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Flashcards / Science / Biology / What is meant by the human development index?

What is meant by the human development index?

What is meant by the human development index?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology
Professor: Charles price
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Ecology, Biology, and bio 260
Cost: 25
Name: Ecology 260 Exam 1
Description: These are the important terms from chapters 1-7, which are the chapters that will be covered on the exam
Uploaded: 02/02/2016
196 Pages 23 Views 3 Unlocks
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Life history strategy

the overall pattern in the timing and nature of life history events are aged across all the individuals in the species

Each species has a range of environmental tolerances that determines its ________ geographic distribution.

potential 

The ________geographic distribution of a species is also related to other factors, such as dispersal ability, disturbances, and competition.

actual 

climate envelope

The range of conditions over which it occurs.It is a useful tool for predicting the species’ response to climate change.

Stress

environmental change results in decreased rates of physiological processes, lowering the potential for survival, growth, or reproduction.

hypoxia

not enough oxygen is delivered to tissues

Acclimatization

Adjusting to stress through behavior or physiology. It is a short-term, reversible process, (e.g. acclimatization to high elevations involves higher breathing rates, greater production of red blood cells, and higher pulmonary blood pressure).

natural selection can result in_______ of a population to environmental stress    

adaptation

Ecotypes

Ecotypes can eventually become separate species as populations diverge and become reproductively isolated.

The temperature of an organism is determined by __________.

exchanges of energy with the external environment

Some organisms can survive periods of extreme heat or cold by entering a state of_____, in which little or no metabolic activity occurs.

dormancy

Organisms must either____ temperature change or____ it by physiological, morphological, or behavioral means.

tolerate modify

Conduction

transfer of energy from warmer to cooler molecules

Convection

•heat energy is carried by moving water or air.

Latent heat transfer

•water absorbs heat as it changes from a liquid to a gas state.

For terrestrial plants, energy inputs include_____ and______ from surrounding objects, as well as from_____ and _____ if the ground or air is warmer than the plant.

sunlight infrared radiation conductionconvection

Losses of energy include______ of infrared radiation, _______________________________

emission conduction and convection and evapotranspiration

Temperature change in a plant:

SR = Solar radiation       IR = Infrared radiation       Hconv = Convective heat transfer       Hcond = Conductive heat transfer       Het = Heat transfer by evapotranspiration

Transpiration rates can be controlled by specialized guard cells surrounding leaf openings called_______.

stomates

Variation in  ________________ controls the rate of transpiration and thus leaf temperature.

degree of opening and number of stomates 

Other mechanisms include ________—hairs on leaf surfaces that reflect solar energy. But hairs also reduce conductive heat loss.

pubescence

Generating heat internally is an advantage because .....

•Animals can maintain constant internal temperatures near the optimum for metabolic functions under a wide range of external temperatures. •These animals can extend their geographic range.

Endotherms

Rely primarily on internal heat generation—mostly birds and mammals.

Ectotherms

Regulate body temperature through energy exchange with the external environment Ectotherms generally have a greater tolerance for variation in body temperature than endotherms.

Heat exchange with the environment depends on the ________ ratio of the body.

surface area-to-volume

A larger _______ allows greater heat exchange, but makes it harder to maintain internal temperature.

surface area

As body size increases, _________and large ectotherms are thus improbable.

surface area-to-volume ratio decreases, 

Ectotherms in temperate and polar regions must_____ or_____ freezing.

avoid tolerate

Avoidance

behavior includes seasonal migration to lower latitudes or to microhabitats that are above freezing (e.g., burrows in soil).

Tolerance

to freezing involves minimizing damage associated with ice formation in cells.

Small endotherms with large surface area-to-volume ratio have_____ metabolic rates and require_____ energy and higher feeding rates than large endotherms.

higher more

The water balance of an organism is determined by exchanges of ____________ with the external environment.

water and solutes

_____organisms live in an isoosmotic environment, so water balance is not a problem.

Marine

_____is the medium in which all biochemical reactions necessary for life occur.

Water

•_______—more saline than an organism’s cells  •________—same salinity  •_______—less saline 

HyperosmoticIsoosmotic Hypoosmotic

________organisms lose solutes to and gain water from their hypoosmotic environment.

Freshwater

Osmotic potential

Water flows from a region of high concentration (low solute concentration) to a region of low concentration (high solute concentration).

Matric potential    

Energy associated with attractive forces on surfaces of large molecules inside cells or on surfaces of soil particles.

________organisms lose water to the dry atmosphere.

Terrestrial

 Water flows downhill. The associated energy is gravitational potential (experienced in tall trees).

