Childhood Development Exam 1 Study Guide
Childhood Development Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 3030
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by csutter on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3030 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marie Tisak in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
1/11/16 Monday Introduction and Goals of Research I. Child Development A. Developmental psychology a. scientific study i. describes behavioral change (how) ii. factors/explanations (why) *process/mechanisms B. Periods of development a. prenatal i. conception-bi rth b. infancy/toddlerhood i. birth-2 years c. early childhood i. 2-6 years d. middle childhood i. 6-11 years C. How development happens a. physical i. the body/brain b. cognitive i. thinking/understanding/reasoning c. social/emotional i. connecting to others and understanding feelings II. Goals A. To understand/establish universals of behavior and development a. Nature vs nurture B. To explain individual differences a. How twins differ b. Siblings C. To consider the context/situation a. Home-life vs school/social-life 1/13/16 Wednesday Ch.2 Theories I. Theories A. Theory a. An orderly, integrated set of statements that: i. describes ii. explains iii. predicts behavior B. Basic issues a. Nature vs nurture i. born this way (genetic)? vs environment? b. Active vs passive i. is the child ‘active’ in their development? Or ‘passive’? ii. even infants can show preference c. Continuity vs discontinuity i. what happens early in life will effect later development *not liking school because of an early-on incident *doing well in school because parents always read to them as infants d. Qualitative vs quantitative i. how communication is done vs how much communication is done e. One developmental course vs many i. schooling ii. daycare iii. home life f. Cultural specifity vs developmental universals C. Early views of childhood a. John Locke i. father of “Learning Theory” ii. “tabula rasa”/blank slate *children are born with a “blank slate” and need to be taught in order to learn b. Jean-Jacques Rousseau i. biological view ii. Piaget got his stages of childhood ideas from Rousseau iii. Montessori schools *Children have the ability to teach themselves if given the right resources II. Ethology A. Concerned with the adaptive, or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history a. Charles Darwin influence B. Charles Darwin a. Theory of evolution b. Knowing the past is the key to understanding the future i. Looking at how other children/parents were raised and deciding on how to raise another child c. Began the scientific study of humans d. Importance of observing babies i. Observational research C. Konrad Lorenz a. Imprinting i. The automatic process by which animals attach to their mother ii. Based on ‘critical period’ iii. Need to have attachment for positive results D. Arnold Gesell a. Maturational Theory b. Development occurs according to prearranged scheme c. Age norms of development i. Children should be developing the same stages of maturity around the same age 1/18/16 Monday-NO CLASS 1/20/16 Wednesday Ch. 2 Theories (Cont.) A. Social Cognitive Theory a. Albert Bndura i. Rewards and benefits ii. Observational learning iii. Cognitive process B. Dynamic Systems Perspective a. “layers” i. No overlap until physical development b. Physical, cognitive emotional/social c. As development increases, all of the ‘layers’ start to overlap and develop together C. Ecological Systems Theory a. Urie Bronfenbrenner b. Individual -> microsystem i. Immediate family ii. Childcare/school c. Micro -> mesosystem i. School/family/peers ii. How these factors affect the individual d. Exosystem i. Indirect factors to development 1. Parents’ work e. Macrosystem i. Indirect/direct factors 1. Laws 2. Customs 3. Holidays f. Age i. Different ages of the child show different amounts of influences from the systems. 1/22/16 Friday Ch. 3 Studying Children (Research Methods) I. Developmental Research Designs A. Cross Sectional a. Children from different age groups are studied at the same time i. study how well they speak ii. study the effects of a teaching method iii. Study their abilities to solve problems/puzzles 1. 6, 8, 10 year olds at the same time (in groups) b. doesn’t show individual development B. Longitudinal Study a. the same children at different ages b. shows individual development c. costly 1. time and money d. lose participants e. can cause bias f. Microgenetic Longitudinal Study 1. same children tested over a span of hours, days, or weeks (short-term) C. Cross-Sequential Design a. Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs b. study groups of ages, but study the same groups over time c. shows individual and group development 1. ‘best way’ II. Testing Universals of Development A. Cross-Cultural Studies a. Comparison of children from different cultures and backgrounds i. Children in the U.S. vs Italy (are the same developmental milestones there?) b. Can use cross-sectional and sequential studies III. Designs A. Observational Studies a. Naturalistic Observation i. In the field or natural environment where behavior happens ii. School/home b. Children may act differently with a new person in their environment (at first) c. Can create bias i. Third party needed to do observation w/o knowledge of hypothesis d. Parents may act differently (in home) e. Structured observation i. Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of interest 1. Dropping pencils -> does the child help pick them up? f. Event sample i. Focus only on a specific behavior g. Time sampling i. Focus on a behavior within a specific period of time 1. Will a child do ‘behavior’ in 10 seconds? h. Checklist i. Using a prepared list of behaviors 1. Mark if the behavior is present or absent B. Interviews a. Clinical i. Flexible, conversational style ii. Open-ended answers b. Structured i. Each child is asked the same questions in the same way ii. Survey IV. Reliability and Validity A. Measure Reliability a. Study should have consistent results B. Interrater Reliability a. Consistence of findings among different observers C. Validity a. Test measures what it is intended to measure Ch. 4 How Children Develop (Nature Through Nurture) I. Nature Through Nurture a. Development i. Nature 1. Genes ii. Nurture 1. Environment iii. Development is a mixture of both b. History of Research on Genetics i. Began in 1866 1. Gregor Mendel 2. Mendelian Inheritance 3. Studied pea plants ii. Francis Galton 1. Cousin of Charles Darwin 2. Evolution theory 3. Pea plants=humans 4. Eugenics a. Reproduction by “superior” humans and sterilization of “inferior” ones 5. 1907 a. 30 states passed laws forcing sterilization of about 60,000 people considered to be “criminals, idiots, rapists, and imbecils” iii. 1950s 1. James Watson and Francis Cook a. Discovered the basic secrets of genetic structure and function iv. 1990 1. Human Genome Project v. 2003 1. Mapping of the entire sequenced of DNA was completed II. The Study of Genes and Behavior a. How we study genes and behavior i. Molecular genetics 1. Level of the cell ii. Behavioral genetics 1. Level of behavior iii. Behavioral genomics 1. Connects the behavioral and cellular levels b. Molecular Genetics i. The identification of particular genes to understand how these gene work within a cell ii. When genes have a defect, it does not give the correct information 1. Results in diseases/disorders c. Behavioral Genetics i. Begins with behavior and attempts to define the role genes play in producing that behavior 1. In comparison to environmental effects d. Behavioral Genomic i. New field ii. Bridges molecular genetics and behavioral genetics iii. Links behaviors with specific genes III. How do Genetics Work? a. Human Genome Project i. We only 20,000-25,000 genes ii. Our biological differences from each other account for only 1/10 of 1% of our genetic inheritance iii. We only know 50% of our genes actually do b. Our genetic beginnings i. Zygote ii. Chromosomes 1. 23 pairs 2. Last pair= X and Y (female and male) iii. Twins 1. Dizygotic a. 2 eggs/2 sperm b. Fraternal twins c. Can be two different genders 2. Monozygotic a. 1 egg/1 sperm b. Zygote splits in two c. Identical twins d. Must be the same gender c. Dominant and Recessive Genes i. Genotype or geome 1. Includes both dominant and recessive genes ii. Phenotype 1. What is actually expressed in the body a. Usually info from the dominant gene d. One behavior, many genes/one gene, many effects i. Polygenetic ingeritence 1. Multiple genes interact with each other to promote any particular behavior ii. Pleiotropic effects 1. Any one gene may have different influences iii. Generalist genes 1. Genes with a more general effect on behavior IV. Genetic Disorders a. 3 types i. Single gene disorders ii. Chromosome disorders iii. Multifactorial inheritance disorders b. Single Gene Disorders i. Can occur in two ways: 1. Inheriting a pair of recessive genes that code for that disorder 2. Mistakes in the formation occur as cells divide so that some of the basis that give the instructions to create proteins are out of order or missing (mutations) ii. There are a number of diseases that are caused by a single gene 1. Tay-Sachs 2. Phenylketonuria (PKU) 3. Cystic Fibrosis c. Problems associated with the Y chromosome: i. X chromosome has more genes than the Y 1. Any genes from the X chromosome without a Y partner will be expressed (recessive and dominant) ii. Can cause: 1. Red-green color blindness 2. Hemophilia 3. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy d. Chromosome Disorders i. Occur in 2 ways 1. When one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes contains 1 or 3 chromosomes instead of just 2 2. When there is a change in the structure of the chromosome due to breakage ii. Both ways can occur by chance iii. Breakage can also be inherited from parents e. Multifactorial Inheritance Disorders i. Interaction of many genes that also interact with environmental influences 1. Depression, alcoholism, schizophrenia, and autism f. Genetic counselling and testing i. May occur before or during pregnancy ii. Blood tests can be used at any time to determine the presence of single recessive genes 1. Tests of the mother’s blood (alpha-fetoprotein test) may uncover abnormalities in hormone levels iii. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) 1. Identify chromosome and single gene disorders 2. Through amniotic sac or vaginal cervix g. Gene therapy i. Using viruses that have been genetically altered to “infect” cells with healthy genes to replace disordered ones ii. Scientists have been able to localize and disable problem genes iii. Not used for humans yet V. The Interaction of Genes and Environment a. How the environment shapes gene expression i. Through canalization and epigenesis b. Canalization i. Conrad Hal Waddington ii. Genes for highly canalized traits have a self-righting tendency that produces the expected developmental outcome 1. Early milestones that ALL infants meet=canalization 2. Intelligence=landscaped by the environment (not canalization) c. Epigenetics i. System called the epigenome 1. Genes are either activated or silenced ii. The genome doesn’t change, but certain influences can change how the gene is expressed iii. Michael Meaney 1. Studied rat mothers and their offsprings d. How genes shape the environment i. Genes are passive, active, or evocative ii. Passive genes 1. Don’t do much to be expressed 2. Kids are born with gene and live in an environment that also encourages that behavior a. Musical kid with musical parents iii. Active genes 1. Genes that act as a driving force for children to seek out experiences that fit their genetic endowments 2. Niche-picking a. Consciously doing things in your environment that satisfy your urges/make you comfortable iv. Evocative genes 1. Cause the children to act in a way that draws out certain responses from those around him e. Behavioral genetics i. 3 types of studies for natural situations 1. Studies of adopted children 2. Comparisons of identical twins 3. Studies of identical twins adopted in infancy to different families ii. Studies of adopted children 1. Different genes than their parents 2. Show if the environment changes behavior VI. The Study of Culture and Behavior a. What is culture? i. Emerges from a particular group’s environment niche ii. Types of food you eat, what kind of clothes you wear, the things you celebrate b. Individualism and Collectivism i. Cultural neuroscience 1. Examining how people who grow up in different culture develop differences in how their brains function ii. Transmission of culture 1. Cultural values are translated directly into parenting techniques a. U.S. mothers let babies feed themselves (individualism) b. Puerto Rico mothers feed babies (Collectivism) Vocabulary Ch. 2 Unconscious mind-The part of the mind that contains thoughts and feelings about which we are unaware Free association-The process used by psychoanalysis in which one thinks of anything that comes to mind in relation to a dream or another thought to reveal the contents of the unconscious mind Id-According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that consists of the basic drives, such as sex and hunger Pleasure principle-The idea that the id seeks immediate gratification for all of its urges Ego-The part of the personality that contends with the reality of the world and controls the basic drives Reality principle-The psychoanalytic concept that the ego has the ability to deal with the real world and not just drives fantasy Superego-Freud’s concept of the conscience or sense of right and wrong Psychosexual stages-Freud’s idea that at each stage sexual energy is invested in a different part of the body Oral stage-Freud’s first stage, in which infants’ biological energy is centered on the mouth area Anal stage-Freud’s second stage, in which toddlers’ sexual energy is focused on the anus Phallic stage-Freud’s third stage, in which children ages 3 to 6 overcome their attraction to the opposite- sex parent and begin to identify with the same-sex parent Latency stage-Freud’s fourth stage, involving children ages 6-12 when the sex drive goes underground Genital stage-Freud’s fifth and final stage in which people 12 and older develop adult sexuality Psychosocial stages-Erikson’s stages that are based on a central conflict to be resolved involving the social world and the development of identity Epigenetic principle-The idea that each stage of development builds on the outcome of the stages that preceded it Behaviorism-The theory developed by John B. Watson that focuses on environmental control of observable behavior Social cognitive theory-The theory that individuals learn by observing others and imitating their behavior Classical conditioning-The process by which a stimulus that naturally evokes a certain response is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and evokes the same response, now called the conditioned response. Phobia-An irrational fear of something specific that is so severe that it interferes with day-to-day functioning Operant conditioning-The process that happens when the response that follows a behavior causes that behavior to happen more Reinforcement-A response to a behavior that causes that behavior to happen more Negative reinforcement-A response that makes a behavior more likely to happen again because it removes an unpleasant stimulus Schedules of reinforcement-Schedules on which reinforcement can be delivered based on a fixed or variable number of responses or fixed or variable lengths of time Punishment-Administering a negative consequence or taking away a positive reinforcement to reduce the likelihood of an undesirable behavior occurring Extinction-In operant conditioning, the process by which a behavior stops when it receives no response from the environment Self-efficacy-A belief in our own ability to influence our own functioning and our life circumstances Shema-A cognitive framework that places concepts, objects, or experiences into categories or groups of associations Assimilation-Fitting new experiences into existing mental schemas Accommodation-Changing your mental schemas so they fit new experiences Equilibration-An attempt to resolve uncertainty to return to a comfortable cognitive state Constructivism-The idea that humans actively construct their understanding of the world, rather than passively receiving knowledge Zone of proximal development-According to Vygotsky, this is what a child cannot do on her own by can do with help from someone more skilled or knowledgeable Scaffolding-The idea that more knowledgeable adults and children support