HIST10 Midterm 1 Study Guide
HIST10 Midterm 1 Study Guide Hist 10
Popular in World History 1
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christien Ng on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Test#1 Review Sheet Monday, February 1, 2016 1:36 PM -76% of the test will be derived from the terms on this list -all terms are in the lecture notes, thereadings or both -the remainder of the test will consist of questions from your TA and the discussion sections * ** Mesopotamia • The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; the land "between the rivers." Sumerians(/mesopotamians) (3000 BCE) • The creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization • Made outstanding achievements in mathematics and astronomy ○ Math: number system based on 60, using combinations of 6 and 10 for practical solutions ○ Geometry: used to measure fields and erect buildings ○ Astronomy: made use of units 60 and charted constellations; calendar was based on 12 lunar months and was adjusted as time went on my adding an extra month from time to time to bring into harmony w the solar system Sargon 2340BC • First big leader • Leader of the Akkadians (who lived to the north of the Sumerians) • Overran the Sumerian city-states and established a dynastic empire • His empire included all of Mesopotamia as well as lands westward to the Mediterranean • Was eventually attacked by neighboring hill peoples that caused the Akkadian empire to fall Hammurabi (1792 -1750BC) • Next in control of much of Mesopotamia • Ruled over the Amorites/Old Babylonians • Had a good army ○ Well-disciplined army of foot soldiers who carried axes, spears, and copper/bronze daggers ○ Learned to divide his opponents and subdue them one by one • Next in control of much of Mesopotamia • Ruled over the Amorites/Old Babylonians • Had a good army Well-disciplined army of foot soldiers who carried axes, spears, and ○ copper/bronze daggers ○ Learned to divide his opponents and subdue them one by one • Gained control of Sumer and Akkad • "the sun of Babylon", "shepherd to his people • Man of war and peace • Took strong interest in state affairs ○ Built temples, defensive walls, and irrigation canals; encouraged trade; and brought about an economic revival • After his death, the kings after him were unable to sustain the empire Hammurabi built and it fell to new invaders • Code of Hammurabi (Collection of 282 laws) ○ Crime: "eye for an eye" § Crimes you commit on another person will be punished by having them happen to you too; "as he has injured the other, so he is to be injured" ○ Marriage: § Arranged marriages w/ contract to legitimize ○ Women's rights § Her place was in the home § If divorced, she would get some assets ○ Sexual relations § Husbands but not wives were permitted sexual activity outside marriage § Wives would be punished harsher than men NileRiver • Egypt • Crucial to the development of Egyptian civilization • Begins in the heart of Africa coursing northward for thousands of miles • Its banks were fertile and very capable of producing abundant harvests ○ Annual flooding "miracle" § The river rose in the summer from rains in Central Africa, crested in Egypt in September and October, and left a deposit of silt that enriched the soil in the fertile land ("Black Land") • Fastest means of travel, making transportation and communication easier Menes (3100 BCE) • King who united upper and lower Egypt • Ran first Egyptian royal dynasty. • Wore a special red and white crown to symbolize the unity of the two kingdoms. • Also known as Narmer, a Pharaoh who unified the north and south. Menes (3100 BCE) • King who united upper and lower Egypt • Ran first Egyptian royal dynasty. • Wore a special red and white crown to symbolize the unity of the two kingdoms. • Also known as Narmer, a Pharaoh who unified the north and south. ○ Pharaohs were given divine right over kingdoms and were considered gods amongst men acting as part of a universal structure. A breakdown in the royal power would indicate that the citizens were offending divinity and weakening the universal structure Khufu (2500 BCE) • Egyptian Pharaoh that built the largest and most astounding pyramids of Egypt (the Great pyramid of Giza) Nubia (northern part of modern Sudan) • Major source of treasured materials: ivory, ebony, frankincense, gold • Egyptian tributary Harkhuf • governor of southern upper Egypt who journeyed extensively throughout Nubia. His tomb engravings can tell us about Egyptian society Hyksos • Invaded Egypt ○ Used horse chariots and overwhelmed the Egyptian soldiers who fought from donkey carts ○ Influenced bronze on Egyptians Hatshepsut( 16th century BCE) • First female pharaoh • Extended Egyptian trade and oversaw ambitious building projects, most notably the Temple of Deir el Bahri, located in western Thebes, where she would be buried. • Depicted (at her own orders) as a male in many contemporary images and sculptures (referred to as "His Majesty"). • Great builder of temples/monuments. • Consolidated Egypt after Hyksos. Tuthmosis III 16th century BCE) • Hatshepsut's nephew, pharaoh, big role in expansion of Egypt influence in Africa, built the Egyptian empire. Also known as the "warrior pharaoh". Builds first Egyptian Empire and creates buffer zones in the Near East. Amenhotep IV (14th century BCE) • Introduced monotheism, wanted to change religion, take sun god, Aten, and elevate him to chief deity in the pantheon, renamed himself Akhenaten (servant of Aten in latin), son was Tutunkhamun (returned the government to Thebes and restored the old gods). • His preoccupation with religion caused him to ignore foreign affairs and led to • Introduced monotheism, wanted to change religion, take sun god, Aten, and elevate him to chief deity in the pantheon, renamed himself Akhenaten (servant of Aten in latin), son was Tutunkhamun (returned the government to Thebes and restored the old gods). • His preoccupation with religion caused him to ignore foreign affairs and led to the loss of both Syria and Canaan. • Egyptians went back to the old gods after he died. Kush • At the end of the second millennium BC, Nubia profited from the disintegration of the Egyptian New Kingdom to become the independent state of Kush • Although its economy was founded primarily on agriculture and animal raising, Kush developed into a major trading state in Africa that endured for hundreds of years • Kush and Meroë supplied goods from Central and East Africa (ivory, gold, ebony, and slaves, to the Romans, Arabia, and India Indo-Europeans( 3000 BCE) • Amongst the most important nomadic peoples • Languages include Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, Germanic and Slavic • Based in modern Iran/Afghanistan, but ~2000BC, they began to move into Europe, India, and western Asia Hittites (1600 BC) - • A group of Indo -Europeans who moved into modern Turkey ~1759BC • They formed their own empire in western Asia and even threatened the power of the Egyptiians • The first of the Ind-Europeans to make use of iron • Borrowed much of its culture from Mesopotamia as well as from the native peoples they had subdued • Important bc they transmitted Mesopotamian culture to later civilizations in the Mediterranean area, especially to the Mycenaean Greeks Assyrian Empire (2500 BC - 605 BC) • The first to unite almost all of the ancient Middle East • Destroyed Samaria and overran the southern kingdom of Israel and began assault on the kingdom of Judah • Deported many Hebrews to other parts of the Assyrian Empire • They failed to take Jerusalem and thus Judah remained independent, although it was forced to pay tribute to the Assyrians New Babylonian Empire (626 BC- 539BC) • After the fall of Assyrian Empire, the Chaldeans made Babylonia the leading state in western Asia. • King Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt Babylonia as the center of his empire, which was short lived due to the take over by Persia (Cyrus the Great) Phoenicians New Babylonian Empire (626 BC- 539BC) • After the fall of Assyrian Empire, the Chaldeans made Babylonia the leading state in western Asia. • King Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt Babylonia as the center of his empire, which was short lived due to the take over by Persia (Cyrus the Great) Phoenicians • Were great international sea traders • Established a number of colonies in the western Mediterranean, including settlements in southern Spain, Sicily, and Sardina • Best known as transmitters ○ Instead of using pictographs, they simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent the sounds of their speech • Significant bc their alphabet is the one passed on to the Greeks; and then Greek to Roman Minoans • Earliest civilization in Greek • Were not Greek: didn’t speak Greek language, culture or religion • Centered at Knossus on Crete • Disappearance most likely from Mycenaeans Myceneans • Replaced Minoans around 1400 BC • First Greeks(spoke Greek, shared Greek culture and religion) • arrived in Greece in 1600 bc while Minoans were still around; Minoans taught Mycenaean arts of civilization(art, trade, read, write); Not a unified Mycenae state, but divided into several independent city states with Mycenae as its strongest. • Destroyed by Barbarian tribes from North (1100 BC). • PYLOS-place where records survived Homer • Created and wrote the first great epic poems of Greece: the Iliad ○ (about Trojan War, people and society and how the wrath of Achilles led to disaster)and the Odyssey (epic romance about journeys of Odysseus from fall of Troy until his eventual return to his wife Penelope 20yrs later) • IMPORTANCE: 1. Gave the Greeks an idealized past with legendary age of heroes and came to be used as standard texts for the education in Greece § Good universal model as to how men and women should behave: heroism, honor, and nobility 2. works depicted