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AU / Science / NUTR 2000 / What is Essential Nutrient?

What is Essential Nutrient?

What is Essential Nutrient?


School: Auburn University
Department: Science
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Michael greene
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: Dr. Greene Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 1-3
Uploaded: 02/02/2016
4 Pages 8 Views 9 Unlocks

Cara Benak (Rating: )

Rachel Ferrell  

What is Essential Nutrient?

NTRI 2000

Exam 1 Study Guide: Chapter 1-3 

Chapter 1: 


• Nutrition= science that links food→disease

• Nutrient= food needed in body; provides energy; building blocks for growth • Essential Nutrient= body cant make enough of it on its own; must have specific function; must be  obtained by diet

• Malnutrition= deficiency OR excess of nutrient intake

• Macronutrients

o Carbs, Lipids, proteins→body’s main form of getting energy directly

• Micronutrients= vitamins and minerals

o Enzymes that aid chemical reactions

• Phytochemicals=plant compounds that are good for health

• Calorie/Kcal= unit that describes energy content of food

o 1 kcal=1000 cal

o 1 Cal = 1 kcal

• Cultural Drives to Eat= social needs, family influence, routines, education, food cost, food flavor • Biological Drives to Eat

What is Malnutrition?

o Hunger (physiological; internal influences)

o Appetite (psychological; external influences)

o Satiety (feeling of being full)

Concepts to Know: 

• Poor diet and lazy lifestyle→disease

o Cardiovascular disease

o Cancers (some)

o Hypertension (high blood pressure)

o Diabetes

o Liver disease

o →these diseases account for 2/3 of all deaths in U.S. We also discuss several other topics like ba-3400

• #1 cause of death in U.S.= Heart disease

• #2 cause of death in U.S. = Cancer

• Photosynthesis: CO2+H20+light????????CH0+O2

• Metabolism: CHO+O2+CO2????????CO2+H20

• How much energy is in each nutrient

o Carb= 4kcal/gram

o Fat= 9 kcal/gram

What is Calorie/Kcal?

o Protein= 4kcal/gram

o Alcohol= 7 kcal/gram

• Example of how to calculate calories o Carbs: 46 g x 4= 184kcal

o Fat:      14g x 9= 126kcal

o Protien:45g x 4=180kcal

Total:        490kcal

Remember this as the “4-9-4 Rule”We also discuss several other topics like unit 2 study guide chemistry

• Example of how to calculate % of total calories

o %Carb: 184kcal÷490kcal=37%

o %Fat: 126kcal÷490kcal=26%

o %Protein: 45kcal÷490kcal=9%

Chapter 2: 


• Variety= choosing a different number of foods within any given food group

• Balance=eat from 5 major food groups everyday (grains, vegetables, fruits, milk/dairy, protein) • Moderation=controlling portion sizes; limiting fat, salt, cholesterol, and sugar • Adequacy= obtaining all essential nutrients to meet body’s need plus more for storage • Nutrient Density= nutrient content of food per calorie 

o High nutrient density= many nutrients, few calories (good)

o Low nutrient density= empty calories (bad “junk food”)

• Energy Density= caloric content of food per gram 

o High energy foods= lots of calories but don’t weigh much (high fat)

o Low energy foods= weigh a lot with few calories (high water and fiber)

• Desirable Nutrition= adequate nutrient intake

• Undernutrition= not enough nutrients

• Overnutrition= too many nutrients; can even be toxic

• Dietary Reference Intakes(DRI)=umbrella term for dietary standards and nutrient  recommendations (6 of them):

o Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA)=nutrient intake amount sufficient to meet the  needs of 97-98% of people in specific life stage

o Adequate Intake (AI)= nutrient intake amount set for any nutrient where there’s not  enough info/research to make an RDA

▪ Middle ground

o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)= estimate of the energy (kcal) required to match  energy use of someone in a specific life stage Don't forget about the age old question of etsu psychology

o Tolerable Upper Intake (UI)= max. chronic daily intake level of a nutrient that is unlikely  to cause bad health effects to most people

o Daily Value (DV)= nutrient standard used for food labels; based on a 2000kcal diet Concepts to Know: 