Gravity:

Pressure

From an area of higher pressure to lower. The associated energy is pressure (turgor) potential.

Water potential

(units of pressure, usually megapascals) is the sum of all these energy components:

Resistance

: A force that impedes water movement (or other substances).

•Cell walls allow development of __________when water moves into a cell, the expanding cell presses against the cell wall.

turgor pressure

The____ is the zone of life on Earth

biosphere

•the_______—Earth’s surface crust and upper mantle and

lithosphere

•the_______—the lowest layer of the atmosphere

troposphere

Biomes 

are large-scale terrestrial communities shaped by the physical environment, categorized by dominant plant forms and characteristics such as leaf deciduousness or succulence.

Convergence

Evolution of similar growth forms among distantly related species in response to similar selection pressures.

Climate diagrams 

are graphs of average monthly temperature and precipitation at a location, showing the characteristic seasonal climate pattern.

Tropical Rainforests:

Between 10°N and 10°S Annual precipitation > 2000 mm No seasonal changes High biomass, high diversity—about 50% of Earth’s species Broadleaved evergreen and deciduous trees

Tropical Seasonal Forests and Savannas

•North and south of the wet tropics •Wet and dry seasons associated with movement of the ITCZ •Shorter trees, deciduous in dry seasons, more grasses and shrubs

Deserts

•In high pressure zones at 30°N and S •High temperatures, low moisture •Sparse vegetation and animal populations •Low water availability constrains plant abundance and influences form

Temperate Grasslands

•Between 30° and 50°N latitude •Warm, moist summers and cold, dry winters •Grasses dominate maintained by frequent fires and large herbivores such as bison

Temperate Shrublands and Woodlands

•Between 30° and 40°N latitude •Evergreen shrubs and trees •Mediterranean-type climates—wet winters and hot, dry summers •Fire is common and helps maintain the biome

Temperate Deciduous Forests

•30° to 50°N, on continental edges with enough rainfall for tree growth •Leaves are deciduous in winter •Oaks, maples, and beeches occur everywhere in this biome •Species diversity lower than tropical rainforests

Temperate Evergreen Forests

•30° to 50°N and S, coastal, continental, and maritime zones •Lower diversity than tropical and deciduous forests •Leaves tend to be acidic, and soils nutrient-poor

Boreal Forests

(Taiga): •50° to 65°N •Long, severe winters •Permafrost (soil that remains frozen year-round) prevents drainage and results in saturated soils •Trees present are conifers—pines, spruces, larches—and birches

Tundra

•Above 65° latitude, mostly in the Arctic •Cold temperatures, low precipitation •Short summers with long days •Vegetation is sedges, forbs, grasses, low-growing shrubs, lichens, and mosses •Widespread permafrost

Streams and rivers are_____ (flowing water) systems.

lotic

Riffles

Fast moving water with coarse particles on the stream bed.

Pools

Deeper water, with slower flow and finer sediments.

Benthic zone

organisms are bottom dwellers and include many kinds of invertebrates. Some feed on detritus (dead organic matter), others are predators. Some live in the hyporheic zone—the substratum below and adjacent to the stream.

The _________________describes changes in biological communities with stream order and channel size.

river continuum concept 

Lakes and still waters (_____) occur where depressions in the landscape fill with water.

lentic

Pelagic zone

Open water dominated by plankton (small and microscopic organisms suspended in the water).

Phytoplankton

are photosynthetic, restricted to the upper layers through which light penetrates (photic zone)

Zooplankton

are nonphotosynthetic protists and tiny animals.

littoral zone

near shore, where the photic zone reaches the bottom. Macrophytes occur in this zone. 

Tides

Ocean water rises and falls in most nearshore zones twice daily. Tides produce unique transition zones between terrestrial and marine environments.

Estuaries

occur where rivers flow into oceans. Salinity varies as fresh water from the river mixes with salt water from the sea.

Salt marshes

Shallow coastal wetlands dominated by grasses and rushes.Terrestrial nutrients enhance productivity.Tides produce salinity gradients that result in zones with different plant species.Marshes provide food and protection for fish, crabs, birds, and mammals

Mangrove forests

dominate some tropical coastal zones. Mangroves are salt-tolerant, evergreen trees and shrubs from 16 different plant families. The roots trap sediments, which build up and modify the shoreline.provide nutrients to other marine ecosystems and habitat for many animals. Several unique animals associated with mangroves include manatees, crab-eating monkeys, fishing cats, and monitor lizards.  

