Dr. Greene Exam 1 Study Guide
Dr. Greene Exam 1 Study Guide NTRI 2000-002
Popular in Nutrition and Health
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
Reviews for Dr. Greene Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/01/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide: Chapter 1-‐3 Chapter 1: Vocab: • Nutrition= science that links food→disease • Nutrient= food needed in body; provides energy; building blocks for growth • Essential Nutrient= body cant make enough of it on its own; must have specific function; must be obtained by diet • Malnutrition= deficiency OR excess of nutrient intake • Macronutrients o Carbs, Lipids, proteins→body’s main form of getting energy directly • Micronutrients= vitamins and minerals o Enzymes that aid chemical reactions • Phytochemicals=plant compounds that are good for health • Calorie/Kcal= unit that describes energy content of food o 1 kcal=1000 cal o 1 Cal = 1 kcal • Cultural Drives to Eat= social needs, family influence, routines, education, food cost, food flavor • Biological Drives to Eat o Hunger (physiological; internal influences) o Appetite (psychological; external influences) o Satiety (feeling of being full) Concepts to Know: • Poor diet and lazy lifestyle→disease o Cardiovascular disease o Cancers (some) o Hypertension (high blood pressure) o Diabetes o Liver disease o →these diseases account for 2/3 of all deaths in U.S. • #1 cause of death in U.S.= Heart disease • #2 cause of death in U.S. = Cancer • Photosynthesis: CO2+H20+lightèèCH0+O2 • Metabolism: CHO+O2+CO2èèCO2+H20 • How much energy is in each nutrient o Carb= 4kcal/gram o Fat= 9 kcal/gram Remember this as the “4-‐9-‐4 Rule” o Protein= 4kcal/gram o Alcohol= 7 kcal/gram • Example of how to calculate calories o Carbs: 46 g x 4= 184kcal o Fat: 14g x 9= 126kcal o Protien:45g x 4=180kcal Total: 490kcal • Example of how to calculate % of total calories o %Carb: 184kcal÷490kcal=37% o %Fat: 126kcal÷490kcal=26% o %Protein: 45kcal÷490kcal=9% Chapter 2: Vocab: • Variety= choosing a different number of foods within any given food group • Balance=eat from 5 major food groups everyday (grains, vegetables, fruits, milk/dairy, protein) • Moderation=controlling portion sizes; limiting fat, salt, cholesterol, and sugar • Adequacy= obtaining all essential nutrients to meet body’s need plus more for storage • Nutrient Density= nutrient content of food per calorie o High nutrient density= many nutrients, few calories (good) o Low nutrient density= empty calories (bad “junk food”) • Energy Density= caloric content of food per gram o High energy foods= lots of calories but don’t weigh much (high fat) o Low energy foods= weigh a lot with few calories (high water and fiber) • Desirable Nutrition= adequate nutrient intake • Undernutrition= not enough nutrients • Overnutrition= too many nutrients; can even be toxic • Dietary Reference Intakes(DRI)=umbrella term for dietary standards and nutrient recommendations (6 of them): o Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA)=nutrient intake amount sufficient to meet the needs of 97-‐98% of people in specific life stage o Adequate Intake (AI)= nutrient intake amount set for any nutrient where there’s not enough info/research to make an RDA § Middle ground o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)= estimate of the energy (kcal) required to match energy use of someone in a specific life stage o Tolerable Upper Intake (UI)= max. chronic daily intake level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause bad health effects to most people o Daily Value (DV)= nutrient standard used for food labels; based on a 2000kcal diet Concepts to Know: • Rule for food philosophy→ consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food • How to measure nutritional state o 1) Background factors= medical/family history o 2) 5 Assessments (ABCDE) § Anthropometric=height, weight, body composition, thickness of certain parts of the body § Biochemical= test enzymes and nutrients in blood/urine § Clinical= look at skin, eyes, toungue, loss of hair § Dietary= look at food intake § Environmental= education, income, ability to purchase/prepare food • 2015 Guidelines for America: o 1) Follow a healthy eating pattern across lifespan o 2) Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount o 3) Limit calories from added sugars, saturated fats, and decrease sodium o 4) Shift to healthier drink choices o 5) Support healthy eating patterns for all o 6) Meet physical guidelines for age § 18-‐64 years: 150-‐300 min per week • Food Labels o Required things § Name of product § Manufacturer § How much of product there is § List of ingredients (ordered by weight) § Nutrition facts (serving size, calories, fat, vitamins, etc.) o Nutritional claims § “Good Source”= 1 serving has 10%-‐90% Daily value for nutrient § “Excellent Source”= 20% or more of daily value for nutrient § “Reduced Fat”= at least 25% fat per serving less than reference food § “Low Fat”= 3g or less of fat per serving § “Fat Free”= <0.5g fat per serving (not actually fat free) Chapter 3: Human Body and Body Systems Vocab: • cell= basic unit of life o cell→tissue→organ→organ system • anabolic reaction= requires energy (builds things up) • catabolic reaction= releases energy (breaks things down) Body Systems: • Cardiovascular System o Functions: transports nutrients/waste/gases/hormones through blood; role in immune response o Components: heart, blood vessels, capillaries, blood (made of plasma, white/red blood cells and platelets § heart→arteries→capillaries→veins→heart o Portal vein=vein that leaves intestine and goes to liver before going back to the capillaries which then go to the heart • Lymphatic System o Functions: fluid balance, immune response against pathogens (makes white blood cells) o Fluid= lymph • Endocrine System o Function=produce hormones as messengers to cells o Main glands= pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, hypothalamus, pancreas o Insulin= released by pancreas when blood sugar goes up o Hormones=messengers § Endocrine= circulates whole body § Paracrine= goes to a cell closeby § Autocrine=hormone goes to the same cell that made it • Digestive System o Mouth o Esophagus § Connects mouth to stomach § Moves food by peristalsis § Esophogeal sphincter→helps move food down and prevents backflow o Stomach § Uses gastric juice (made of water, HCl, acid, and enzymes) to churn food and make chyme § Pyloric Sphincter= controls flow from stomach to small intestine o Small Intestine § Function: absorbs most of the nutrients § Folds or microvilli make absorbtion more efficient (more surface area) § Ileoceal Sphincter= goes to large intestine o Large Intestine § Only some nutrients go this far § Bacteria aid in digestion § Feces= water, fiber, tough connective tissue, bacteria, dead intestinal cells, body waste § Leaves large intestine through anus • Urinary System o Functions: filter blood, vitamin D formation, produce hormones, regulate blood pressure and pH of blood o Components: kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra o Nephron= functional unit of kidney (filtration, reabsorption, secretion) Diseases: • Heartburn= stomach acid refluxing in the esophagus • Ulcer= bacteria infects stomach; erodes lining • Constipation= difficult/infrequent pooping o Laxatives can help and drinking more fluids • Hemorrhoids= swollen veins of rectum or anus • Irritable Bowel Syndrome=combination of irregular bowel functions • Diarrhea= body doesn’t absorb enough fluid • Gallstones= soilds of blie form in the gallbladder • Celiac Disease= cant eat gluten
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'