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HY 101 Study Guide

by: Danyellia West

HY 101 Study Guide HY 101

Danyellia West
GPA 3.5

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Study Guide for test 1
Western Civilization
Study Guide
Western Civilization
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danyellia West on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 101 at University of South Alabama taught by Tyson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at University of South Alabama.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
1 WESTERN CIVILIZATION I, Test 1 Tyson Study Guide PREHISTORY Steven Pinker (Lecture) Stone Ages This is a prehistoric cultural stage characterized by stone tools. It divides into three separate periods— Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Periods—based on tools. (Page 36) (Lecture) Venus Figurines (Page 6) Neolithic Revolution Humans adopted a settled lifestyle, leading to population growth, communities, and towns. (Lecture) BRONZE & IRON AGES The Bronze Age occurred after the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages. Scholars believed it started in China. The Iron Age is the final technological and cultural stage in the Stone–Bronze–Iron-Age sequence. Dates vary geographically. (Lecture) Hittites Hittites were ancient Indo-European peoples who possibly originated from Anatolia (modern Turkey). They were one of the first civilizations to use Iron weaponry. (Lecture) MESOPOTAMIA This is where the world's earliest civilizations developed. Its name comes from a Greek word meaning “between rivers,” the Tigris and Euphrates. The region includes modern Syria, Turkey, and Iraq. (Lecture) Sumer This is the earliest known civilization, located in modern southern Iraq. Gilgamesh is the best-known ancient Mesopotamian [Sumerian] hero. (Lecture) (Page 12, 15) Cuneiform Cuneiform was the most widespread and historically significant writing system. (Page 13) (Lecture) Akkad: Sargon the Great Sargon was an ancient ruler, conquering southern Mesopotamia and parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). (Page 16) (Lecture) Assyria Assyria was a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia that became the center of one of the great empires of the ancient Middle East. It was located in what is now northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. Kingdom of Judah (Lecture) 2 Babylonia: Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar Hammurabi was a Babylonian ruler, noted for his surviving laws. (Page 18) (Lecture) Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king of a later dynasty. He attacked Judah and captured Jerusalem, deporting its prominent citizens. By tradition, King Nebuchadnezzar II built hanging gardens for his Median wife because she missed her homeland. (Lecture) Persia: Cyrus the Great Cyrus was a conqueror who founded the Persian Empire. By reputation, he was a tolerant and ideal monarch. In scripture, he liberated Jews captive in Babylonia [Edict of Restoration]. (Pages 54/55) (Lecture) (Primary Document) ANCIENT EGYPT (20) Imhotep He was an architect, later worshipped as the god of medicine in Egypt and Greece. He designed the step pyramid, the oldest extant monument of hewn stone known. (Lecture) Pharaoh, “Great House” Pharaoh became a synonym for Egyptian kings. (Pages 30/31) (Lecture) Horus & Osiris Horus is a falcon-headed god whose eyes are the sun and moon. The reigning king was a manifestation of Horus. (Lecture) Osiris was a fertility god and the embodiment of the dead, resurrected king. (Pages 24/25) *Often gods held an ankh, the symbol for life. (Page 22) Akhenaton & Nefertiti Akhenaton established a new cult dedicated to Aton, the sun's disk. Nefertiti was his wife, known for her beauty. According to hieroglyphs, Nefertiti played Senet, an ancient board game. (Lecture) King Tutankhamun He was a minor king, known chiefly for his intact tomb. During his reign, powerful advisers restored the traditional Egyptian religion and art. (Current News) (Lecture) Ramses the Great & Nefertari Ramses’ reign was the second longest in Egyptian history. His first and perhaps favorite queen was Nefertari. Her beautiful tomb at Thebes is well known. (Lecture) Book of the Dead These are mortuary texts containing spells helping the deceased in the hereafter. (Page 23) Mummy This is a body preserved in the ancient Egyptian method. The process varied, but it always involved removing the internal organs, treating the body with resin, and wrapping it in linen bandages. (Lecture) Anubis Anubis is the ancient Egyptian god of the dead, represented as a jackal or a jackal-headed man. He reputedly invented embalming. (Lecture) At death, he weighed a person’s heart against Ma’at, the personification of truth, justice, and cosmic order. (Pages 24/25) 3 Hyksos This [Canaanite] group immigrated into Egypt. Beginning about 1630 BC, Hyksos kings ruled northern Egypt as the 15th dynasty. Josephus identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible. (Lecture) Nile River It is the longest river in the world. It flows northward through Africa, draining into the Mediterranean Sea. (Lecture) MEDITERRANEAN HISTORY Minoan This was a Bronze Age civilization located on Crete. Its name derives from Minos, a king in Greek legend. (Page 63) Mycenaean Mycenaean is the Late Bronze Age civilization on mainland Greece. Linear B script appears on clay tablets and on some vases. The Linear B texts are extremely important for Greek