Psychology Exam 1 Review
Psychology Exam 1 Review PSYC 101 03
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lexie Renouard on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 03 at Gonzaga University taught by Anna Medina in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
Reviews for Psychology Exam 1 Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/01/16
Exam 1 Review (Ch. 1, 2, 7, 12) (**Be sure to look at and study previous quizzes**) Chapter 1: Empirical evidence is evidence found through experimentation or observation Wilhelm Wundt – founder of scientific psychology, said psychology should be focused on consciousness, focused on structuralism and introspection William James – a psychologist who said that behavior was innately functional and served a purpose, functionalism Sigmund Freud – first to explore clinical psychology, founded ideas of hysteria stemming from childhood trauma in the unconscious, created psychoanalysis, thought he could cure psych disorders by making people remember traumas Structuralism the analysis of the basic element of the mind Functionalism the study of the purpose of the mental process Psychoanalysis bringing unconscious material to conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders Perspectives on human experience and behavior: o Biological perspective – explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities preserved by natural selection o Learning perspective – emphasizes environmental influence (models, reinforcers, punishers) on behavior o Cognitive perspective – emphasizes information processing (thoughts, beliefs) that are the causes of behavior o Sociocultural perspective – study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological process of its members and the causes and consequences of sociality Chapter 2: What makes psychology a science? Precise descriptions, reliable observations, emphasis on replicable findings, genteel skepticism, objectivity, relying on the facts Operational definition defining something specific to the study to make it replicable (ex. I want to study if violent videogames make people more violent. Define how you will measure violence.) Principle of falsifiability you should be capable of being shown you are wrong Confirmation bias the natural tendency to ignore evidence against your original ideas Case study a process of research focused on the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time Observational studies studies where findings are based on observations Naturalistic observation observing an organism without manipulating its environment Laboratory observation observing an organism in a lab Representative sample a sample of a statistic that represents the whole population Independent variable the variable that stays the same/steady (ex. time) Dependent variable the variable that changes (ex. rhino population) Descriptive statistics numbers that summarize the general data o Correlations (both positive and negative) Directionality problems x doesn’t always depend on y, y may depend on x o A child’s literacy is low because he lives in a harsh household; the household may be harsh because of the child doing poorly in school rd 3 variable problems a third variable may be causing the problem o The bad neighborhood caused the child to do poorly in school Chapter 7: In this example find the following: Charlie eats a poptart and throws up. Now, even the smell of a poptart makes him feel sick. o Conditioned Stimulus:_________________________________ o Unconditioned Stimulus:_______________________________ o Unconditioned Response:______________________________ o Conditioned Response:________________________________ Answers: CS: eating a poptart UCS: smell of the poptart CR: feeling sickk Extinction over time a conditioned response will die out if not reinforced regularly (after several years Charlie can eat poptarts again) Stimulus Generalization generalizing a conditioned stimulus to another similar stimulus (Charlie also couldn’t stand the smell of fruity gum) Stimulus Discrimination being able to discriminate against different stimuli (Charlie wasn’t bothered by real fruit) Temporal Conditioning the conditioned stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus (The bell is rung and then food is given) Operant Conditioning conditioning behaviors instead of involuntary responses o reinforcement/reinforcers – both positive and negative; increases chance of behavior being repeated; positive is when you add something, negative is when you take something away o punishment/punishers both pos. and neg.; decreases the chance of it happening again o Reinforcement Schedules Fixedinterval schedule (FI) reinforcers are given at fixed times given that the appropriate response is made Ex. on a 2 min FI, a response will be reinforced but only 2 minutes after the last reinforcement creating a burst of response at the end of the schedule Variableinterval schedule (VI) behavior reinforced established on average time that has passed since last reinforcement Ex. on a 2 min VI, responses will be reinforced every 2 mins on average Fixedratio schedule (FR) reinforcement is given after a certain number of responses have been made Ex. buy 2 get one free sales Variableratio schedule (VR) reinforcement based on a particular average number of responses Ex. you have a 1/10 chance of winning the lottery, but if you buy 10 tickets that doesn’t mean you’ll win; you can also win if you just buy one Latent learning something that is learned but not established as a behavioral change until a later time Observational learning learning by watching others o Coaches may rely on this when trying to teach how to play a sport o Children look to adults to see what they do and to copy o Found in animals as well o important elements of observational learning Attention to the behavior which might be learned Retention of the observed scene when the opportunity arises later to exploit the learning Motivation to reproduce observed behavior Potential/opportunity to reproduce behavior o 2 characteristics that strengthen observational learning Model is admired Positive reinforcement is evident o Bandura’s findings about observational learning were significant for showing that learning of social rules and behavior can take place in a social context without direct reinforcement Chapter 8: Entrapment A gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money or effort Social cognition an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception and other cognitive processes Conformity – the Asch experiments, characteristics that increase likelihood of conformity Correspondence bias – (fundamental attribution error )– interpret other’s bx w/ dispositional explanations Actorobserver effect (selfserving bias) – I’m good – dispositional, I’m bad, situational justworld hypothesis Hostile attribution bias validity effect/the big lie Milgram’s experiment – o what did this show? o What proportion of people consistently gave potentially lethal shocks? o Why do people obey when they feel bad about it? (Lecture 2/1) Stanford Prison Experiment Bystander effect, bystander apathy – Deindividuation – Altruism – under what conditions are we inclined to help?
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'