PSY 202 Exam 1 Learning Objectives
PSY 202 Exam 1 Learning Objectives PSY 202
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Statner on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Rujin, Dr. Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Exam 1 Learning Objectives Chapter 1 1. Distinguish psychology from pseudoscience 1. pseudoscience: promises quick fixes to life’s problems or wrong predictions of those that claim to know the future, referred to as psychobabble 2. psychology: complex and informative, based on rigorous research and evidence gathered through careful observation, experimentation, and measurement 2. Summarize the early history and development of psychology as a formal discipline 1. Old thinkers like Aristotle wanted to describe, predict, understand, and modify human behaviors 2. methods included nonsense ideas and testing methods 3. phrenology: one of most popular pseudoscience methods in 1800s, bumps on skull determined traits 4. William James: functionalism: focused on cause and consequence of behavior 5. Sigmund Freud: developed theory of psychoanalysis: focused on past traumas and memories for explanations 3. Describe the five major theoretical perspectives within psychology 1. (SEE I.B.) in Chapter 1 notes 4. Distinguish between basic psychology and applied psychology 1. basic psychology: research to gain knowledge 2. applied psychology: finds knowledge to put it towards a problem or situation 5. Distinguish between various types of psychotherapists 1. counseling psychologists: help people with everyday problems and stressors 2. school psychologists: aid students in resolving problems and emotional difficulties by working with students, parents, and teachers 3. clinical psychologists: diagnose, treat and study mental or emotional problems and work with a range of people from those with serious mental illnesses to those who need help dealing with everyday stressors. Trained in psychotherapy and must have PhD, EdD, or PsyD 4. psychotherapists: any practicers of psychology, not legally regulated 5. psychoanalysts: practice psychoanalyst and have an advanced degree like a psychologist, have been through intensive training in psychoanalysis 6. psychiatrists: like clinical psychologists, must have MD bc they prescribe medication, many choose biological perspective 7. licensed clinical social workers for marriage, family, and child counselors: treat conflicts or adjustment issues but they can work with patients with mental issues, licensed and typically have at least MAs in their field 6. Describe each of the essential elements of critical thinking 1 ask questions 2 create a hypothesis 3 examine the evidence 4 avoid making assumptions or letting bias influence findings 5 avoid coming to conclusions or ignoring evidence due to emotions or preconceived beliefs 6 look beyond simple or obvious answer 7 consider other options to answer your question or hypothesis 8 accept uncertainty in all findings 7. Describe the qualities of good scientific theories and good scientific definitions 1. explains how a set of observations are related 2. based on empirical data 3. theories must be tested and all experiments must be replicated multiple times producing same result 4. scientific definition explains exactly what is being tested, how it will be observes and measured. clearly explains details of the experiment 8. Understand the purpose of descriptive research methods and the issue of representative samples in research 1. descriptive research 1 allows researchers to describe and observe an individual or many people through various methods 2 cannot be used to successfully create explanations for observed behaviors or phenomenon 2. representative samples 1 often not completely representational because sample of individuals is handpicked 9. Describe the characteristics of case studies, naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, psychological tests, and surveys, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each 1. case studies 1 descriptions of an individual to provide insights on their behavior through observations or testing 2 advantages: ability to illustrate psychological principle more clearly than statistics, produces full picture of a individual 3 disadvantages: often missing info, hard to interpret info, subject to bias from observer, subject could have a selective memory influencing results 4 subject could be unrepresentative of population 2. naturalistic observations: 1 allows researchers to learn how people and animals behave in their natural environment 2 advantages: able to see subjects completely natural, not trying to screen or change behavior 3 disadvantages: unable to explain behaviors, only describes them 3. laboratory observations: 1 like naturalistic, but in a lab 2 advantages: researchers have more control 3 disadvantages: presence of researchers and equipment may cause subjects to act differently, cannot create explanations for behavior, only describe behavior based on observations 10. List and discuss the characteristics of and limitations of correlational studies, and identify examples of positive and negative correlations 1. (SEE II.D.5.) from chapter 1 notes 11. Understand the advantages of an experiment and distinguish between independent and dependent variables, providing examples of each 1. (SEE II.D.2) from chapter 1 notes 12. Distinguish between experimental and control groups and know how they are formed 1. experimental group: subjects using or interacting with manipulated independent variable 2. control group: treated just like experimental groups, but not exposed to the treatment or variable, often use a placebo instead 3. both groups formed by random assignment so researcher knows differences re due to manipulated variable 13. Know