BMS 212 Exam 1 Study Guide
BMS 212 Exam 1 Study Guide BMS 212
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 212 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
BMS 212: Study Guide Exam #1 Prokaryotic cells: includes domains Archaea and Bacteria; able to perform transcription and translation at the same time because it does not have a nucleus; lacks membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic cells: domains Algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants; larger than prokaryotes, has nucleus and membrane bound organelles Glycocaylx: composed of polysaccharides and sometimes amino acids; function to protect, create bioﬁlms, and source of resistance against host cells immune system and antibodies; difﬁcult to treat bacteria because the glycocalyx is also present in our bodies making it difﬁcult for our immune systems to recognize True capsules are deﬁned and bound to the membrane to prevent phagocytosis, reduce recognition, and aids in bioﬁlms; slime layers are loose coverings that are water soluble Bioﬁlms are a group of bacteria that are working together allowing them to be more pathogenic and adhere to their source of nutrients better Flagella: long structures protruding from cell that allow it to propel through its environment, although not present in all bacteria; *not enclosed in membrane* • Structure: composed of protein ﬂagellin that is secreted from the core of ﬂagella to lengthen; ﬁlament inserted into hook; hook anchored to cell wall/cytoplasmic membrane by basal body • Arrangements - Peritrichous: all over cell, not visible with stain - Monotrichous: one ﬂagella - Lophotricous: tuft (grouping) at one end, can be both - Amphitricious: ﬂagella at each end - Axial ﬁlaments: specialized form that wraps around the cell between cytoplasmic and outer membranes, composed of endoﬂagella, present in spirochetes Function: movement; taxis, the movement in response to a stimulus • - Chemotaxis: movement towards a chemical/nutrient is positive chemotaxis - Phototaxis: movement towards a light source is positive phototaxis - Movement is dependent on position, ﬂagella can align and rotate in the same direction to “run”, and reverse of switch rotation to “tumble”, or switch its direction Fimbriae and Pili are other external structures composed of Pilin; ﬁmbriae are short and numerous, adhere to host cell and allows communication of electrical signals, while pili are longer (1-2 per cell) that attach to object and pulls the cell towards it, utilized for transporting DNA Cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan where “glycan” is the covalently linked sequences of alternating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and “peptido” comes from the amino acids/peptide cross bridges linking 2 NAM molecules together; only present in bacteria Cell walls can grow by using 2 enzymes that allow the addition of more sections, although while growing the cell becomes vulnerable from possible gaps autolysin: break bonds between NAM - NAG and cross bridges, allowing the addition of more molecules to enable cell to grow transpeptidases: re-create the broken bonds to the added peptidoglycan monomers Gram-positive bacterial cells: thick layer of peptidoglycan (90% weight), have teichoic acids/ lipoteichoic acids that bind cell wall to cell membrane, giving structure; these cells appear purple from primary Gram stain (crystal violet) Gram-negative bacterial cells: thin peptidoglycan, (double membrane) has another membrane above peptidoglycan layer that contains phospholipids, proteins, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS); BMS 212: Study Guide Exam #1 LPS composed of Lipid A portion (endotoxin) that causes fever, vasodilation, shock, when released (occurs when cell is damaged/dies); appear pink after Gram stain Acid Fast cell walls: speciﬁc for genus (Mycobacterium), wall contains mycolic acid (hydroxylated fatty, waxy, acids) making them resistant to antibiotics/extreme environments; takes longer to synthesize the cell wall; Ex. leprosy, tuberculosis Cytoplasmic membrane: composed of phospholipid bilayer (hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tails); ﬂuid mosaic model from the spread of proteins among the membrane and ﬂuid as it is free to ﬂow laterally; function to harvest light energy, controls what substances pass through the cell, proteins allow crossing of membrane, maintains the concentration/electrical gradient of cell Passive transport does not require energy from the cell, uses energy stored in concentration gradients; includes simple diffusion (movement down concentration gradient), facilitated diffusion (uses membrane proteins to assist down concentration gradient) and osmosis (diffusion of water across semi-permeable membrane) Active transport uses carrier proteins and input of energy (ATP) to move molecules against their concentration gradient; group translocation moves molecules that get chemically modiﬁed so once they enter the cell they don’t go down concentration gradient and leave again (only in prokaryotes) Osmosis is the passive process of water moving across a membrane and moves in a way to areas lower in water concentration (higher solute