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lorhumus

lorhumus

Description

School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Life Course
Professor: Tanya meuller
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: Anth. 160
Description: Covers the birth of Natural Selection as well as a brief overview on Darwin, why evolution occurs, and its connection to competition and offspring survival.
Uploaded: 02/02/2016
6 Pages 260 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


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li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-1}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_or90zhlr3ctc-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-4}ol.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-5 0}.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-7}ol.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-6 0}.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-5,lower-roman) ". 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"}.lst-kix_yw0y5ksgasaf-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9lxr25qyg3j9-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-8 0}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_mcy8ynhu1kt6-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_9lxr25qyg3j9-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_9lxr25qyg3j9-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xfae9f1gkg1s-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mcy8ynhu1kt6-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xfae9f1gkg1s-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-8}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mcy8ynhu1kt6-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9g65eqjsucn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eq51gcevx8c8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9lxr25qyg3j9-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_mcy8ynhu1kt6-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1w959rwe8zhl-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xfae9f1gkg1s-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b9os4zhmtdan-2}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_v4o9ca5sh1nw-3}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xfae9f1gkg1s-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_homltyuzbge4-0{list-style-type:none}

Natural Selection: Types

  1. Stabilizing selection
  • Selection for the mean
  • Outliers or the population are selected against
  • fertility and human brain size

                        ︸If you want to learn more check out changes in marijuana laws over the course of u.s. history illustrate

                Finite # tasks can be computed with a certain size.        

  • Height, because depending on the environment, certain heights are better.
  • Birth weight

  1. Directional Selection
  • Selection against one group of outliers
  • Human brain
  • Changing importance of IQ
  • During periods of rapid change, directional selection may lead to adaptation
  • Being exposed to bacteria is good

  1. Disruptive selection
  • Rare in nature but led to the evolution of 2 sexes and may lead to speciation.
  • Selection against the mean
  • 2 or more morphologies
  • Sexual selection-sexual dimorphism

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the rules in IUPAC?

Intensity of Selection:

  • For humans it would take only 10,000 years for a trait with a 1% disadvantage to change from 99% frequency to less than 1% frequency as long as selection is consistent and unidirectional
  • Even trivial traits can be associated with reproductive success
  • Head roundness and differential survival
  • No trait is adaptive in all environments
  • The brain is expensive in terms of food, thus dangerous if food is scarce.

If you want to learn more check out 2 HOW ARE ORGANIC MOLECULES SYNTHESIZED?
Don't forget about the age old question of ntu eee

Genotype, Phenotype and Heritability:

  • Heritability and Phenotype: biggest problem in accepting an evolutionary view of behavioral variation .
  • Gregor Mendel - peas/gene switching and Punnett squares
  • Conclusions:
  • Dominance and recessive traits exists
  • Parents contribute only 1 of their alleles to offspring
  • Alleles are contributed with equal probability
  • Allele for different traits segregates differently.

If you want to learn more check out which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath?

There can also be:

  • Incomplete dominance: a mixture of traits, do dominance over one or another
  • Codominance

Genotype Leading to Heritability

  • Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of the individual, the actual genes coded for by an individual’s DNA
  • During meiosis this genetic material is copied and enclosed within the gametes through ½ of an individual’s genetic material
  • Sexual recombination inhibits identical copies of parents.

We also discuss several other topics like francis mummery

Sources of Variation

  • Mutation - imperfect copying of DNA strands; we have 30,000 genes, in which 1 mutation per every 3 offspring is born
  • Recombination because parents’ adaptation aren't pass to kids
  • Crossing over

Genotype Translated to Phenotype

  • Genotype = genetic makeup of an individual
  • Phenotype = observed expression of phenotype
  • Traits are influenced by the environment

Science and the Principles of Natural Selection

  • Natural selection as the mechanism for biological diversity and change through time

The Naturalistic Fallacy

  • Along the lines of “what is natural is good” or “what is unnatural is bad.”
  • Examples: homosexuality is bad, transgender = bad, vaccines do not help
  • David Hume, 1740: confusion of what is w/what should be
  • “Is” - what exists (ontology) and why it occurred (cause / effects)
  • “Should” = desirability or moral value of the outcome

Studies of humans particularly vulnerable

  • People have so much invested in the answers to some questions
  • Certain answers may serve interests better than others
  • Refusal to accept certain answers even with hard evidence
  • One must understand people’s motivations
  • Moral values in play?

Basic Principles of Science

  1. Public vs. Private info: findings must be private
  2. Evidence in support of a statement must be replicable by gathering independent information
  3. Statements about cause / effect must be generalizable to other situations in which the same cause / effect principle should be operative

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