linguistics. They represent the oldest known Greek dialect. (Lecture) Phoenician This was an ancient region corresponding to modern Lebanon, with adjoining parts of modern Syria and Israel. Its inhabitants were notable merchants, traders, and colonizers. (Page 39) ANCIENT GREECE Dark Ages During the 13th century BC, the ancient Aegean civilizations ended. Greece was severely depopulated and impoverished. The small, scattered settlements were not able to support the luxury arts that had flourished in the Bronze Age palaces. (Lecture) Homer He is the presumed author of the Iliad and Odyssey. Scholars know little about him. (Lecture) Athens, Sparta, and Thebes Athens is Greece’s historic city and capital. It is the birthplace of Western civilization. Sparta was a city- state in southeastern Peloponnese, Greece. Sparsity of ruins from antiquity reflects its militaristic society. (Page 70, 72) (Current News) Thebes was a primary Greek ancient city. It was home to the mythical king Oedipus. (Course Enhancement Activity) Draco and Solon He was an Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death. Solon later repealed Draco's code and published new laws, retaining only Draco's homicide statutes. (Lecture) Socrates and Hippocrates He was a Greek philosopher whose way of life, character, and thought exerted a profound influence on ancient and modern philosophy. At 70, a jury sentenced him to death. Plato's Apology of Socrates purports to be the speech Socrates gave at his trial in response to the accusations made against him. (Page 93) Hippocrates was an ancient Greek physician who lived during Greece's Classical period and the father of [ethical] medicine. It is difficult to isolate the facts of Hippocrates' life from the later tales told about him or to assess his medicine accurately in the face of centuries of reverence for him as the ideal physician. (Page 92) 4 Parthenon: Elgin Marbles This is Athena’s chief temple, located on the hill of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. The Elgin Marbles are Parthenon sculptures and architectural details currently held at London’s British Museum. Their removal created controversy. (Lecture) Delphi This was an ancient town and seat of the most important Greek temple and oracle of Apollo. (Lecture) Mount Olympus This is Greece’s highest mountain. In mythology, Mount Olympus was the abode of the gods and the site of Zeus’ throne. (Page 90) Olympics This athletic festival originated in ancient Greece and revived in the late 19th century. (Page 82) (Lecture) (Current News) Persian Wars: Battle of Marathon These were a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. Although the Persian Empire was stronger, the collective defense mounted by the Greeks overcame seemingly impossible odds. The Greek triumph ensured the survival of Greek culture. (The Battle of Marathon repulsed the first Persian invasion of Greece. Legend states an Athenian messenger reached Athens and announced the Persian defeat before dying of exhaustion. This tale became the basis for the modern marathon race. (Lecture) Alexander the Great He was king of Macedonia (336–323 BC). He overthrew the Persian Empire and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms. He later became the hero of a full-scale legend bearing only the sketchiest resemblance to his historical career. (Lecture) Humanism and Democracy Humanism emphasized human beings in the universe and their supreme value and importance. Democracy, “Rule by the People,” was a political system existing in some ancient Greek city-states, notably Athens. (Lecture) Greek Revival This is an architectural style, based on 5th-century-BC Greek temples, which spread throughout Europe and the United States during the first half of the 19th century. (Lecture) RELIGION Zoroastrianism This is Iran’s ancient pre-Islamic religion still surviving in isolated areas and, more prosperously, in India. Founded by the Iranian prophet and reformer Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, the religion contains both monotheistic and dualistic features. (Lecture) Judaism Yahweh and Temple(s) of Jerusalem This was the Hebrew God. His divine name was sacred, replaced vocally with Adonai (“My Lord”). (Pages 41, 43) The Jewish Temple was the center of worship and in ancient Israel. Nebuchadnezzar II removed its treasures and destroyed the building. Cyrus II allowed exiled Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild. The Second Temple did not include ritual objects from the First Temple. A rebellion against Rome ended with the Temple's destruction. All that remains is the Western “Wailing” Wall. (Lecture) 5 Hasidism Hasidic Judaism is a branch of Orthodoxy promoting spirituality through Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. (Lecture) Ethiopia: Falasha and the Ark of the Covenant Falasha are Ethiopian Jews. They call themselves House of Israel (Beta Israel) and claim descent from the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon. The Falasha remained Jewish after the conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity. Most live in Israel. Within Judaism, the Ark is an ornate, gold-plated wooden chest containing the two tablets of the Law given to Moses by God. The Ark rested in the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, seen only by the high priest on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. (Lecture) Nigeria Some Nigerians practice Judaism. (Lecture)


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