Rocky intertidal zones

provide a stable substrate for many organisms.Sessile organisms must cope with wet and dry conditions and changing salinity as the tides rise and fall.Mobile organisms can move into pools at low tide to avoid desiccation.

Sandy shores

are not very stable, have little available food, and lots of wave action. But many invertebrates, such as clams, sea worms, and mole crabs, burrow into the sand. Smaller organisms, such as polychaete worms, hydroids, and copepods live on or among the grains of sand.

Coral reefs

develop a complex habitat that supports a huge diversity of marine life. Rates of biomass production are some of the highest in the world.

Seagrass beds

submerged communities of flowering plants in subtidal marine sediments. Algae and animals grow on the plants, and larval stages of many organisms use them for habitat. 

Kelp beds

“forests,” support a diverse marine community, including sea urchins, lobsters, mussels, abalones, many other seaweeds, and sea otters.

Pelagic zone

: Open ocean beyond the continental shelves. The photic zone, which supports the highest densities of organisms, extends to about 200 m in depth. Below the photic zone, energy is supplied by falling detritus.

Nekton 

(swimming organisms capable of overcoming ocean currents)—fish, mammals, sea turtles, squid, octopus

Weather

Current or short term conditions—temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover.

Convection

Energy transfer by movements of air or water currents. 

Conduction

Kinetic energy is transferred by molecules in direct contact with one another.

Sensible heat flux

Energy transfer from warm air immediately above the surface to the cooler atmosphere by convection and conduction.

Latent heat flux

Heat loss due to evaporation.

The atmosphere contains ________ that absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation emitted by Earth. • Water vapor (H2O) • Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous oxide (N2O)

greenhouse gases

uplift

Warm air is less dense than cool air, and it rises

Atmospheric pressure

decreases with altitude, so the rising air expands and cools

Subsidence

Air descends when it cools and forms a high pressure zone at about 30°N and 30°S.   Major deserts of the world are at these latitudes.

Hadley cells

Large scale circulation patterns resulting from uplift in the tropics.

Polar cells

at the North and South Poles—cold air descends, creating high pressure zones with little precipitation (polar deserts).

Ferrell cells

exist at mid-latitudes. 

These atmospheric circulation cells result in the major climatic zones in each hemisphere—______,_______, and _____ zones.

tropical, temperate,polar

Coriolis effect

The winds appear to be deflected due to the rotation of the Earth

Water has a higher_______ than land—it can absorb and store more energy without changing temperature.

heat capacity

Upwelling

occurs where deep ocean water rises to the surface.Upwelling occurs where prevailing winds blow parallel to a coastline. Surface water flows away from the coast and deeper, colder ocean water rises up to replace it. Upwellings influence coastal climates.

Lapse rate

Temperature decreases with elevation. Air pressure and density decrease with elevation there are fewer air molecules to absorb infrared radiation. Wind speed also increases at high elevations due to less friction with the ground surface. 

Coastal areas have a _________—little daily and seasonal variation in temperature, and high humidity.

maritime climate

Areas in the center of large continents have ________—much greater variation in daily and seasonal temperatures, especially in temperate zones.

continental climates

North–south trending mountain ranges create a ______________: The windward slope facing the prevailing winds has high precipitation and lush vegetation the leeward slope gets little precipitation.

rain shadow effect

Albedo

Amount of solar radiation a surface reflects light-colored surfaces have highest albedo.

Evapotranspiration

Water loss through transpiration by plants, plus evaporation from the soil. It transfers energy (as latent heat) and water into the atmosphere, thereby affecting air temperature and moisture.

Intertropical Convergence Zone 

Seasonal changes in precipitation result from movement of the (ITCZ), the zone of maximum solar radiation and atmospheric uplift.The ITCZ moves from 23.5°N in June to 23.5°S in December.

Oceans and lakes can become_______—warm surface water on top of colder, denser water results in layers that do not mix.

Oceans and lakes can become_______—warm surface water on top of colder, denser water results in layers that do not mix.

In summer, the warm______ lies over the colder______. The________ is the zone of transition.

epilimnion, hypolimnion, thermocline

El Niño Southern Oscillation 

(ENSO), are longer-scale climate variations that occur every 3 to 8 years and last about 18 months.

La Niña

events are stronger phases of the normal pattern, with high pressure off the coast of South America and low pressure in the western Pacific. They usually follow El Niño, but tend to be less frequent.

North Atlantic Oscillation

a similar atmospheric pressure–ocean current oscillation that affects climate in Europe, northern Asia, and the eastern coast of North America.

