Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide MUSI 3763
Popular in Music History 1600-1800
Popular in Music
Bradford MacGyver DDS
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aubrie Bowlan on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI 3763 at Oklahoma State University taught by Allen Scott in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Music History 1600-1800 in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Aubrie Bowlan MUSI 3763 1. FROM RENAISSANCE TO BAROQUE ◦ Affections Baroque- abnormal, bizarre, exaggerated, or in bad taste Dramatic Affections- Emotions such as sadness, joy, anger, love, etc. (Descartes) ◦ First and Second Practice Monteverdi explained that in first practice (the traditional form), the music had to follow the rules. In the new second practice, voice- leading rules were broken and dissonances created. ◦ Basso Continuo Basso Continuo- Where the composer wrote out the melody and the bass line but left it to the performers to fill in the appropriate chords or inner parts Continuo instruments- Harpsichord, organ, lute, or theorbo Figured bass- Where the accidentals or inversions were written in symbols Realization- The actual playing of the bass ◦ Concertato medium ◦ Combining voices with instruments that played different parts ◦ Concerto- Contrasting forces are brought together in a harmonious ensemble ◦ Concerted madrigal- One or more voices, sometimes with melody instruments ◦ Sacred concerto- Sacred vocal work with instruments ◦ Chords, counterpoint, and rhythm ◦ Greater dissonances were tolerated ◦ Driven by harmonious chords ◦ Flexible rhythms for recitatives, regular rhythms in dance music ◦ Bar lines more popular, creating measures ◦ Ornaments and improvisation ◦ Two ways to ornament: trills, turns, appoggiaturas, etc. or scales and arpeggios ◦ Called division, diminution, or figuration ◦ Cadenzas- laborate passages decorating important cadences in arias ◦ From modal to tonal Music started operating within the system of major and minor keys familiar from music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 2. RENAISSANCE ANTECEDENTS OF OPERA ◦ Sources for opera Pastoral drama- play in verse with music and songs interspersed Madrigal comedy or madrigal cycle Intermedio- a musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, or mythological subset performed between acts of a play ◦ Florentine Camerata Galilei-Dialogo della musica antica et della moderna Argued against vocal counterpoint by saying that only a single line of melody could express a given line of poetry by matching the inflections of a natural speech pattern Monody- accompanies solo singing practiced in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s Le nuove musiche (The New Music)- Caccini’s songs for solo voice with continuo Arias- setting of strophic poetry Solo madrigal- Through-composed settings of nonstrophic poems Caccini- Placed ornaments to enhance the text and not just to display vocal virtuosity 3. THE FIRST OPERAS ◦ Rinuccini & Peri Dafne- Performed in 1598 and considered the first opera L’Euridice- Libretto by Caccini; earliest surviving complete opera Recitative style- More speech-song 2 Sinfonia- Abstract ensemble piece, especially one that serves as a prelude Ritornello- An instrumental refrain Monteverdi Strophic variation- Varying the melody and the duration of the harmonies to reflect the accentuation and meaning of the text Monody, duets, dances, and ensemble madrigals and ballettos Stile Concitato Excited style Rapid reiteration on a single note Arioso- In between recitative and aria style 4. THE SPREAD OF ITALIAN OPERA Florence Francesca Caccini- Daughter or Giulio Caccini Rome Librettist Giulio Rospigliosi Distinct difference between recitative and aria Castrati- Men who were castrated before puberty to preserve their high vocal range (since women were banned from the stage) Venice First public opera house in 1637 Cavalli (pupil of Monteverdi, Giasone) and Cesti (Orontea) Main characteristics of Italian opera Concentration on solo singing, the separation of recit and aria, and the use of varied styles 5. VOCAL CHAMBER MUSIC Secular concerted works Concerted madrigals- Instrumental accompaniment with basso continuo Ostinato bass Pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes Usually in triple meter and 2,4, or 8 measures long Chacona- Dance-song imported from the Spanish colonies into Spain and then into Italy 3 Guitar- most popular plucked or strummed instrument in Spain Cantata “To be sung” Secular composition with continuo, usually for solo voice, and consisting of several sections that included both recitatives and arias Air de cour? 6. CATHOLIC SACRED MUSIC Stile antico and moderno Old style and modern style Sacred concertos Incorporated basso continuo, concertato medium, monody, and operatic styles Small sacred concertos- one or more soloists accompanied by organ continuo and often by one or two violins Large sacred concertos- Two or more choirs (cori spezzati), vocal soloists, instrumental ensemble, and one or more organs on continuo Oratorio Religious dramatic music combining narrative, dialogue, and commentary Carissimi (Jephte) In Italian or Latin 7. LUTHERAN CHURCH MUSIC Heinrich Schutz Studied with Gabrieli Motets and sacred concertos on texts from the Bible Historia Musical setting based on a biblical narrative Passion- Musical setting of the story of Jesus’s crucifixion 4 8. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Broad categories Keyboard or lute pieces in improvisatory style- toccata, fantasia, or prelude Fugal pieces in continuous imitative counterpoint- ricercare, fantasia, capriccio, or fugue Pieces with contrasting sections, often in imitative counterpoint- canzona or sonata Settings of existing melodies- organ verse or chorale prelude Pieces that vary a given melody line- variations or partita Pieces that vary a given chorale line- chorale variations Pieces that vary a given bass line- chaconne or passacaglia Dances and other pieces in stylized dance rhythms- suite Toccata Played on harpsichord as chamber music or the organ as service music Frescobaldi (Fiori Musicali) Organ masses Froberger Ricercare Serious composition for organ or harpsichord in which one subject or them is continuously developed in imitation Fugue: Germans began applying this term to serious pieces that treat one theme in continuous imitation Fantasia Imitative work on a larger scale than a ricercare Sweelinck and Scheidt Treating the subject in rhythmic augmentation or diminution (in shorter durations) Canzona Rhythmic themes and a more lively character than ricercares Sonata Any piece for instruments Settings of existing melodies Chorale preludes Variations 5 Keyboard and lute variations on borrowed or newly composed themes Cantus-firmus mass- Melody is repeated with little change but is surrounded by different contrapuntal material in each variation and may wander from one voice to another Melody receives different embelishments in each variation while the underlying harmonies remain essentially unchanged The bass or harmonic progression, rather than the melody, is held constant while the figuration changes Chaconne and passacaglia Dance music Suite- linking two or three dances together, used either for dancing or chamber music 6
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