Dark Age: society based on agriculture valuing aristocratic values of courage and honor (ARETE) Dark Age (1100-800 BCE) • After collapse of Mycenaeans: § Good universal model as to how men and women should behave: heroism, honor, and nobility 2. works depicted Dark Age: society based on agriculture valuing aristocratic values of courage and honor (ARETE) Dark Age (1100-800 BCE) • After collapse of Mycenaeans: ○ population plummets; 95% of people are gone ○ Mycenae architecture stops and people forget how to read and write; no one settled there after; ○ Greeks left mainland, migrated across the Aegean Sea and most went to Ionia. Pylos shows evidence of Dark Age ○ Polis (500BC) • Greek cit-state • Consisted of a city, town, or village was the focus, a central point where the citizens of t olis could assemble for political, social, and religious activities • Community of citizens in which all political, economic, social, cultural, and religious activities were focused • Consisted of: ○ citizens with political rights (adult males) ○ citizens w no political rights (women and children) ○ Noncitizens (slaves and resident aliens) Hoplite • Heavily armed infantrymen who wore bronze or leather helmets, breastplates, and shin guards • Each carried a round shield, a short sword, and a 9ft spear • Went into battle in formation of a phalanx (rectangle formation) • Each hoplite provided his own armor Sparta • Most famous oligarchy • Lycurgus reforms made Sparta into a military state by implementing separate living barracks for men (soldiers) • slaves were helots(Messenians and Laconians) • two kings shared power with a coucil of elders ○ (consisted of 28 citizens 60+yrs old, elected for life) ○ Primary task was to prepare proposals that would be presented to the assembly ○ did not debate, only voted on proposals ○ They were the ones to elect the assembly • highly self-disciplined • women well-respected for bearing children • Isolated POLIS. ○ did not debate, only voted on proposals ○ They were the ones to elect the assembly • highly self-disciplined • women well-respected for bearing children • Isolated POLIS. Helots • Messenians and laconians reduced to helots (capture), or serfdom and worked for Sparta, Oligarchy • type of polis; ruled by few • most greek polis' were oligarchy • only hoplites exercised political power; women, aliens, slaves, and poor males had no political power • 10% of populations had political rights Athens • most famous democracy under democratic rule • POLIS • by 700 b.c., Athens had established a unified POLIS on the peninsula of Attica. • GOVT: land and controlled political life controlled by council of nobles, assisted by a board of nine archons. • RULERS TIMELINE: Solon [appointed to fix Athen's problems of farmers sold into slavery; Pisistratus-tyrant after Solon's failure to redistribute land to poor; Cleisthenes: Created "council of five hundred" which passed laws regarding foreign, financial and business affairs after free and open debate. ; Themistocles: introduced new military policy (the navy) in battle against Persians Solon • chosen by aristocrats • reform-minded • given full power to make changes • becomes sole archon; canceled all land debts, outlawed new loans based on humans as collateral, and freed people who had fallen into slavery because of debt. ○ Reforms did not solve Athen's problems. He refused to carry out land redistribution and thus failed to deal with the basic cause of the economic problem which led to tyranny. • Credited for having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. Democracy • Rule by many • Athens • very rare • all male citizens regardless of wealth were allowed to participate politically. Democracy • Rule by many • Athens • very rare • all male citizens regardless of wealth were allowed to participate politically. • military glory = political power • only 25% had political rights Cyrus II (559-530 BCE) • Persian king responsible for vast area of Persia • when he took over the Persians controlled a tiny area, known as the Persian gulf • Great leadership, very good and very large army, effective imperial administration, and religion allowed for great success of vast amount of conquered land. Believed it was "holy warfare" (gods wanted him to do it) Darius I 521-486BC • Persian King during Ionian Revolt • Assembles the largest empire the world has yet seen • Ionian Greeks rise up in revolt against Persia, ○ Athens are only polis to try and help them ○ Ionians crushed by Persia • Used fear to control empire of conquered people ○ wants to make example out of those who revolt ○ Decides to punish Athens for aiding Ionians in Battle of Marath ails § Athenian victory Battle ofMarathon 490BC • Darius I vs Ionian cities+Athens • Athenians defeat Persians (7000 dead PA vs. 192 Athenians dead); REASONSl: free men fighting against slaves, homefield advantage, hoplite armor, Persian soldiers were subjects forced to