• Rule for food philosophy→ consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food • How to measure nutritional state We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of predators?

o 1) Background factors= medical/family history

o 2) 5 Assessments (ABCDE)

▪ Anthropometric=height, weight, body composition, thickness of certain parts of the  body

▪ Biochemical= test enzymes and nutrients in blood/urine

▪ Clinical= look at skin, eyes, toungue, loss of hair

▪ Dietary= look at food intake

▪ Environmental= education, income, ability to purchase/prepare food

• 2015 Guidelines for America:

o 1) Follow a healthy eating pattern across lifespan We also discuss several other topics like abnormal psychology exam 1

o 2) Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount

o 3) Limit calories from added sugars, saturated fats, and decrease sodium

o 4) Shift to healthier drink choices

o 5) Support healthy eating patterns for all

o 6) Meet physical guidelines for age

▪ 18-64 years: 150-300 min per week

• Food Labels

o Required things

▪ Name of product

▪ Manufacturer

▪ How much of product there is

▪ List of ingredients (ordered by weight)

▪ Nutrition facts (serving size, calories, fat, vitamins, etc.)

o Nutritional claims

▪ “Good Source”= 1 serving has 10%-90% Daily value for nutrient

▪ “Excellent Source”= 20% or more of daily value for nutrient

▪ “Reduced Fat”= at least 25% fat per serving less than reference food

▪ “Low Fat”= 3g or less of fat per serving If you want to learn more check out biol 189 unlv

▪ “Fat Free”= <0.5g fat per serving (not actually fat free)  

Chapter 3: Human Body and Body Systems 


• cell= basic unit of life

o cell→tissue→organ→organ system

• anabolic reaction= requires energy (builds things up)

• catabolic reaction= releases energy (breaks things down)

Body Systems: 

• Cardiovascular System

o Functions: transports nutrients/waste/gases/hormones through blood; role in immune  response

o Components: heart, blood vessels, capillaries, blood (made of plasma, white/red blood cells  and platelets

▪ heart→arteries→capillaries→veins→heart

o Portal vein=vein that leaves intestine and goes to liver before going back to the capillaries  which then go to the heart

• Lymphatic System

o Functions: fluid balance, immune response against pathogens (makes white blood cells) o Fluid= lymph

• Endocrine System

o Function=produce hormones as messengers to cells

o Main glands= pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, hypothalamus, pancreas

o Insulin= released by pancreas when blood sugar goes up

o Hormones=messengers

▪ Endocrine= circulates whole body

▪ Paracrine= goes to a cell closeby

▪ Autocrine=hormone goes to the same cell that made it  

• Digestive System

o Mouth

o Esophagus  

▪ Connects mouth to stomach

▪ Moves food by peristalsis

▪ Esophogeal sphincter→helps move food down and prevents backflow

o Stomach

▪ Uses gastric juice (made of water, HCl, acid, and enzymes) to churn food and make  chyme

▪ Pyloric Sphincter= controls flow from stomach to small intestine

o Small Intestine

▪ Function: absorbs most of the nutrients

▪ Folds or microvilli make absorbtion more efficient (more surface area)

▪ Ileoceal Sphincter= goes to large intestine

o Large Intestine

▪ Only some nutrients go this far

▪ Bacteria aid in digestion

▪ Feces= water, fiber, tough connective tissue, bacteria, dead intestinal cells, body  waste

▪ Leaves large intestine through anus

• Urinary System

o Functions: filter blood, vitamin D formation, produce hormones, regulate blood pressure  and pH of blood

o Components: kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra

o Nephron= functional unit of kidney (filtration, reabsorption, secretion)


• Heartburn= stomach acid refluxing in the esophagus

• Ulcer= bacteria infects stomach; erodes lining

• Constipation= difficult/infrequent pooping

o Laxatives can help and drinking more fluids

• Hemorrhoids= swollen veins of rectum or anus

• Irritable Bowel Syndrome=combination of irregular bowel functions

• Diarrhea= body doesn’t absorb enough fluid

• Gallstones= soilds of blie form in the gallbladder

• Celiac Disease= cant eat gluten

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