concentration) to balance hypertonic: solutions with higher concentration of particles; when cell placed in this kind of solution loses water/shrinks hypotonic: solutions with lower concentration of solute; water moves into cell causing swelling/bursting isotonic: same concentrations of solute result in no net movement of water; water is entering and exiting the cell at equal rates Prokaryotic cells carry their DNA in nucleoid; circular DNA as chromosomes, DNA in plasmids Ribosomes are composed of polypeptides and molecules of RNA (rRNA) and produce proteins in cells; measured in Svedbergs (sedimentation rate), prokaryotes—70S, eukaryotes—80S Inclusion: deposits in the cytosol of bacterial cells that store lipids, starch, PHB, and nutrients when in abundance; gas vesicles: in aquatic cyanobacteria that hold gasses used to bring to surface of water to perform photosynthesis; magnetobacteria: storage of crystal magnetite that allows the cell to align itself in position Endospores are a type of defense mechanism used by vegetative cells in unfavorable conditions; spore coats are formed by dipicolinic acid and calcium to make endospore resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals; dormant until favorable condition arise, 8-10 hour formation (Eukaryotic) Glycocalyx: composed of polysaccharides that covalently bond to membrane proteins/lipids, but are not as deﬁned as those in bacterial capsule; functions to anchor animal cells together, add more support/protection to cells w/o cell walls, communication/recognition between cells, and protection against dehydrating; absent in eukaryotes with cell walls i.e. fungi/plants Eukaryotic cell walls give strength, support, and shape, NEVER contain peptidoglycan (only prokaryotic cells); compositions—plants/algae(cellulose), fungi(chitin), protozoa(pellicle as extra layer); Both types of cells have phospholipid bilayer membrane, but eukaryotic contain cholesterol that controls the ﬂuidity/strength, membrane raft proteins to help surface functions, allow recognition of other cells and transport via endocytosis/exocytosis - endocytosis(moving larger particles across membrane) by either pinocytosis—ingesting liquids or phagocytosis—ingesting solids - exocytosis—exports substances/waste from cell Pseudopods: distention of cell membrane to allow materials in to form vesicles BMS 212: Study Guide Exam #1 Eukaryotic Flagella: considered internal because sheathed in membrane, ﬁlament is thicker/ complex • Filament ﬁlled with microtubules composed of tubulin in 9+2 arrangement • Base kinetosome (basal body) below surface with microtubules in 9+0 arrangement Flagellar motion is “whip-like” to paddle itself towards nutrients, utilizes chemotaxis and phototaxis (movement in response to stimuli) Cilia: shorter and stiffer than ﬂagella with 100-1000s on surface that are used for movement and circulation of material; composed of tubulin microtubules in same arrangement as ﬂagella, unique to eukaryotes Nucleus: largest organelle in eukaryotes, nuclear envelope has double bilayer with nuclear pores • Nucleoplasm contains chromatin, nucleotides, enzymes • Nucleoli is site of rRNA synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): function to package and transport • Rough (RER): continuous with nuclear membrane with ribosomes attached to outer surface; functions to synthesize organelle proteins and secreted proteins (usually useful out of cell) • Smooth (SER): does not have ribosomes attached, functions to breakdown chemicals and synthesize fats and steroids Cisternae: ﬂattened regions of golgi or ER Golgi Complex: cisternae pick up vesicles from ER to prepare for transport, contents of vesicles are modiﬁed by the addition of polysaccharides/lipids; site of lysosome production, not present in all eukaryotes Lysosomes: digestive enzymes used for nutrition of self-destruction of cell, only present in animal cells and have an acidic pH of ~5 Peroxisomes: vesicles that contain oxidase/catalase to break down waste produced by oxygen reactions; derived from other peroxisomes, most prominent in kidney/liver cells Role of vesicles in endo-/exo-cytosis 1. Bacterium/nutrient enters the cell by endocytosis 2. Phagosome (food vesicle) formed —> fuses with lysosome produced from golgi complex 3. Phagolysosome produced (chemical breakdown occurs 4. Elimination/secretion of waste via exocytosis Vacuoles:large storage centers used to hold water or lipids in plant cells Mitochondria: 2 phospholipid bilayer membranes (producing larger surface area) with the inner membrane containing the electron transport chain (occurs in folding—cisternae), has “bacterial”/ prokaryotic ribosomes (70S) Chloroplast: uses light energy to produce ATP in photosynthetic eukaryotes; contains 2 phospholipid bilayer membranes, own DNA, and 70S ribosomes Endosymbiotic Theory: explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes by symbiosis (mutually beneﬁcial interaction between 2 organisms) of single-celled organisms, supported by: • mitochondria and chloroplasts both have own DNA (circular haploid chromosomes) • Each have own ribosomes (prokaryotic 70S) • Replicate their DNA independently of cell • rRNA similarities to prokaryotes