 ■ as the night goes on, less deep sleep and more REM sleep ● Why Do We Sleep? ○ amount of sleep and pattern is influenced by age, culture, and individual ○ age: newborns need 16 hrs a day, adults need 8 or less ○ Theory of Sleep 1. protected our ancestors from predators at night 2. restores and repairs the brain and body 3. builds and strengthens memories 4. facilitates creative problem solving 5. It is the time when growth hormones are active ● Effects of Sleep Loss/Deprivation ○ research shows that inadequate sleep causes: ■ you to lose brainpower ■ gain weight ■ get sick ■ be irritable ■ ages you at the cellular level ● Light and the Brain ○ circadian rhythm is hard to shift(jet lag) ○ rhythm is affected by light( pineal gland decreases melatonin production when there’s light) ● How to sleep well: ○ turn of lights ○ eat earlier, drink less alcohol and caffeine ○ get up at the same time every day ○ exercise D.) Drugs: Altering Consciousness ● Psychoactive drug: chemicals introduced into body which alters perceptions, mood, and other elements of consciousness ● toleranc: refers to the diminished effect after repeated use ○ tolerance feeds addiction ● Withdrawal painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of a drug ○ worsens addiction ● Dependence/ Addiction consists of: ○ tolerance ○ withdrawal ○ using more than intended ○ persistent failed attempts to regulate use Made By Lani Nguyen ○ much time and though preoccupied thinking/ doing drug ○ important activities reduced because of drug use ○ continued use despite bad consequences ● Drug Types ○ Depressants reduce activity and slow body functions ■ Alcohol ● disinhibitor takes away inhibitions ● slow neural processing reduced sympathetic nervous system, slower thought and physical reaction ● reduced memory formation disrupted REM sleep, reduced synapse formation ● impaired self control impaired judgement, self monitoring→ more car accidents ● increased aggression in men, increased casual sex ■ Barbiturate ● are tranquilizers ● depress the CNS ● effects reduce anxiety, slow thought, poor physical coordination ● emotional instability ■ Opiates ● highly addictive ● depresses nervous system ● reduces anxiety, reduces pain ● opiates work at receptor site for body’s natural pain killing sites ● causes euphoria ○ Stimulant intensify neural activity and bodily functions ■ physical effects: dilated pupils, increased breathing, and heart rate, increased blood sugar, decreased appetite ■ Caffeine ● adds energy ● disrupts sleep ● can lead to withdrawal symptoms, headaches, irritability ■ Nicotine ● main effect is addiction ● releases neurotransmitters that are feel good ● arouses brain, increase heart rate and blood pressure ■ Cocaine ● blocks reuptake( so levels of neurotransmitters increases) ● dopamine ● serotonin ● norepinephrine ● euphoria ● difficult crash Made By Lani Nguyen ■ Methamphetamine ● increases dopamine ● crash leads to needing more ■ Ecstasy/MDMA ● increases dopamine, serotonin ● increases feelings of friendliness, artificial social connectedness ● euphoria, CNS stimulation ● dehydration, overheating, damaged serotonin producing neurons ● Hallucinogens ● alter perception of reality ● LSD ○ interferes with serotonin transmission ○ causes images and sensations that don’t actually happen ● Marijuana/THC ○ binds with brain cannabinoid receptors ○ amplifies sensation ○ relaxes, disinhibits impulses ○ long term effect impairs motor coordination, reaction time, over time brain shrinks in areas in processing memories and emotion, smoke inhalation damage ● What Influences Lead to Drug Use to Addiction? ○ Biological ■ dependence can be predisposed genetically, temperament is inherited ■ easily disrupted dopamine reward system ○ Psychological ■ seeking gratification ■ depression ■ problems forming identity ■ problems assessing risk and cost ○ Social Influences ■ media glorification ■ observing peers End of Ch. 3 Made By Lani Nguyen Ch. 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity A.) Behavior Genetics ● Genes Code of Life ○ behavior geneticist study the power and limits of genetics and environmental influences on behavior ○ chromosomes ■ composed of DNA(Deoxyribonucleic Acid), complex molecule that contains genetic information ■ 46 chromosomes total, 23 from each parent ■ genes are segments of DNA that responsible for specific things ● are capable of synthesising proteins ● can be turned off/on depending on the environment or by other genes ● traits are a result of expression of genes ● Twins and Adoption: Nature and Nurture ○ to scientifically see the influences of heredity and environment, psychologists want to ideally have some exact genes in different environments OR have different genes put in the same exact environments ○ Identical vs Fraternal Twins ■ Identical/monozygotic Twinsame fertilized egg that split into two) ● genetically clones ● are behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins ● many separated twins end up having very similar personalities ● are more alike in: personality traits, behaviors, and attitudes, interests, and specific fears ■ Fraternal/ dizygotic Tw 2 eggs that were fertilized) ● can show that environment doesn’t play as big a role on personality than genetics ● sibling can be very behaviorally different ● no different than regular siblings ○ Adoption Biological vs Adoptive Parents ■ genes are more of an influen ● children are more likely to have personalities similar to their biological parents ■ Environment doe influence other qualities ● children’s attitude ● values ● politics ● manners ● religion Made By Lani Nguyen ■ Temperament ● emotional reactivity and intensity ● is genetically influenced ● Heritability ○ heritabili the proportion of variation that we can attribute to genes from the whole population ■ DOES NOT MEAN certain percentage of a trait is purely influenced by genes ■ DOES MEAN that differences among people can be attributed by genetics of a population ○ Environment still plays a huge role in many qualities ■ ex: height increase of America over the past 100 years, caused by better nutrition ● Gene Environment Interaction ○ molecular genetic studies structure and function of genes ○ molecular behavior genetic ■ the study of how the structures and functions of genes interact with the environment to influence behavior ■ traits are expressed from a number of genes that influence each other and behaviors as a whole ○ Epigenetics ■ study of how environmental influences on gene expression can occur ■ some genes are simply expressed or not expressed ■ some genes can be triggered ■ epigenetic marks often organic methyl molecules attached to a DNA strand can attach after an event and can influence the expression of the gene ○ Self Regulation ■ genes turn each other on or off in response to environmental conditions ■ ex: animals shortened daylight can trigger fur change or to hibernate ○ Humans Adaptivity ■ the trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome ■ evolutionary psychology study of how evolution could shape our behaviors because certain behaviors were advantageous, ● natural selection explains this ● artificial selection can also show how genetically, behaviors are pasted down ● Why Are Siblings Different and Male and Females Different? ○ Siblings Made By Lani Nguyen ■ only share ½ genes ■ genetic differences amplified as people react to environment differently ■ siblings are raised in slightly different environments because parents can treat them differently ■ different genes can cause/increase the change of different experiences ○ Male and Female: Mating Preferences ■ one definite difference between sexes is mating behavior ● Quantity of Sex ○ generally men think about it more than women ○ men are more accepting of casual sex ○ evolutionary explanation: ○ Men Women who had the trait of who were promiscuous promiscuity were more would not be great likely to pass on their because of the high genes with little cost/risk survival risk. It could be life threatening, infants take a toll to care for
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