the difference between the descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, and understand statistical significance ◦ descriptive statistics: show information and sum up data to be understood easier often with charts or graphs. mean and standard deviations are forms of this ◦ inferential statistics: draw conclusions, how meaningful the results of experiments or observations are ◦ statistical significance: shows how likely a result was to have occurred by chance, if likelihood is low it is extremely unlikely to occur by chance, key number (.05), 5 times out of 100 or less the result is statistically significant Chapter 10 1. Explain how norms, roles, and culture influence behavior and cognition 1. norms: social rules 2. certain explicit laws and implicit regulations that everyone is supposed to follow 3. role depends on their position in society, based on position an individual’s behavior is set y the norms of their role 4. culture is learned without thinking about it or trying to adopt certain values or customs 5. norms, roles, and culture influence behavior and cognition merely by the position you hold in society, the culture you are familiar with, and the social conventions that you know 2. Summarize the “obedience” and “prison” studies, and discuss how they illustrate the influence of roles on behavior 1. “obedience” study 1 designed by Stanley Milgram 2 research study to see how many people would continue to administer shocks increasing in voltage to a ‘learner’ who was supposed to memorize a list of words 3 when learner hesitated, the researcher calmly asked them to continue and they obeyed 4 everyone administered shocks, 2/3 of participants obeyed researcher by administering shocks to its deadly extent 2. Stanford “prison” study 1 designed by Philip Zimbardo and Craig Haney 2 average college students split up into prisoners and guards 3 given different outfits for distinction 4 2 week experiment only lasted 6 days bc prisoners became distressed, rebellious and some developed emotional symptoms 5 guards would follow rules, do favors, or become extremely harsh and abuse authority —only because of uniform 3. In both studies, a higher authority encouraged participants to administer pain, so someone with a higher role in society was able to convince someone lower in society to behave a certain way, even when they knew it was wrong 3. List and explain reasons why people obey authority, including entrapment 1. they wish to learn from authority or get an advantage by obeying them 2. some people genuinely respect them and understand their role in society 3. other people obey because they do not want to question a higher figure in society and they fear the consequences 4. some people obey because of entrapment: when people engage themselves even more in obeying because they feel the need to justify their involvement 4. Summarize the major aspects of attribution theory, the fundamental attribution error, and the three biased attributions people commonly make 1. attribution theory: when people feel the need to explain their behavior and the behavior of others 1 1. situational attribution: when the reason of the action is because of the situation or environment 2 2. dispositional attribution: when the reason of the action has to do with the traits or motives of the person 2. fundamental attribution error: when people explain the reason for the behavior of other people and put more of the blame for action on the type of person rather than the situation 3. three biased attributions: 1 1. people take credit for their good actions, and put the blame on the situation for their bad actions 2 2. people perceive themselves as overly optimistic, but when the situation presents itself, they do not perform accordingly 3 3. people perceive the world as fair- good people get rewarded, bad people get punished 5. Define “attitudes” and describe methods to change them 1. attitude: belief about people, groups, ideas, or activities. 2. to solve cognitive dissonance, many people change one of their attitudes or behaviors in order to solve a conflict of attitudes 3. familiarity effect: causes people to have positive attitudes because they know the individual, then attitude changes with strangers 4. validity effect: changes attitude because of the mind’s normal biases in processing information 6. Describe how the Asch study reveals social conformity in groups 1. study made the last individual doubt his answer because the seven participants before him all conformed and picked one answer 2. the answer the 7 individuals picked was obviously wrong, but the last individual questioned his knowledge because his answer was different from everyone else 7. Explain the ways decision making and individual behavior can be influenced by group processes including groupthink, diffusion of responsibility, and deindividuation 1. groupthink: pressures individuals into conforming to one right answer and are fearful or embarrassed to throw out other answers 2. diffusion of responsibility: makes people decide not to take action because they think that someone else around will take responsibility and help 3. deindividuated: when an individual is in a very big crowd and their presence is lost amongst the crowd 8. List the factors that lead to altruism 1. when an individual recognizes that there is a need for help or action 2. cultural norms encourage people to take action or assist others 3. when the individual has an ally doing the same, they will more likely take action 4. entrapment, once an individual is involved, their commitment will increase 9. Define “ethnocentrism” and explain its consequences 1. ethnocentrism: when an individual believes his or her nation, culture, or religion is more prominent than all others 2. causes individuals