fight; Themistocles (524-459 BCE)(Athenian politician. General in the Battle of Marathon) Persian War (492-449 BCE) • Series of War between the Persians (led by Xerxes) and the Greeks, consisted of three main battles (in chronological order) i. Xerxes invasion Xerxes § Darius dies 486 BC during 10 year plan to come back and invade Greece § Xerxes succeeds Darius but is not a great military leader like his father, made several mistakes that helps the Greek cause. ○ By 480BC, Athenians have a fleet of ~200 triremes ○ Xerxes has ~150,000troops, ~700ships, hundreds of supply ships for his soldiers 1. Thermopylae § Xerxes succeeds Darius but is not a great military leader like his father, made several mistakes that helps the Greek cause. ○ By 480BC, Athenians have a fleet of ~200 triremes ○ Xerxes has ~150,000troops, ~700ships, hundreds of supply ships for his soldiers 1. Thermopylae ○ **refer to videos in class ○ Greek force of ~900troops under leadership of Spartan king, Leonidas and his 300Spartans ○ Xerxes wins because despite hoplite armor, a traitor told Persians about a secret path to sneak attack the Spartans ○ Spartans lose til last man 2. Salamis ○ Following shortly after Thermopylae; Xerxes vs Athenian trireme ○ Athenians flee in fear ○ While Persians destroy Athens, they still fought offshore near the island of Salamis ○ Although the Greeks were outnumbered, they managed to outmaneuver the Persian fleet and win § Trimemes may have been slower than Persian ships, but amount of space to move around was limited. Greeks at adv with slower, but stronger ships ○ Greeks win 3. Platea 479BC ○ Last big battle of the war ○ Greeks now form the largest Greek army at the time and defeat the Persians (70,000 Persians vs 40,000 hoplite) ○ home field advantage, hoplite armor, most of soldiers weren't even Persian so no motivation ○ Persia never attacked the Greeks again. ○ Greeks victorious and were now free to pursue their own destiny § Greece will now develop a more independent civilization. The Golden/Classical Age of Greece = Architecture, Art, Mathematics, Science, Literature. Delian League/Athenian Empire 4(78 BC) • Athenians take over the leadership of the Greek world by forming a defensive alliance against the Persians called the Delian League. • Under the leadership of the Athenians, the Delian League pursued the attack against the Persian Empire. By controlling the Delian League, Athens had created an empire. • Continued to exist even after Persian threat eliminated, but Athenians forced others to remain to pay tribute • funds used to rebuild Athens under Age of Pericles Pericles (495-429 BCE) against the Persian Empire. By controlling the Delian League, Athens had created an empire. • Continued to exist even after Persian threat eliminated, but Athenians forced others to remain to pay tribute • funds used to rebuild Athens under Age of Pericles Pericles (495-429 BCE) • Leading figure in Athenian politics • General of Athens during the Persian and Peloponnesian wars • Age of Pericles marked the time period where height of Athenian power and brilliance of civilzation Assembly of 6k men voted democratically: Magistrates-1 yr term public affairs Strategoi- 10 general guided affairs • Money used from Delian League to rebuild after Persian Wars introduced STATE PAY and JURY DUTY • Expanded the Athenians' involvment in democracy ○ Power in hands of the people, male citizens voted in assemblies and served as jurors in the courts ○ Lower-class citizens were now eligible for public offices formerly closed to them ○ State pay for office holders; poor could afford to participate • Reelected 15times • Age of Pericles ○ Democratic system consisted of all male citizens 18+ ~43,000 people but not everyone went to the every 10 day meetings; ○ usually ~6,000 ○ Athens becomes leading center of Greek culture Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) • 27yr war between Athenians and the Peloponnesian League which was led by the Spartans. • Athens strategy of defense: stay within it's walls and leave no weak spots for attack and fight by naval • however, by the 2nd yr of war, a plague killed 1/3 of the pop. ○ Pericles died the following yr. • END came on Aegospotami on Hellespont. • Political outcome: Athens was reduced to a weak city -state while Sparta became the leading power. Led to next 70 yrs of petty wars; destroyed possibility of any cooperation among the states Euripides 480-406 BCE • Tragedy writer from Salamis ○ questioned traditional moral and religious values ○ Portrayed war as brutal and barbaric instead of glorious Aristophanes (446-386 BCE) Euripides 480-406 BCE • Tragedy writer from Salamis ○ questioned traditional moral and religious values ○ Portrayed war as brutal and barbaric instead of glorious Aristophanes (446-386 BCE) • comic playwright of Ancient Athens ○ Used to attack/savagely satirize politicians and intellectuals ○ Opposition to the Peloponesian War, Lysistrata § When Athens was in serious danger of losing the war, had a comic but effective message against the war Socrates (469-399 BCE) • Athenian philosopher who left no writings, but we know about him from his pupils. Socrates was a stonemason whose true love was philosophy, he taught a number of pupils, although not for pay, because he believed that the goal of education was solely to improve the individual. Founded Socratic Method: a ? and answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason Plato (429-347 BCE) • One of Socrates' disciples • considered by many the greatest philosopher of Western civilization • He wrote a great deal. • He was fascinated with the question of reality • Established a school in Athens known as the Academy • Author of The Republic Aristotle (384-322) • He was one of the pupils who studied at Plato's school in Athens. • He did not accept Plato's theory of ideal Forms. Instead he believed that by examining individual objects, we can perceive their form and arrive at universal principles; but these principles are a part of things themselves and do not exist as a separate higher world of reality beyond material things Macedonia • Macedonians were thought of a little better than barbarians. • They were divided and weak. • They had Heroic monarchy where the king was in the front lines in battle. (king did not wear anything to distinguish him from his people, no power of life or death over his people). followed by early Macedonians; reasons for weakness: since kings were ○ expected to lead in battles, they often died with no succession to throne. ○ Contrasts with absolute monarchy of Persia where the king is treated as a god • No automatic succession to the throne causing many civil wars after each king died. expected to lead in battles, they often died with no succession to throne. ○ Contrasts with absolute monarchy of Persia where the king is treated as a god • No automatic succession to the throne causing many civil wars after each king died. ○ The king rarely died of natural causes, usually assassinated by his family members. • Macedonia was literally divided into 2 parts, lower macedonia and upper macedonia (upper macedonia was divided into 7 kingdoms each with its own royal family). ○ Blessed with many natural resources, horses, and they had a huge population.(potentially the largest cavalry) ○ But always had invaders from the north and south Philip II (359-336 BC) • King of Macedonia on behalf of Amyntas (he was too young to rule). • He introduces a new weapon for the hoplite soldie rs18 ft. long spears called sarissas. • He had the biggest and best cavalry in Greece called the Companion Cavalry. • His 7th wife is Cleopata son named Caranus. Also has an older son Alexander the Great (from a different wife). • Reformed military an reunited Greece after conquering Greeks in Battle of Chaeronea • Death: body guard by the name of Pausanias stabs him to death Battle ofChaeronea(338BC) • Philip II + Macedonian army vs. Greek polis led by Athens. ○ Greek polis saw that Philip II was a big threat to their independence. ○ Polis' join together to stop him. ○ Phillips infantry and cavalry was bigger and better. ○ Philip and the Macedonians win the battle. Phillip has now conquered all of Greece, and Greece is unified. ○ ○ He demanded two things: Greeks stop fighting amongst each other and each polis must contribute hoplites for his army. He wants to lead a unified greek army in a great war of revenge against Persia. Alexander III aka Alexander the Great • son of Philip II. ○ Worried he might not become king because his birth mother was not full Macedonian, and because of the birth of Caranus (Cleopatra and Phillip's baby). ○ Philip II is killed by Pausania (Philip's bodyguard) as he meets with representatives of his empire. (might be a murder between Pausania + Alexander) ○ Alexander removes any potential threat to the throne and kills Caranus and Cleopatra. Phillip's baby). ○ Philip II is killed by Pausania (Philip's bodyguard) as he meets with representatives of his empire. (might be a murder between Pausania + Alexander) ○ Alexander removes any potential threat to the throne and kills Caranus and Cleopatra. • At age 20, he was the king of Macedonia. • The reason he decides to invade the Persian empire is because he hopes to carry on his father's legacy. • Never lost any battles. • Dies of weakened wounds, fever, and perhaps alcohol poisoning • Claimed to be descendant from Heracles (a Greek god) • Many titles: king of Macedonia, pharaoh of Egypt, Great King of the Persians… • Imitated Achilles, the warrior hero in the Iliad • Led in autocratic monarchy • IMPORTANCE: As a result of his conquests, Greek language, art, architecture, and literature spread through Middle East This Clash and fusion of different cultures; brought about the Hellenistic ○ era Battle of Granicus River • Alexander vs Persians • Alexander wins • Pursues battle in name