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Exam 1 study guide

by: Alexandra

Exam 1 study guide BSC 242

GPA 4.01

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ch 1-5 study guide
Microbiology and Man
Daryl W. Lam
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 242 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Microbiology and Man in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Study Guide exam 1 2/2/16 11:57 AM Ch1 • Facts to know o Microbial individuals are too small to be seen with the naked eye • Linnaeus system o How to correctly “format” scientific genus and species names ▯ Italicized or underlined ▯ Genus is capitalized ▯ Specific epithet is lower case ▯ Ex: Escherichia coli • Viruses vs Cellular organisms o Viruses ▯ Acellular ▯ Consist of DNA or RNA care ▯ Surrounded by protein coat • Maybe be enclosed in lipid envelope ▯ Only replicated when they are in living host cell • 3 Domain system of classification (for cellular organisms) o bacteria o archaea o eukarya • Cell theory o All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells o “biogenesis” living organisms arise from preexisting life • Spontaneous generation o Living organisms arise from nonliving matter • Pasteur’s experiment o Demonstrated: ▯ microorganisms are present in air and can contaminate sterile solutions ▯ heat can kill microorganisms o experiment ▯ Nutrient broth placed in S-shaped flask, heated, ▯ not sealed • Microbial growth ▯ Sealed • No microbial growth o Aseptic (sterile) technique/ Contamination ▯ Heat kills microorganisms ▯ Used to prevent contamination by unwanted microbes • Fermentation o Conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine • Pasteurization o Application of a high heat for a short time • Vaccine o The protection is called immunity o Agent or virus is given to patient to build antibodies, immunities to fight that virus as well as the original virus ▯ Inoculating person with cowpox virus, person is then protected from smallpox • Antibiotic o Chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes • Define o Bacteriology ▯ Study of bacteria o Mycology ▯ Study of fungi o Parasitology ▯ Study of protozoa and parasitic worms o Immunology ▯ Study of immunity o Virology ▯ Study of viruses • Bioremediation o Microbe involvement ▯ Ex: microbes (bacteria) degrade organic matter in sewage such as oil and mercury Ch 2 • 3 subatomic particles of atom o proton o neutron o electron • atomic number o number of protons • atomic mass o number of protons + neutrons • covalent bond vs. ionic bond o covalent: 2 atoms share 1 or more pairs of electrons o ionic: attractions between ions of opposite of opposite charges ▯ 1 atom loses (-) and another gains (+) • hydrogen bond o forms when ▯ hydrogen atom covalently bonds to O ▯ N atom is attracted to another O or N • strength of o covalent, ionic, hydrogen ▯ strongest= hydrogen ▯ ionic ▯ weakest=covalent • elements of organic compounds o carbon o hydrogen • elements 95% of organisms weight o carbon o hydrogen o nitrogen o oxygen • basic properties of water o inorganic o polar ▯ acts as solvent ▯ used in chem reactions ▯ temp buffer o hydrophilic o high specific heat o surface tension o dissociation or ionization • physical states of water o solid o liquid o gas • acids and bases o acid substance that dissociates into 1 or more H+ and an anion ▯ HCl ▯ H+ + Cl- o Base substance that dissociates into 1 or more OH- and a cation ▯ NaOH ▯ Na+ + OH- o ph value amount of H+ in a solution= pH ▯ pH=-log[H+] ▯ increasing H+ ▯ increase acidity, decrease pH ▯ increasing OH- ▯ increase alkalinity, increase pH • salt substance that dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH- o NaCl ▯ Na+ + Cl- ▯ Table salt, held together by an ionic bond • biological macromolecules o carbohydrates ▯ monomer: glucose ▯ biological ex: starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose ▯ important for use in structures and energy sources ▯ (CH 2) n o lipids ▯ monomers: glycerol, 1-3 fatty acids ▯ biological ex: fats or triglycerides ▯ primary components of cell membranes ▯ characteristics ▯ C, H, and O ▯ Nonpolar, uncharged ▯ Hydrophobic, insoluble in water • proteins o monomers: amino acids o biological ex: proteins, enzymes ▯ essential in cell structure and function ▯ transporters, flagella, bacterial toxins, antibodies, and some hormones are proteins o bonds= peptide bonds • nucleic acids o monomers: nucleotides ▯ pentose, phosphate group(s), N-containing base o biological ex: DNA, RNA ▯ DNA: ▯ Deoxyribose ▯ double helix ▯ hereditary material ▯ order forms genetic instructions for RNA and proteins ▯ RNA: ▯ Ribose ▯ Single stranded • hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic o hydrophobic= repel water o hydrophilic= attracted to water, form ionic or H-bonds • dehydration synthesis o removal of water o joins 2 monosaccharides • saturated vs unsaturated lipids o saturated: no double bonds, all C are saturated with H o unsaturated: 1 or more double bond in fatty acid • protein importance to cellular metabolism o speed up chemical reactions o some (transporter proteins) move chemical