Pacific Decadal Oscillation     

(PDO) affects climate around the North Pacific.

Milankovitch cycles

The glacial–interglacial cycles have been explained by regular changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit and the tilt of its axis

Salinity

Concentration of dissolved salts in water. Salts are composed of positively and negatively charged ions that disassociate when placed in water. Salts affect the ability of organisms to absorb water. Salts can also be nutrients.

Salinization

Soils in arid regions become saline when water is brought to the surface by plant roots or irrigation and high rates of evapotranspiration result in salt build-up.

Acidity

Ability of a solution to act as an acid—a compound that gives up protons (H+) to a solution.

Alkalinity

Ability of a solution to act as a base—a compound that takes up H+ or gives up hydroxide ions (OH–).

Hypoxic 

(low-oxygen) conditions can also promote formation of toxic chemicals (e.g., H2S).O2 levels are important for chemical reactions that determine nutrient availability.

The two aspects of the PDO  that are significant for ecology

1.The relationship between climate and organism functioning, growth and reproduction, and population and community processes.  2. The time scale of the PDO is long—20- to 30-year cycles—relative to ENSO.

Controlled experiment

Experimental groups are compared with a control group that lacks the factor being tested.

Ecology 

the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment

Environmental science

incorporates concepts from the natural sciences (including ecology) and the social sciences and focuses on how people affect the environment and how to address environmental problems.

scales of study

Spatial scales: •Small—soil microorganisms •Large—atmospheric pollutants Temporal scales: •Short—leaf response to sunlight •Long—how species change over geologic time

Population

A group of individuals of a species that are living and interacting in a particular area

Community

An association of populations of different species in the same area.

Ecological studies often include both the_____ (living) and______ (physical) components of natural systems.

biotic abiotic

Ecosystem

A community of organisms plus their physical environment

Landscapes

Areas with substantial differences, typically including multiple ecosystems

All the world’s ecosystems comprise the ________—all living organisms on Earth plus the environments in which they live.

biosphere

Evolution

1. Change in genetic characteristics of a population over time. 2. Descent with modification—organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors.

Adaptation

A characteristic that improves survival or reproduction.

Natural selection

 Individuals with certain adaptations tend to survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals

Producers

use energy from an external source (e.g., the sun) to produce their own food

Net primary productivity (NPP)

Energy captured by producers minus the amount lost as heat in cellular respiration.

Consumers 

get energy by eating other organisms or their remains.

nutrient cycle

Energy moves through ecosystems in a single direction only—it cannot be recycled. But nutrients are continuously recycled from the physical environment to organisms and back again

Climate change

A directional change in climate (such as global warming) that occurs over 30 years or longer.

Replication

performing each treatment more than once reduces possibility that results are due to a variable that was not measured or controlled in the study

scientific method

1. Make observations and ask questions. 2. Use previous knowledge or intuition to develop hypotheses. 3. Evaluate hypotheses by experimentation, observational studies, or quantitative models.4. Use the results to modify the hypotheses, pose new questions, or draw conclusions about the natural world.

Evolution can be viewed as.....

genetic change over time or as a process of descent with modification

_______is the genetic makeup of an individual.

Genotype

Genes can have two or more forms called______

alleles

Evolution

change in allele frequencies (proportions) in a population over time

Evolution can be defined more broadly as......

as descent with modification

natural selection

Individuals with certain heritable traits survive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals

Phenotype

Observable characteristics that are determined by the genotype, the environment, and interactions between the two

mutation

a change in DNA Mutations can result from: 1)copying errors during cell division 2)mechanical damage 3)exposure to chemicals (mutagens) 4)high-energy radiation

Recombination

produces different genotypes within a population. Offspring have combinations of alleles that differ from those of their parents.

Directional selection

1.Individuals at one phenotypic extreme (e.g., large size) are favored.

Stabilizing selection

Individuals with an intermediate phenotype are favored

Disruptive selection

Individuals at both phenotypic extremes are favored

Genetic drift

occurs when chance events determine which alleles are passed to the next generation. It is significant only for small populations

Genetic drift has four effects on small populations:

1. It acts by chance alone, thus causing allele frequencies to fluctuate at random. Some may disappear, others may reach 100% frequency (fixation). 2. Because some alleles are lost, genetic variation of the population is reduced. 3. Frequency of harmful alleles can increase if the alleles have only mildly deleterious effects. 4. Differences between populations can increase. Chance events may lead to allele fixation in one population and loss from another population.

