Psych 288 Week1-4 Study Guide Objectives and Explanations
Psych 288 Week1-4 Study Guide Objectives and Explanations Psych 288
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by mkennedy24 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 288 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. S. Gervais in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology 288 Study Guide 02022016 1 Objective Understand the different perspectives of social behavior including social personality amp sociology Social Psychology focuses on how individuals are in uenced by their CONSTRUAL of social situations oWHY Personality psych and social psych examples oYou have a at tire and your friend drives right past and does not help Personalitv Psvch Your friend is a bad person and you should probably nd a new friend Social Psych Your friend didn t even see you they are having issues of their own at the moment o During an exam you classmate keeps looking at your paper Personality Psych The classmate is cheating Social Psvch Maybe there is a confusing part in the exam and your classmate wanted to see if you understood Sociology Social Psychology Personality Psychology Provides general laws Studies the psychological Studies the characteristics and theories about processes people have in that make individuals societies and not common with one unique and different from individuals another that make them on another susceptible to social in uence 2 Objective What is a construal The way a person perceives comprehends and interprets a social situation eg Your boss has not responded to her email for a week How would you respond 3 Objective Describe the correspondence bias the fundamental attribution error and selfserving attributionsbiases in terms of situational and dispositional in uences How does culture affect these 0 People perceive correspondence between behavior and personality Think one s values attitudes beliefs and opinions will determine behavior quotCausal Misattributionquot o The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other peoples behaviors is due to internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Westerners more likely to commit FAE Explanations for one s successes that credit internal dispositional factors and explanations for one s failures that blame external situational factors 0 A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things will happen to bad people and good things will happen to good people 0 My own success is due to internal dispositional factors BUT my own failures are due to external situational factors 0 The tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attribution biases in their thinking than we are Culture affects the above tendencies and attributions by the different environments that humans are susceptible to in different cultures just like the example that is often given in the book about Westerners and East Asian Cultures East Asian is more likely to consider situational because they have a holistic way of thinking due to the culture in which they grew up Westerners an open to the analytical way of think in which they rely on the internal attributions and are more likely to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error 4 Objective What are the 3 primary data collection techniques used in social psychology What question does each answer 0 The technique whereby the researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior Question answered Describing social behavior o The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them ie how much one can be predicted from the other is assessed Question answered Prediction 0 The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures the these conditions are identical except for the independent variable the one thought to have causal effects on people s responses 5 Objective Describe the pros and cons of observational correlational and experimental research Which is the quotgold standardquot of psychology Observational 0 Pros Gives researchers the ability to observe cultures and other such things 0 Cons Some things cannot be observed Observing may make what is being observed act differently Correlational 0 Pros Relationship between two variables can be measured and assessed 0 Cons Correlation does not mean causation 0 Experimental 0 Pros The only way to determine causal relationships 0 Cons Hard to make reallife experiments since the experiment itself may not happen in real life at that time o The experimental method is sometimes referred to as the Gold Standard 6 Objective What is the difference between internal and external validity The extent to which results of a study can be generalized to situations and people 0 Make sure that nothing besides the independents variable can affect the dependent variable 0 Keep all variables constant but change the independent variable eg lecture versus discussion 7 Objective What is the difference between mundane realism and psychological realism Make experiment similar to reallife situations Psychological processes in your experiment similar to psychological processes in everyday life 8 Objective Understand experimental designs eg how many independent variables and conditions for each of the independent variables does a 2 X 3 design contain What about a 2 X 2 X 2 design 0 2X3 6 Variables Remember athlete versus non athlete in lecture shooting baskets 2X2X2 8 Variables 9 Objective Differentiate between automatic and controlled thinking When are we likely to use each 0 Thought that is unconscious unintentional involuntary and effortless 0 First impression slamming car brake when child runs into road 0 Thought that is conscious intentional voluntary and effortful 0 Whether or not to break up with boyfriendgirlfriend 10 Objective What is the function of a schema Mental structures people us to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that in uence the info that people notice think about and remember 0 Functional Guide attention and memory help us interpret ambiguous situations 0 Many schemas could be applied to each situation 11 Objective Explain the 3 steps of the SelfFul lling Prophecy forming expectancy perceptual con rmation and behavioral con rmation 0 Step 1 Forming an expectancy 0 Category based 0 Personal experiences rst impression o Implicit personality theories Theories of what kinds of personality traits go together 0 Step 2 Perceptual Con rmation 0 We see what we expect to see 0 People say quot I wouldn t have believed it if I hadn t seen itquot 0 But we should really say quotI wouldn t have seen it if I hadn t already believed itquot 0 We are not aware of this process Automatic 0 Step 3 Behavioral Con rmation o Expectations lead us to behave in such a way that the target unintentionally con rms our expectation 0 Believe target is unfriendly 0 Act unfriendly towards target 0 Target responds with unfriendly behavior 12 Objective Understand each of the following heuristics availability representativenessbase rate anchoring and adjustment 0 Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and ef ciently Types ofjudgment heuristic o A general rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind 0 A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Barnum Effect 0 Info about the frequency of member of different categories in a population 0 Using a numeric value as a starting point and then adjusting one s answer away from this anchor Useful if anchor value is valid Errors if anchor value invalid USUALLY DO NOT ADJUST ENOUGH 13 Objective In Wegner s theory of thought suppression discuss how the automaticmonitoring and controlledoperating processes work togetheragainst each other 0 Automatic Monitoring Process Search for evidence of unwanted thought Controlled Operating Process Distract self by nding something else to think about 0 Processes are ironic 0 Not always bene cial 14 Objective What is counterfactual thinking Provide an example of when counterfactual thinking leads people to feel bad and feel good 0 Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been 0 Feel good example 0 Feel bad example 15 Objective Name the 6 universal emotions and their importance 0 Anger Disgust Surp se Fear 0 Happiness Sadness 16 Objective What does research on mirror neurons suggest Mirror Neurons 0 When we see a nonverbal behavior of another same neurons re as if we did behavior 0 Implications Learning Perspectivetaking 17 Objective Understand Kelley s Attribution Model and when consistency distinctiveness and consensus information leads us to make internal or external attributions for others behavior Why did the Boss yell at his employee Hannah People are likely to Low in Low in High in make an internal consensus The distinctiveness consistency The boss attribution it was boss is the only The boss yells at yells at Hannah something about the boss person working in all the almost every time he if they see this behavior as the store who yells employees sees her at Hannah People are likely to High in High in High in make an external consensus All of distinctiveness consistency The boss attribution it was the employees yell The boss doesn t yells at Hannah something about Hannah if at Hannah too yell at any of the almost every time he they see this behavior as other employees sees her People are likely to Low or Low or Low in think it was something high in consensus high in consistency This is peculiar about the particular distinctiveness the rst time that the circumstances in which the boss has yelled at boss yelled at Hannah if they Hannah see this behavior as 18 Objective How does the actorobserver effect relate to perspective taking Under what circumstances should we make internal and external attributions for behavior 0 Others behavior more dispositional than own 0 Commit FAE more for others behavior Why In part a perceptual bias I Actor focuses on the situation a Observer focuses on the actor
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