of father's wishes • This is the first battle bt Alex. and Persians Battle of Granicus River • Alexander vs Persians • Alexander wins • Pursues battle in name of father's wishes • This is the first battle bt Alex. and Persians • REASONS for win: satraps led Persians, who underestimated their enemy Battle ofIssus (333BC) • Second major battle after Battle of Granicus River. • Darius III vs Alexander. Alex wins. • REASONS: ○ Greeks still had hoplite armor, Persians didn't ○ Greeks have the long spear that was created by Philip II when he was in charge; ○ Persian soldiers were slaves being forced to fight; little motivation ○ narrow fighting space forced Persians to confront sarissas. • Outcome of battle: ○ Persians flee east leaving the west open for Alexander ○ Darius leaves large amount of money (no more money problems) ○ Darius leaves behind mother, wife, daughter, mistress, etc (valuable hostages) Battle ofGaugamela (331 BC) • Alexander's last battle with Persia. ○ Alexander's army moves to the right. ○ Darius III sees Alexander doing his formation and tries to mimic his movements. However, as Darius' III army moves, there are huge gaps in between the Persian line. Alexander cuts into the gaps. Darius III sees him getting close and he flees. ○ Darius assassinated by his officers for being a sucky leader • At age 25, Alexander is now the king of Persia. Darius III • Persian King who fought against Alexander the Great and fled two battles before he was murdered by his own officers due to his inability to win a battle against Greece. Battle of Hydaspes River • Alexander did not want to stop conquering • Alexander vs India (led by Porus); Alex wins • This is the last campaign before Alex's men mutiny and refuse to continue • Porus was still allowed to reign over his subjects and Alex and him maintained some level of a friendship afterwards Hellenistic Empires • When Alexander died at 32 of illness, he didn't have any heirs to the throne. • The Epigoni Wars were wars between Alexander's successors/generals. • This is the last campaign before Alex's men mutiny and refuse to continue • Porus was still allowed to reign over his subjects and Alex and him maintained some level of a friendship afterwards Hellenistic Empires • When Alexander died at 32 of illness, he didn't have any heirs to the throne. • The Epigoni Wars were wars between Alexander's successors/generals. ○ Fought for 40 years. ○ The empire was then divided into 4 (main) Hellenistic empires. 1. Seleucid dynasty § General Seleucu-s the Seleucid dynasty of Syria maintained relations with Mauryan Empire. Megashenes is best known for the report on the people of Indian who remained one of the West's best sources on info until Middle Age▯. 2. Antigonid dynasty (Macedonia and Greece) § Antigonus Gonatus - grandson of Alexander's general 3. Ptolemaic dynasty § Ptolemy ▯ 4. Attalid dynasty § Attalus- Attalid dynasty as king of Pergamum • The struggle for power led to the extermination of Alexander the Great's dynasty Aeneas • founder of Alba Longa. He led the Trojan survivors out of Troy into the center of Italy to build a nation according to a god's message. Son of Aphrodite. Romulus Aeneas • founder of Alba Longa. He led the Trojan survivors out of Troy into the center of Italy to build a nation according to a god's message. Son of Aphrodite. Romulus • Son of Mars, God of War, and Rhea. • He and his twin brother (Remus) fulfills the prophecy of overthrowing Amulius. • Romulus later kills his twin brother, Remus, while in the process of building a wall for his city. • Romulus establishes Rome. Etruscans • people who lived North of Rome in Etruna • ruled Rome for about 100yrs • Rome adopted much of their culture and architecture from them Republic • A Roman polis in ways that it's like a Greek polis: 1. Citizenship 2. hoplite army, and like Sparta 3. narrow and controlled oligarchy where controlled by wealthy few Senate • Ran Rome • Had all the power • Select group of ~300men • members of the senate were elected for life • mainly patrician • Always wanted to go to war Consuls • Chief executive officers of the Roman Republic Dictator • Ruler with complete and absolute control of their respective territory/people/empire. tribal assembly • Tribunes • Passed all laws and major decisions • They approved Rome into going to war • Tribunes did not do anything without the consent of the senate. ○ This wont change until Gracchus gets elected. patricians/plebians • Patricians were wealthy people that control most of Rome political power • Plebians were everyone else: poor farmers and people without money or political power ○ This wont change until Gracchus gets elected. patricians/plebians • Patricians were wealthy people that control most of Rome political power • Plebians were everyone else: poor farmers and people without money or political power ○ struggled for equal rights praenomen/nomen/cognomen- • roman naming convention. (2 