Gene flow

 Alleles move between populations via movement of individuals or gametes. Gene flow has two effects: 1. Populations become more similar. 2. New alleles can be introduced into a population.

______ is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution

Natural selection

Adaptations

are features of organisms that improve their ability to survive and reproduce.  Adaptations include morphological and physiological features such as enzymes that function at high temperatures.

By consistently favoring individuals with certain alleles, natural selection causes ____________—traits that confer advantages tend to increase in frequency over time.

adaptive evolution

Environments are constantly changing, and there are constraints on evolution

1) Lack of genetic variation 2) Evolutionary history 3) Ecological trade-offs

Lack of genetic variation

If there is no beneficial allele, adaptive evolution at that gene cannot occur

Evolutionary history

Natural selection works on traits that already exist. Organisms have certain characteristics and lack others because of their ancestry.

Ecological trade-offs

The ability to perform one function may reduce the ability to perform another function. Adaptations represent compromises in the abilities of organisms to perform different and sometimes conflicting functions.

Biological Species Concept

Group of organisms whose members have similar characteristics and can interbreed.

Speciation

The process by which one species splits into two or more species

evolutionary tree

is a branching diagram that represents the evolutionary history of a group

adaptive radiation

Increased diversity of the surviving groups. Mass extinctions remove competitor groups, allowing survivors to expand into new habitats or new ways of life.

Coevolution

Reciprocal evolutionary change in interacting species.

Habitat fragmentation 

leaves isolated patches, which can affect evolutionary processes.

fitness

the genetic contribution of an organism's descendants to future generations however, all organisms face constraints that prevent evolution of a perfect life history

life history strategy

the overall pattern in the timing and nature of life history events averaged across all the individuals of a speccies

phenotypic plasticity

a single genome may produce different phenotypes under different environmental conditions every trait shows some degree of some plasticity

morphs

a single genotype produces discrete types, or morphs, with few or no intermediate form

Allocation

describe the relative amounts of energy or resources that an organism devotes to different functions

Allometry

differential growth of body parts that results in a change shape or proportion with size allometry is a very common mechanism of variation within and among species

complex life cycle

one in which there are at least two distinct stages that differ in their habitat, physiology, or morphology.

metamorhphosis

an abrupt transition in form from the larval to the juvenile stage that is sometimes accompanied by a change of habitat

direct development

simple life cycles are referred to this sometimes because development from fertilized eggs to juvenile occurs within the egg prior to hatching and no free-living larval stage occurs

semelparous species

produce only once in a lifetime

iteroparous species

have the capacity for multiple bouts of reproduction 

r selection

the selection for high population growth rates

k selection

refers to the section for slower rates of increase, which occurs in populations that are approaching that carrying capacity (K)

competitive plants

are superior in their ability to acquire light minerals water and space 

grime classified plants the are adapted to habitats with high levels of disturbance and the low levels of stress as __________.

ruderals

sequential hermaphroditism

changes in sex during the course of the life cycle

Detritivores

such as earthworms and soil fungi, consume nonliving organic matter.

Parasites and herbivores

consume live hosts, but do not necessarily kill them.

Predators

capture and consume live prey animals.

Hemiparasite

photosynthetic but obtains nutrients, water, and some of its energy from the host plant (e.g. mistletoe)

Holoparasites

have no photosynthetic pigments and get energy from other plants (they are heterotrophs) (e.g. dodder).

Photosynthesis

Sunlight provides the energy to take up CO2 and synthesize organic compounds (most autotrophs

Chemosynthesis 

(chemolithotrophy): Energy from inorganic compounds is used to produce carbohydrates

The electrons are used to generate high-energy___ and_____

ATP NADPH

fixation

Energy in ATP and NADPH is then used to take up CO2 and make carbohydrates 

Calvin cycle

It occurs in both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms.

Photosynthesis has two major steps:

1. Light-driven reactions—light energy is harvested and used to split water and provide electrons to make ATP and NADPH. 2. Carbon reactions—CO2 is fixed in the Calvin cycle, and carbohydrates are synthesized.

C4 photosynthetic pathway

reduces photorespiration and evolved independently several times. Many grass species use this pathway, including corn, sugarcane, and sorghum. It involves biochemical and morphological specialization.

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) 

minimizes water loss. CO2 uptake and the Calvin cycle are separated temporally. CAM plants open their stomates at night when it is cooler and humidity is higher and close them during the day.

Food chemistry: 

Food chemistry: 

Tradeoff

The energy gain depends on the chemistry of the food and how much effort is needed to find and ingest the food.