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Psychology Exam 1 Review

by: Lexie Renouard

Psychology Exam 1 Review PSYC 101 03

Marketplace > Gonzaga University > Psychlogy > PSYC 101 03 > Psychology Exam 1 Review
Lexie Renouard
Gonzaga University
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

This covers all we've been over this year.
Introductory Psychology
Anna Medina
Study Guide
psych, Psychology
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lexie Renouard on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 03 at Gonzaga University taught by Anna Medina in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Exam 1 Review (Ch. 1, 2, 7, 12) (**Be sure to look at and study previous quizzes**) Chapter 1:   Empirical evidence is evidence found through experimentation  or observation  Wilhelm Wundt – founder of scientific psychology, said  psychology should be focused on consciousness, focused on  structuralism and introspection  William James – a psychologist who said that behavior was  innately functional and served a purpose, functionalism  Sigmund Freud – first to explore clinical psychology, founded  ideas of hysteria stemming from childhood trauma in the  unconscious, created psychoanalysis, thought he could cure  psych disorders by making people remember traumas   Structuralism­ the analysis of the basic element of the mind  Functionalism­ the study of the purpose of the mental process  Psychoanalysis­ bringing unconscious material to conscious  awareness to better understand psychological disorders  Perspectives on human experience and behavior: o Biological perspective – explains mind and behavior in  terms of adaptive value of abilities preserved by natural  selection o Learning perspective – emphasizes environmental  influence (models, reinforcers, punishers) on behavior o Cognitive perspective – emphasizes information  processing (thoughts, beliefs) that are the causes of  behavior o Sociocultural perspective – study of how cultures  reflect and shape the psychological process of its  members and the causes and consequences of sociality Chapter 2:  What makes psychology a science?   Precise descriptions, reliable observations, emphasis on replicable  findings, genteel skepticism, objectivity, relying on the facts  Operational definition­ defining something specific to the study to  make it replicable (ex. I want to study if violent videogames make  people more violent. Define how you will measure violence.)  Principle of falsifiability­ you should be capable of being shown you  are wrong  Confirmation bias­ the natural tendency to ignore evidence against  your original ideas  Case study­ a process of research focused on the development of a  particular person, group, or situation over a period of time  Observational studies­ studies where findings are based on  observations  Naturalistic observation­ observing an organism without  manipulating its environment   Laboratory observation­ observing an organism in a lab  Representative sample­ a sample of a statistic that represents the  whole population  Independent variable­ the variable that stays the same/steady (ex.  time)  Dependent variable­ the variable that changes (ex. rhino population)  Descriptive statistics­  numbers that summarize the general data  o Correlations (both positive and negative)  Directionality problems­ x doesn’t always  depend on y, y may depend on x o A child’s literacy is low because he lives in  a harsh household; the household may be  harsh because of the child doing poorly in  school rd  3  variable problems­ a third variable may be  causing the problem o The bad neighborhood caused the child to  do poorly in school Chapter 7:  In this example find the following: Charlie eats a poptart and throws up. Now, even the smell of a poptart  makes him feel sick.  o Conditioned Stimulus:_________________________________ o Unconditioned Stimulus:_______________________________ o Unconditioned Response:______________________________ o Conditioned Response:________________________________ Answers:  CS: eating a poptart UCS: smell of the poptart CR: feeling sickk  Extinction­ over time a conditioned response will die out if not  reinforced regularly (after several years Charlie can eat poptarts  again)  Stimulus Generalization­ generalizing a conditioned stimulus to  another similar stimulus (Charlie also couldn’t stand the smell of  fruity gum)  Stimulus Discrimination­ being able to discriminate against different stimuli (Charlie wasn’t bothered by real fruit)  Temporal Conditioning­ the conditioned stimulus is presented  before the unconditioned stimulus (The bell is rung and then food is  given)  Operant Conditioning­ conditioning behaviors instead of involuntary responses o reinforcement/reinforcers – both positive and negative;  increases chance of behavior being repeated; positive is when  you add something, negative is when you take something away o punishment/punishers ­  both pos. and neg.; decreases the  chance of it happening again o Reinforcement Schedules  Fixed­interval schedule (FI)­ reinforcers are given at  fixed times given that the appropriate response is made  Ex. on a 2 min FI, a response will be reinforced  but only 2 minutes after the last reinforcement  creating a burst of response at the end of the  schedule  Variable­interval schedule (VI)­ behavior reinforced  established on average time that has passed since last  reinforcement   Ex. on a 2 min VI, responses will be reinforced  every 2 mins on average  Fixed­ratio schedule (FR)­ reinforcement is given after  a certain number of responses have been made  Ex. buy 2 get one free sales  Variable­ratio schedule (VR)­ reinforcement based on a particular average number of responses  Ex. you have a 1/10 chance of winning the lottery,  but if you buy 10 tickets that doesn’t mean you’ll  win; you can also win if you just buy one  Latent learning­ something that is learned but not established as a  behavioral change until a later time  Observational learning­ learning by watching others  o Coaches may rely on this when trying to teach how to play a  sport o Children look to adults to see what they do and to copy o Found in animals as well o important elements of observational learning  Attention to the behavior which might be learned  Retention of the observed scene when the opportunity  arises later to exploit the learning  Motivation to reproduce observed behavior  Potential/opportunity to reproduce behavior o 2 characteristics that strengthen observational learning  Model is admired  Positive reinforcement is evident o Bandura’s findings about observational learning were  significant for showing that learning of social rules and  behavior can take place in a social context  without  direct  reinforcement Chapter 8:  Entrapment ­ A gradual process in which individuals escalate their  commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time,  money or effort    Social cognition ­ an area in social psychology concerned with social  influences on thought, memory, perception and other cognitive  processes  Conformity – the Asch experiments, characteristics that increase  likelihood of conformity  Correspondence bias – (fundamental attribution error )– interpret  other’s bx w/ dispositional explanations  Actor­observer effect (self­serving bias) – I’m good – dispositional,  I’m bad, situational  just­world hypothesis   Hostile attribution bias  validity effect/the big lie  Milgram’s experiment –  o what did this show?  o What proportion of people consistently gave potentially lethal  shocks?  o Why do people obey when they feel bad about it? (Lecture 2/1)  Stanford Prison Experiment  Bystander effect, bystander apathy –   Deindividuation –   Altruism – under what conditions are we inclined to help?


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