to separate themselves from the rest of the people 3. separation leads to competition and hostility 10. Describe ways in which stereotypes are useful, and discuss three ways in which they distort reality 1. stereotypes help us by quickly processing new info and retrieving memories, organizing experience, making sense of differences between groups and individuals, and predicting how people will behave 2. three ways stereotypes distort reality: 1 1. exaggerate differences between groups, making the group seem different and dangerous 2 2. they produce a selective perception- they only believe what fits the perception and ignore everything that doesn’t fit 3 3. they don’t accept other differences in the group and clump everyone as the same 11. Define “prejudice” and describe the psychological, social, and economic factors that perpetuate it 1. prejudice: strong, unreasonable hatred and negative stereotype towards a group 2. psychological cause: a person is prejudice towards an individual or group because they have low self-esteem themselves 3. social cause: when individuals conform with a group’s prejudices just to fit in 4. economic cause: when official forms of discrimination seem true by making the majority group look better 12. Describe the four measures of implicit prejudice and their criticisms 1. measures of social distance is when one group is reluctant to get too close to another group because of a prejudice between them 2. measures of what people do when they are stressed or angry is that they cannot easily hold back their unexpressed prejudice 3. measures of brain activity with brain scanning shows that parts of the brain are activated when a person is prejudice 4. measures of implicit attitudes are tested with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measures the speed of people’s positive and negative associations to a group 13. Discuss approaches that are used to reduce prejudice and conflict between groups 1. by having groups interact with each other to realize that they do have similar interests 2. by making sure there is no discrimination 3. by having higher authorities and communities encourage and promote equality between groups 4. by the groups cooperating and working together for one goal Chapter 4 1. List and describe the main features and functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems 1. Central Nervous System 1 1. receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory info 2 2. sends out messages destined for muscles, glands, and internal organs 3 3. made up of brain and spinal chord 2. Peripheral Nervous System 1 1. all portions of nervous system outside the brain and spinal chord, including sensory and motor neurons 2 1. handles CNS inputs an outputs 3 2. contains somatic and autonomic nervous system 2. Distinguish between somatic, autonomic, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous systems 1. somatic: consists of nerves that are connected to the sensory receptors and skeletal muscle 1 allows for you to sense the world and for skeletal muscles to permit voluntary action 2. autonomic: regulates functioning internal organs and glands including blood vessels, glands, and internal organs 3. sympathetic: part of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes that body for action and energy such as accelerating your heart beat 4. parasympathetic: part of autonomic nervous system that slows things down to keep them running smoothly so the body can conserve energy, works with sympathetic so body runs smoothly 3. Describe structure of a neuron and explain how impulses are transmitted 1. neuron: cell that conducts electrochemical signals 1 brain’s communication specialists that transmit info to, from, and within CNS 2. 3 main parts of neuron: 1dendrites: neuron’s branches that receive info from other neurons and transmit it toward cell body, also do some preliminary processing 2cell body: the part of neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it will fire 3axon: transmits info away from cell body to other neurons or to muscle or gland cells 1 myelin sheath: insulates the axons from each other to increase the speed of transmission 3. neurons don’t directly touch each other, separated by space called synaptic cleft 4. communicate through impulses when are transmitted when an action potential occurs 5. impulses then transmitted by one neuron sending an electric charge down axon across synapse to next neuron 6. neurotransmitter(chemicals) cross synaptic cleft to get message to neuron 7. transmission is an all or none effect 4. Describe the roles of glial and stem cells in the brain 1. glial cells: insulate and hold neurons in place while providing nutrients, also remove debris when a neuron dies and enhance formation and maintenance of new neural connections, communicate with neurons and other glial cells 2. stem cells: immature cells that have potential to develop into mature cells 5. Describe the roles of neurotransmitters, endorphins, and hormones 1. neurotransmitters: chemical substance released by transmitting neuron at synapse and alters activity of receiving neuron 2. endorphins: chemical substances in nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates, involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory. endorphin levels rise during times of stress or fear 3. hormones: chemical substances secreted by organs called endocrine glands that affect the function of other organs 6. List and describe techniques that psychologists use to study brain functions 1. (SEE II.A.) 7. List and describe the locations and functions of each major portion of the brain 1. (SEE II.) 8. Summarize the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres and explain 1. two hemispheres connected by corpus callosum 2. left