or 3 naming system)the more, names, the richer • the women's name took the feminine form of the father's second name Socii • allies of Rome whose lands surround Rome. ○ The people living in these land have a chance to fight for their citizenship and gain military glory • Had to contribute soldiers to Roman army of 500,000 men. • The conquered were treated as equals, leading to Roman success • All external threats were exterminated. Carthage • neighboring empire Rome saw them as a threat and engaged in Punic wars • Rome defeats carthage and increased sized and influence of Roman empire Punic Wars (264-146 BCE) • Set of three wars between Rome and Carthage ○ 1st , Romans resolved to conquer Sicily but realizes that it will need a naval fleet; makes one § defeats Carthaginan navy off Dicilu ○ 2nd,Rome encourages one of Carthage's Smanish allies to revolt against Carthage and Hannibal strikes back; Rome aids Spain; Spain freed of the Carthaginians ○ 3rd, Carthage destroyed; Roman soldiers burn and pull down all the buildings and sell the inhabitants into slavery § The territory of Carthage becomes a Roman province called Africa • main cause of the war was the conflict of interest between the two groups • Rome conquered Carthage's empire and became the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean. Latifundia • large estates that landed aristocrats (in Rome, second century) acquired by taking over state owned land by buying out small peasant owners. • Used for slave labor • The rise of latifundia caused the decline of small citizen farmers who were available for military service and caused them to move to cities, such as Rome, and make up a class of landless poor. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus • First politician in the new Roman Empire (after end of Roman Republic due to Roman Revolution) to be assassinated by Senate • The rise of latifundia caused the decline of small citizen farmers who were available for military service and caused them to move to cities, such as Rome, and make up a class of landless poor. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus • First politician in the new Roman Empire (after end of Roman Republic due to Roman Revolution) to be assassinated by Senate • Made it well known that the senate is not the only one that can pass laws ○ Went to the Tribal Assembly to pass new laws that the Senate refused to pass § He wanted to create new laws that would help people out of poverty and help expand the army. This was never done before. The Senate was always consulted and referred to. As the year continues he passes laws in the tribal assembly. The Senators grow discontent, even though the actions taken are still legal. What did the Senate quarrel over in the Roman Empire? Election to office: one needed to acquire power and wealth to be a candidate 1. and many wanted to be elected. 2. Policy: varying ideas of how to run Rome in regards to laws, money, how wars should be fought etc. 3. Military commander: military power translated to senate power C. Marius (107-100 BCE) • elected consul Led a battle in Africa • had to pay for his army due to lack of soldiers ( a problem Gracchus didn't solve due to his murder)-ended up defeating North Africa. Also defeated German barbarians • Asks the Senate if he can give land to these poor soldiers that served in his army ○ Senate says no but Marius goes straight to the Tribune (just like Gracchus). • Senate could not kill Marius like they did Gracchus because Marius had a whole army supporting him. ○ Soldiers from then on usually more loyal to the general than to the state. Spartacus (111-71 BCE) • Thracian gladiator that led in the Third Servile -r slave rebellion against Roman Republic (Julius Ceasar, Pompey Magnus and Marcus L. Crassus) st 1 Triumvirate • Political alliance bt Pompey, Crassus & Caesar (not formal/legal) 1. M. Licinius Crassus • Wealthiest man in all of Roman history • Served as consul with Pompey Magnus • Fought against Spartacus and slave rebellion • He helped Julius Caesar climb the political ladder of Rome. ○ (He created an alliance between Julius Caesar, poded him money in • Wealthiest man in all of Roman history • Served as consul with Pompey Magnus • Fought against Spartacus and slave rebellion • He helped Julius Caesar climb the political ladder of Rome. ○ (He created an alliance between Julius Caesar, poded him money in his campaigns to get elected), KILLED when he seeks military glory by attacking East in the empire of Parthea. ○ His head is chopped off and used in a play and his death causes a split in the alliance between Pompey and Caesar. 