a child’s learning by providing help to move the childe just beyond his current level of capability Dynamic assessment-A testing procedure that uses a test-intervene-test procedure to assess the examinee’s potential to change Sensory memory-The capacity for information that comes in through our senses to be retained for a very brief period of time in its raw form Working (Short-term) memory-Memory capacity that is limited to only a brief time but that also allows the mind to process information to move into long-term memory Long-term memory-The capacity for nearly permanent retention of memories Encoding process-The transformation processes through which new information is stored in long-term memory Stores model-The idea that information is processed through a series of mental locations (sensory to short-term to long-term memory “stores”) Connectionist/neural network model-In this model of memory, the process is envisioned as a neural network that consists of concept nodes that are interconnected by links Ethology-The study of animal and human behavior in the natural environment Sociobiology-A theory that proposes that social behavior is determined by genes that evolved to promote adaptation Imprinting-In ethology, the automatic process by which animals attach to their mothers Microsystem-In ecological theory, the face-to-face interaction of the person in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friends Mesosystem-The interaction among the various microsystems, such as a child’s school and home Exosystem-Settings that the child never enters but that affect the child’s development nevertheless, such as the parents’ place of work Macrosystem-Cultural norms that guide the nature of the organizations and places that makes up one’s everyday life Chronosystem-The dimension of time, including one’s age and the time in history in which one lives Neuropsychology-The study of the interaction of the brain and behavior Behavioral genomics-Research that links behaviors with specific genes Dynamic systems theory-The theory that all aspects of development interact and affect each other in a dynamic process over time Ch. 3 Basic research-Research that has the primary goal of adding to our body of knowledge rather than having immediate application Applied research-Research that has the primary goal of solving problems or improving the human condition Scientific method-The process of formulating and testing hypotheses in a rigorous and objective manner Hypothesis-A prediction, often based on theoretical ideas or observations, that is tested by the scientific method Operationalize-To define a concept in a way that allows it to be measured Reliability-The ability of a measure to produce consistent results Validity-The ability of a research tool to accurately measure what it purports to measure Interrater reliability-A measure of consistency in the data gathered by multiple observers Generalize-To draw inferences from the findings of research on a specific sample about a larger group or population Population-A set that includes everyone in a category of individuals that we are interested in studying Representative sample-A group of participants in a research study who have individual characteristics in the same distribution that exists in the population Observer bias-The tendency for an observer to notice and report events that he is expecting to see Event sample-A data collection technique in which a researcher records information about all occurrences of a coherent set of behaviors being investigated Time sample-A data collection technique in which a researcher observes an individual for a predetermined period of time and records the occurrence of specific behaviors of interest to the research during that period Checklist-A prepared list of behaviors, characteristics or judgments used by observers to assess a child’s development Surverys-A data collection technique that asks respondents to answer a common set of questions Questionnaires-A written form of a survey Interviews-A data collection technique in which an interviewer poses questions to a respondent Clinical interview-An interview technique in which the interviewer can deviate from a standard set of questions to gather additional information Norm-The average or typical performance of an individual of a given age on a test Archival records-Data collected at an earlier date that are used for research purposes Case study-An in-depth study of a single individual or small group of individuals which uses multiple methods of study Experimental group-The group in an experiment that gets the special treatment that is of interest to the researcher Control group-The group in an experiment that does not get the special treatment and provides a baseline against which the experimental group can be compared Random assignment-Assigning participants to the experimental and control groups by chance so that the groups will not systematically differ from each other Variable-A characteristic that can be measured and that can have different values Independent variable-The variable in an experiment that the researcher manipulates Dependent variable-The outcome of interest to the researcher that is measured at the end of an experiment Natural or “quasi” experiment-Research in which the members of the groups are selected because they represent different “treatment” conditions Correlation-A measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables Positive correlation-A correlation in which increases in one variable are associated with increases in another variable Negative