Non-membrane based structures Ribosomes: molecules responsible for the production of proteins Centriole: aids in nuclear division and formation of cilia and ﬂagella; 9+0 triplet arrangement similar to eukaryotic kinetosome (ﬂagella basal body) Protozoa are all eukaryotic, unicellular, and lack cell walls; most are mobile (having cilia, ﬂagella, or pseudopodia), chemoheterotrophic, and parasitic BMS 212: Study Guide Exam #1 Algae: eukaryotic, phototrophic (uses chlorophyll a), either unicellular, multicellular, or colonial, and cell wall compositions vary; ability for every cell to be a gamete Distinguishing fungi: cell walls of chitin, lack chlorophyll Fungi: decomposes dead plants/animals, use symbiosis (michorrhizae: mutually beneﬁcial relationship between roots of plants and fungi), used for food/drug production, and difﬁcult to treat diseases because they’re eukaryotic Fungi are classiﬁed in 2 groups, 1.) molds/ﬂeshy fungi and 2) yeasts • Molds/ﬂeshy fungi: cell bodies (thallus) made from ﬁlaments (hyphae) • septate hyphae: cell walls overlap • aseptate: single strands, coenocytic (multiple nucleus) • Vegetative: obtain nutrients that live in masses called mycelium Aerial: reproductive (aerial spores) • • Yeasts: cell bodies (thalli) that are small and globular, reproduce by budding, ability to penetrate cellular cracks • Dimorphic growth: combination of thalli and ﬁlaments • Nutrition • Chemoheterotrophic: nutrients from organic sources • saprophytic: nutrients from dead sources • parasitic: nutrients from living organisms • mycoses: fungal infection, uses haustoria (modiﬁed hyphae to better penetrate cells) Asexual reproduction: through types of budding; aerial hyphae produce a sporangium, which eventually bursts to release spores that will then germinate to aseptate mycelium, and a vegetative mycelium grows Spore formation • sporangiospores: enclosed in sac • chlamydospores: develop within hyphae • conidiospores: never enclosed, moved by environment Sexual spore classiﬁcation • zygomycota, produce zygospores • gametes form at hyphae that fuse with mate to produce dikaryon, forming a zygosporangium that matures enough to undergo nuclear meiosis, creating an asexual sporangium that releases its spores to re-germinate • ascomycota, produce ascospores mating gametes fuse at tip of hyphae forming dikaryon cells, the nuclei of terminal cells fuse • to make ascus, meiosis makes 4 haploid cells, mitosis creates 8 haploid ascospores, ascus opens releasing ascospores that germinate to make mycelia • basidiomycota, produces basidiospores • basidiospore are released and germinate, producing mycelia that will mate and fuse with opposite type to create dikaryotic mycelium that will grow in soil producing a mushroom; in the gills (underside of mushroom cap) 4 basidiospore develop from basidium, meiosis produces 4 haploid nuclei, pairs of haploid uncle fuse Viruses are speciﬁc to their host cells due to their afﬁnity of viral surface proteins to glycoproteins for complementary proteins on cell surface; may infect only certain cells of a speciﬁc host Generalists: infect many cell types in many different hosts Viral capsid: protein that coats the virus protecting its nucleic acids and allowing it to enter host cell; composed of capsomeres (proteinaceous subunits) with single or several types of protein nucleocapsid: viral nucleic acid encased in capsid Viral morphology BMS 212: Study Guide Exam #1 helical (enveloped and non): capsomeres bond in spiral fashion that forms tube around • nucleic acid • Polyhedral (enveloped and non): many sided and roughly spherical • Most common: icosahedral (20 sides) with pentane proteins (on corners) and heron proteins (on sides) • Complex: very complicated shape (smallpox, bacteriophage) Viral envelope: originates from host cell membrane during release or viral replication; composed of phospholipid bilayer or proteins with surface glycoproteins, functioning in recognition of host, attachment, and entry; naked viruses lake envelopes Viral genomes usually have small gene numbers (a few); composed of nucleic acids, either DNA (ds, ss) or RNA (ds, ss) arranged in circular fashion or linear (non-/segmented) Most RNA have bad proofreading abilities which can cause mutations to certain section that can actually beneﬁt the virus while infecting its host Gene function: replication of envelope/host membrane, regulates host cell, replicates genetic material (use of polymerase, replicase, or reverse transcriptase), and packages mature virus replicase: used to create RNA from other RNA—we lack this enzyme Lytic replication cycle • Attachment of viron: tail ﬁbers allow for attachment; attachment depends on chemical attraction between phage and host cell—caused by random motion • Entry of viron in host cell: uses enzyme lysozyme to breakdown peptidoglycan and release DNA in host • Synthesis of new nucleic acids/viral proteins using host cell’s enzymes/ribosomes: viral proteins override cells DNA • Assembly of new virons within host: pieces added together • Release of new virons from host: lysozyme used again to weaken wall and osmotic pressure pushes the new viron out of host
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