across membranes • protein structure o primary ▯ chain of amino acids o secondary ▯ chain folds and coils into helix or pleats ▯ due to H-bonds ▯ local and repetitious ▯ shape: α-helix or β-pleats o tertiary ▯ helix folds irregularly forming ▯ disulfide bonds ▯ H-bonds ▯ Ionic bonds ▯ Between anion acid R-groups in chain o Quaternary ▯ 2 or more polypeptides • protein denaturation o unfolding o protein loses function o causes ▯ high temp, hostile pH, improper salt conc. • Importance of ATP o Energy molecule for life o Structure ▯ Ribose, adenine and 3 phosphate groups ▯ Made by dehydration ▯ Broken by hydrolysis ▯ Liberating energy Ch 4 • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes o Pro= before nucleus ▯ 1 circular chromosome DNA, no membrane ▯ no histones ▯ no membrane-bound organelles ▯ binary fission ▯ peptidoglycan cell walls ▯ peptidoglycan: polymer of NAG and NAM o Eu= true nucleus ▯ Paired linear chromosomes, nuclear membrane ▯ Histones ▯ Membrane-bound organelles ▯ Simple polysaccharide cell walls when present ▯ Mitotic spindle, meiosis • Basic shapes of bacterial cells o Coccus: spherical o Bacillus: rod shaped o Spiral: twisted • Define o Monomorphic ▯ One shape (most bacteria fall under this category) o Pleomorphic ▯ Many shapes (few bacteria are this) • Glycocalyx o Outside cell wall o Sticky polysaccharide ▯ Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach o Required by many pathogens o Slime layer vs. capsule ▯ Slime layer: unorganized and loose ▯ Capsule: neatly organized • Flagella o Motility ▯ Rotate flagella to run (go straight) or tumble (change direction) ▯ Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) ▯ Chemotaxis • Occurs when whole organism travels up or down a chemical conc. gradient ▯ Phototaxis • Occurs when whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light o Define ▯ Monotrichous ▯ 1 flagellum on 1 side ▯ Iophotrichous ▯ A few (3) flagella on both sides ▯ Amphitrichous ▯ 1 flagellum on each side, 2 total ▯ Peritrichous ▯ Many flagella all over • Define o Endoflagella ▯ Special flagella of spirochetes that spiral tightly around the cell ▯ Anchored at one end of cell ▯ Rotation causes cell to move in corkscrew motion o Fimbriae ▯ Allow attachment o Pili ▯ Used to transfer DNA from 1 cell to another • Prokaryotes o Cell wall ▯ Materials: peptidoglycan (in bacteria) ▯ Purpose: prevents osmotic lysis o gram-positive vs gram-negative bacteria ▯ gram-positive ▯ thick peptidoglycan ▯ teichoic acids (negative charge) • lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane • wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan ▯ no outer membrane ▯ contains mycolic acid in acid-fast cells ▯ looks like layers of peptidoglycan sitting on top of membrane ▯ gram-negative ▯ thin peptidoglycan ▯ no teichoic acid ▯ outer membrane • lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids • forms periplasm between outer membrane & plasma membrane • protection from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics • LPS (lipopolysaccharide) o O-polysaccharide antigen, e.g. E. coli o Lipid A is an endotoxin (characteristic symptoms) • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane • Net negative charge on cell surface ▯ Looks like double layer membrane o cell (plasma) membrane ▯ materials: phospholipid bilayer (=1 membrane), peripheral proteins, integral proteins (some are transmembrane) ▯ purpose: selective permeability allows passage of some molecules ▯ enzymes for ATP production located here for bacteria o define ▯ diffusion ▯ simple diffusion: movement of solute from area of high conc to low conc ▯ no ATP needed ▯ facilitative diffusion ▯ solute combines with transporter protein in membrane ▯ no ATP needed ▯ active transport ▯ low conc ▯ high conc ▯ requires • energy • transporter protein • ATP ▯ Osmosis ▯ Movement of water across selectively permeable membrane from area of high conc to area of low water conc ▯ Osmotic pressure pressure needed to stop movement of water across membrane aquaporins o difference ▯ isotonic ▯ no net movement of water ▯ hypotonic ▯ water moves into the cell and may cause the cell to burst if the wall is weak or damaged ▯ hypertonic ▯ water moves out of the cell, causing its cytoplasm to shrink o cytoplasm ▯ substance inside of plasma membrane o nucleoid ▯ different from nucleus ▯ not a true nucleus ▯ no nuclear membrane o endospore ▯ resting cells (not reproductive) ▯ for survival ▯ no metabolism occurs (dehydration) ▯ resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals ▯ bacillus, clostridium ▯ ex: anthrax and botulism ▯ sporulation endospore formation process ▯ germination the return to vegetative (normal) state o fact to know ▯ prokaryote ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosome • eukaryotes o cell wall ▯ materials: simple polysaccharides ▯ plants, algae, fungi ▯ carbohydrates o pellicle ▯ flexible outer protein covering on some protozoa o glycocalyx ▯ carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membrane ▯ bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane o define ▯ cytoplasm ▯ substance inside plasma and outside nucleus ▯ cytosol ▯ fluid portion of cytoplasm ▯ cytoskeleton ▯ microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules ▯ cytoplasmic streaming ▯ movement of cytoplasm throughout cells o Function of organelles ▯ Membrane-bound ▯ Nucleus • Contains chromosomes (DNA) ▯ ER • Transport network ▯ Golgi complex • Membrane formation and secretion ▯ Lysosome • Digestive enzymes ▯ Vacuole • Brings food into cells and provides support ▯ Mitochondrion • Cellular respiration, ATP production ▯ Chloroplast • Photosynthesis ▯ Peroxisome • Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O 2 o Endosymbiotic theory ▯ Explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes Ch 5 • Metabolism: sum of chem reactions in an organism o Catabolism vs. anabolism ▯ Catabolism: breakdown molecules to generate ATP ▯ Anabolism: use ATP to build molecules • Molecule used as an energy source for all biological organisms o ATP • Enzymes o Decrease activation energy needed for reaction to occur o Speed up chem reactions by putting reactants closer together and in a proper orientation ▯ Effectively increases collision frequency o Biological catalysts ▯ Specific for a chem reaction ▯ Not used up in that reaction ▯ “___ase” (see pg 113) ▯ parts ▯ apoenzyme protein portion ▯ cofactor nonprotein component • Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn ▯ Coenzyme organic cofactor • NAD, FAD • Important coenzymes o NADH, NAD+ o NADPH, NADP+ o FADH2, FAD o Coenzyme A ▯ Holoenzyme apoenzyme + cofactor (coenzyme) • Collision theory: chem reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide o activation energy ▯ needed to disrupt electronic configurations so a reaction can occur o reaction rate ▯ Frequency of collisions with enough energy ▯ Can be increased by ▯ Enzymes ▯ Increasing temp or pressure • Heat= faster • Cold= slower • Higher pressure: harder, faster • Lower pressure: less • active site o where the substrate binds • factors influencing enzyme activity o pH o temp o substrate conc • competitive inhibitor vs. noncompetitive inhibitor o competitive ▯ binds to active site blocking substrate o noncompetitive ▯ binds to allosteric site ▯ alters active site blocking substrate • feedback inhibition o allosteric regulation • oxidation vs. reduction o oxidation ▯ removal of electrons ▯ OIL= oxidation is loss o Reduction ▯ Gain of electrons ▯ RIG= reduction is gain • methods of ATP generation o Substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) ▯ Transfer of high-energy PO4- directly to ADP ▯ C-C-C ~ P + ADP ▯ C-C-C + ATP o Oxidative phosphorylation (OP) ▯ Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of 1 compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP by chemiosmosis o Photophosphorylation ▯ Plants, algae, cyanobacteria ▯ Light causes chlorophyll to give up electrons ▯ Energy released from transfer of electrons (oxidation) of chlorophyll through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP • carbohydrate catabolism o Glucose has electrons that can be removed (by oxidations) and carried (by coenzymes) to system that stores energy in ATP o Breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy involves • glycolysis o cost: 2 ATP o products: 4 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate o net gain: 2 ATP o cell part where it occurs ▯ cytoplasm • fermentation o aerobic vs anaerobic ▯ anaerobic= oxygen NOT present ▯ Pyruvate is converted into • Lactic acid, ethanol, mixed acids, 2,3 butanediol, propionic acid, acetone-butanol Via fermentation ▯ aerobic= oxygen present ▯ Pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA ▯ Via • Pyruvate Oxidation in Mitochondria of eukaryotes or cytosol of prokaryotes: Kreb’s Cycle (CO2) and Electron Transport (H2O) ▯ types named after end product ▯ lactic acid fermentation • lactic acid= end product ▯ alcohol fermentation • ethanol= end product • CO2= end product • Krebs cycle (CAC or TCA) o Where does it occur in eukaryotes ▯ Mitochondrial matrix o How many reactions in cycle ▯ 9 reactions o Carbohydrates ▯ CO2 ▯ Carbons in pyruvate (product of glycolysis) are oxidized to CO2 o Aerobic or anaerobic? ▯ aerobic • facts to know o pyruvate oxidation joins glycolysis with the Krebs (CAC) o NADH and FADH2 products from the Krebs cycle are used to drive (power) the electron transport chain o Electron transport chain makes the 36 ATP (eukaryotes) or 38 ATP (prokaryotes) o ATP production in electron transport chain is called chemiosmosis and it involves oxidative phosphorylation Example Questions • A prokaryotic cell o Lacks a nucleus o Lacks membrane bound organelles o Is an organism in either domain Archaea or Bacteria o All the above • In a single molecule of water, the H and O atoms are held together with by ____ o Ionic bonds o Covalent bonds o Hydrogen bonds o None of the above • Enzymes o Are biological catalysts o Can be denatured by changed in temp o Can be denatured by changes in pH o All the above • Which 2 organelles were specifically discussed in regards to endosymbiotic theory o Mitochondrion and chloroplasts 2/2/16 11:57 AM 2/2/16 11:57 AM


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