correlation-A correlation in which increases in one variable are associated with decreases in another variable Longitudinal design-A research design that follows one group of individuals over time and looks at the same or similar measures at each point of testing Attrition-The loss of participants over the course of a longitudinal study Sample bias-Changes in the makeup of the sample in a longitudinal or cross-sequential study that make the sample less representative over time Cross-sectional design-A research design that uses multiple groups of participants who represent the age span of interest to the researcher Cohort effect-Differences between groups in a cross-sectional or cross-sequential study that are attributable to the act that the participants have had different life experiences Cross-sequential design-A research design that uses multiple groups of participants and follows them over a period of time, with the beginning age of each group being the ending age of another group Null hypothesis-The hypothesis tested by an experiment that there will be no difference in the outcome for the groups in the experiment Meta-analysis-A statistical procedure that combines data from different studies to determine whether there is a consistent pattern of findings across studies Informed consent-Informing research participants of the risks and benefits of participating in the research and guaranteeing them the right to withdraw from participation if they wish Ch. 4 Gene-the basic unit of inheritance; genes are made of DNA, and they give messages to the body to create proteins that are the basis for the body’s development and functioning Eugenics-The historical concept, not accepted today, that desirable traits can be bred into human beings, while undesirable ones can be bred out Molecular genetics-Research focused on the identification of particular genes to identify how these genes work within the cell Behavioral genetics-Research to determine the degree of genetic basis for a behavior, a trait, or an ability Behavioral genomics-Research that links behaviors with specific genes Zygote-The fertilized egg that beings to divide into the cells that will develop into the embryo Chromosomes-The strands of genes that constitute the human genetic endowment Dizygotic (DZ) twins-Formed when a woman produces two ova or eggs, which are fertilized by two sperm; genetically DZ twins are as similar as any siblings Monozygotic (MZ) twins-Formed when a woman produces one egg that is fertilized by one sperm and the resulting ball of cells splits to form two individuals with the same gene Genotype (Genome)-All of a person’s genes, including those that are active and those that are silent Phenotype-The genetically based characteristics that are actually shown in one’s body Polygenic inheritance-Numerous genes may interact together to promote any particular trait or behavior Pleiotropic effects-Any single gene may have many different influences Generalist genes-Genes that affect many, apparently distinct cognitive abilities Single gene disorders-Genetic disorders caused by recessive genes or mutations Chromosome disorders-Disorders that result when too many or too few chromosomes are formed or when there is a change in the structure of the chromosome called breakage Multifactorial inheritance disorders-Disorders that result from the interaction of many genes in interaction with environmental influences Mutations-Changes in the formation of genes that occur as cells divide Amniocentesis-A test to look for genetic abnormalities prenatally, in which a physician uses a long, thin needle to extract amniotic fluid, which is then tested Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)-A test to look for genetic abnormalities prenatally, in which a small tube is inserted either through the vagina and cervix or through a needles inserted into the abdomen, and sample of cells from the chorion is retrieved for testing Gene therapy-Treatment of genetic disorders through implanting or disabling specific genes Canalization-The degree to which the expression of a gene is influenced by the environment Epigenetics-A system by which genes are activated or silenced in response to events or circumstances in the individual’s environment Passive gene-environment interaction-A child’s family shares his own genetically determined abilities and interests Active gene-environment interaction-A child’s genetic endowment becomes a driving force to seek out experiences that fir her genetic endowments Niche-picking-Individuals choose the part of their environment in which they feel comfortable, based on their genetic predisposition Evocative gene-environment interaction-Children’s genetic endowment causes them to act in a way that draws out certain responses from those around them Concordance rate-The degree to which a trait or an ability of one individual is similar to that of another; used to examine similarities between twins and among adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents Culture-The system of behaviors, norms, beliefs, and traditions that form in order to promote the survival of a group that lives in a particular environment niche Individualism-The cultural value that emphasizes the importance of the individual with emphasis on independence and reliance on one’s own abilities Collectivism-The cultural value that emphasizes the obligations to others within your group Cultural neuroscience-The study of the interaction of culture, the mind, and the development of the brain
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