hemisphere: contains language center, more active in logical, symbolic and sequential tasks 3. right hemisphere: superior in spatial-visible ability, facial recognition, and ability to read facial expressions, better at artistic and creativity 9. Summarize the evidence for sex differences in the brain, and explain how any differences might affect behavior 1. women tend to have more cells in areas that process auditory info 1 could mean women are better at listening and talking about feelings, and men are better at math Chapter 7 1. Define and distinguish between concepts, propositions, mental images, and cognitive schemas 1. concept: mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties 2. propositions: units of meaning that are made up of concepts and that express unitary idea 3. mental images: especially visual images, pictures in the mind’s eye and are also very important for thinking 4. cognitive schemas: function as mental models of aspects of the world 2. Distinguish between subconscious processes, non conscious processes, mindlessness 1. subconscious: allow us to handle more info and perform more complex tasks than if we depended entirely on conscious, deliberate thought 2. non conscious: outside of our awareness 3. mindlessness: occurs when we act, speak, and make decisions out of habit 3. Contrast the roles of algorithms and heuristics in problem solving 1. algorithm: set of procedures guaranteed to produce a solution even if you do not fully understand the problem 2. heuristics: involve informal problems, and a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution 4. Distinguish between inductive, deductive reasoning, and between formal and informal reasoning 1. formal reasoning: needed for intelligence test or exam and is needed for drawing a conclusion or finding a solution 2. informal reasoning: have no clear correct solutions, many approaches and viewpoints may be present so you have to decide which one is most reasonable 3. inductive reasoning: when a premise occurs more than once then you can conclude that the premise will most likely be true 4. deductive reasoning: when a conclusion follows a set of observations or propositions 5. dialectical reasoning: process of comparing and evaluating opposing points of view to resolve differences 5. Understand the stages of reflective judgment 1. two pre reflective stages assume that a correct answer always exists and can be obtained through the senses or through authorities 2. three quasi-reflective stages state that people recognize that some things cannot be known with absolute certainty 3. reflective stages are willing to consider evidence from a variety of sources and to reason dialectically 6. Describe the types of cognitive bias that can influence reasoning 1.fairness bias:occurs in certain circumstances when someone does not try to avoid loss altogether 2.hindsight bias: happens when people find out an outcome to an event or answer to a question and they claim they knew the answer all along 3.confirmation bias: occurs when someone only recognizes evidence that strengthens their beliefs and finding fault with evidence or arguments that point in a different direction 7. Define and explain the “g” factor in intelligence and how it is measured 1. underlies the various ability and talents measured by intelligence tests 2. G factor tests do a good job of predicting academic achievement but also cognitive complexity of people’s work, occupational success, and eminence in many fields 8. Distinguish between the psychometric and cognitive approaches to intelligence 1. cognitive: assume that there are many kinds of intelligence and emphasizes the strategies people use when thinking about a problem and arriving at a solution 2. psychometric: focuses on how well people perform on standardized tests which are meant to measure the ability to acquire skills and knowledge 9. Discuss how the use of the IQ test changed when it came to America, and know the criticisms of the IQ tests, including stereotype threat 1. when Binet test came to America it was revised by Lewis Terman to make it more adaptable for American children 2. asked people to do a variety of tasks like filling in missing words in sentences 3. test would adapt to age, older test takers have higher level questions 4. criticized because they did not believe it tested intelligence, but Binet emphasized that it only sampled intelligence 5. stereotype threat: affected the test bc when people believe they will not do well, they usually do worse, which confirms the stereotype 10. Describe the components of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence 1. first, componential intelligence: refers to info processing strategies you use when you are thinking about a problem 2. second, experiential or creative intelligence: creativity when transferring skills to new situations 3. third, contextual or practical intelligence: practical application of intelligence, requires one to take into account the different contexts in which you find yourself 11. Define emotional intelligence 1.emotional intelligence: ability to identify your own and other people’s emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and manage emotions in yourself and others 12. Describe how genes affect intelligence 1. the intelligence that produces high IQ scores is highly heritable 2. studies between twins determines both scores of identical twins were highly correlated 13. Describe factors other than intelligence that contribute to achievement 1. self-discipline and motivation 2. self-discipline can lead to success even if a person doesn’t have very high levels of intelligence 3. self-discipline has a much stronger correlation with good grades than IQ does
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