2. Cn. Pompeius Magnus • Most popular general • one of the 2 consuls during L. Crassus time. • Pompey also fought against Spartacus in slave rebellion • Ptolemy XIII hires agents to assassinate Pompey when he lands in Egypt • He shows Caesar the head of Pompey's slaughtered head thinking he'd be pleased, but Caesar wasn't. 3. C. Julius Caesar • Elected consul through the power and wealth of Crassus and Pompey • GOAL: Military glory. ○ Invaded Gaul, and through his military campaigns became extremely popular and wealthy ○ Developed into a remarkable military general ○ Had a very large & experienced army, would ultimately win a Civil War between himself and Pompey/Senate • In 44 BC, declared himself dictator for life • Loved by the people & his army, hated by the Senate • This combination proved to be successful until Julia, Julius Caesar's daughter and the wife of his alliance Pompey, died • Usually Roman elite divorced often after alliances broke, but Julia and Pompey were actually in love. Final end when Crassus dies Gallic War 58-50 BCE) • A series of military campaigns waged by Julius Caesar against Gallic tribes • Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic • the wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the sole ruler of Rome. Julia • Daughter of Julius Caesar • Helped relationship between Caesar and Pompey • When she died during childbirth, it was the first blow to the alliance (1st Triumvirate) 2 Civil War • Fearing that J. Caesar had become too powerful, Pompey & the Senate aimed to take him down, launching a series of battles between the two powers • When she died during childbirth, it was the first blow to the alliance (1st Triumvirate) nd 2 Civil War • Fearing that J. Caesar had become too powerful, Pompey & the Senate aimed to take him down, launching a series of battles between the two powers • Ultimately, Julius Caesar wins in 45 BC & declared himself dictator. BattleofPharsalus • The decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War; Caesar vs. Pompey; Caesar wins: Reason:??? Cleopatra VII • Sister to Ptolemy XIII • took the throne at 19 after his death and soon had a child wCaesar named Caesarian • Cleopatra kills her brother in order to ensure that Caesarian would inherit the Egyptian kingdom • Lives with Caesar in Rome awhile until he is killed and then returns to Egypt • Antonius later falls in love with her, divorces his Roman wife (Octavius's sister), marries Cleopatra, and she later gives birth to his twins. Ptolemy XV Caesarion (44-30 BCE) • Last king in the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt; only ruled for 11 days before being assassinated by Octavian's men. Cleopatra's son with Caesar M. Junius Brutus (58-42 BCE) • Politician of the late Roman Republic • one of the leaders behind the assassination of Julius Caesar. C. CassiusLonginus • Conspired with J. Brutus to-assassinate J. Caesar • Once they had killed him, Brutus/Cassius & the rest of the assassins fled East • Committed suicide after being beaten by Octavius and Antonius. M. Antonius (43-33 BCE) • Roman politician and general • critical in turning the Roman Republic form an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire • formed the Second Triumvirate • had an affair with Cleopatra • was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium • committed suicide. C. Octavius (27 BC-14 AD) • Also known as Augustus • The founder of the Roman Empire and it's first Emperor • Julius Caesar's adopted son and heir • founder of the Second Triumvirate • created a constitutional framework known as the Principate • Also known as Augustus • The founder of the Roman Empire and it's first Emperor • Julius Caesar's adopted son and heir • founder of the Second Triumvirate • created a constitutional framework known as the Principate • brought on an era of "Pax Romana" or Roman Peace • reformed taxation, developed networks of roads, established an army and the Praetorian Guard and police and fire -fighting services, and rebuilt much of the city. M. Tullius Cicero • Widely considered to be Rome's greatest orator. Wrote "On the Laws", a dialogue about natural law(a primary source in our readings) M. Aemilius Lepidus • one of the 2nd triumvirate who holds the $$$ nd 2 Triumvirate • ("triumvirate" =alliance)Gaius Octavius Caesar, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. BattleofPhilippi (42 BC) • Armies of Brutus and Cassius vs. the armies of Antonius and Octavius • Brutus and Cassius had controlled the east before this battle • After this, Antonius and Octavius now controlled the whole empire • (East given to Antonius, West given to Octavius) BattleofActium (31 BCE) • Decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic • Octavius vs. Marcus Antonius in naval warfare • This battle lead to octavius/augustus to consolidate power in Rome • Here, Octavius claims to wage war on Cleopatra in hopes of forcing Antonius into fighting(which worked) • Octavius' navy destroys Cleopatra and Antonius' navy • The Republic of Rome becomes an empire and Octavius becomes Rome's first emperor • Marks the end of the last of the Hellenistic Empires, end of the Roman Republic, and beginning of Roman monarchy.
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