ANT 102 Exam One Study Guide
ANT 102 Exam One Study Guide 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gena Rivera on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 102 at Illinois State University taught by Maria Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 287 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
What is Anthropology? Anthropology is the study of humankind Four branches of anthropology o Cultural o Archaeology o Linguistic o Biological/physical Study aspects of past and present human biology Deals with evolution and variation among human beings Study biology within the context of culture and behavior Franz Boas- founded anthropology as a discipline, set the foundation of the field Cosmology- the lens through which an individual perceives his or her world, how we conceptualize; its quantitative (measurable) Non-religious Non-Christian Judeo-Christian o Fundamentalists What was the pre-Darwinian cosmology? Influenced strongly by religious doctrine The earth is very young and static Derived from Aristotelian thought The Great Chain of Being- animal hierarchy with humans at the top, right beneath the angels Was evolution the first challenge to Christian cosmology? No, could not explain human variation, explained it with multiple adams and eves What is Polygenism and what role did it play in the development of evolutionary theory? Multiple creation theory, it challenged the common theory at the time; and it accounted for the non-documented beings not mentioned in the bible; it was perceived as scientific Monogenism- one creation Theory- a conclusion drawn based on overwhelming and irrefutable evidence theory- a guess according to the common use and perception of the term Creation science- discredits evolution as a science, introduces a religious interpretation in which there is no physical proof necessary Fixity of species- creationist premise; things are not different from day six of creation; according to this premise there can not be variation Lyell- (1797-1875) a Scottish geologist, researched Hutton’s idea of uniformitarianism and its implications of the history of earth, his research gave evidence that the earth was in fact millions of years old rather than a few thousand Theistic Evolution- evolution is an irrefutable, scientific explanation of how life interacts with the environment; Evolution is also God’s creative tool Intelligent design- evolution operates with a grand designer behind it; different from theistic evolution; can not explain complex concepts What was Darwin’s contribution to to evolutionary theory? Natural selection o Under specific environmental conditions favorable traits are preserved while non-favorable traits dwindle resulting in the formation of a new species He could not explain: o How variation is maintained in a population o How favorable attributes got inherited Cuvier- (1769-1832) Father of paleontology Anti-evolutionist Used the bible to explain geologic history Pioneered paleontology and comparative anatomy, applied it to fossils and reconstructed the physical appearance of past animals and determined their behavior Discovered remains of animals that were extinct; catastrophism o Went against common perception that God created all species, none of which had ever gone extinct His work provided the first basic understanding of the history of life Malthus- (1766-1834) An Essay on the Principle of Population 1798 Made the claim that an abundance of food would allow a population to increase geometrically and indefinitely; the conclusion was that there is not enough food therefore population is limited by food supply Darwin was able to conclude from Malthus’s observation that some members of any species successfully compete for food because they have a special attribute (natural selection) Chevalier de Lamarck- (1744-1829) Speculated that life does not only change form over time but it changes in order to improve, in response to demands/needs (giraffe necks lengthen in their life time- this is wrong) Lamarckism/Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics- when life forms reproduce, they pass on their modifications to their offspring Was confident that humans evolved from ape-like animals Alfred Russell Wallace- (1823-1913) Developed a theory of evolution by means of natural selection like that of Darwin’s but independently Gregor Mendel- (1822-1884) 1865 published a journal of the results of his work on inheritance Mendelian Inheritance- he inferred that a discrete unit is passed from parent to offspring, explaining why characteristics are inherited o Basic principles associated with the transmission of genetic material, formed basis of genetics Offered an explanation as to why the weak continue to persist Discovered that traits DO NOT BLEND Laws of Inheritance- o Law of segregation Each parent contributes equally o Law of independent assortment Features are inherited separately (hair color is inherited separately from eye color) Gene- the physical unit of inheritance Allele- the two subunits of a gene contributed by the father and the mother Dominant- physically expressed Recessive- hidden Evolutionary synthesis- the combination of Darwin’s theory of evolution based on natural selection and Mendel’s theory of heredity Population genetics- focuses on changes in gene frequencies and the effects of changes on adaptation and evolution How did new variation/new characteristics get introduced into a population? Why do some genes increase in frequency and some decrease? Mutation- the only source of new genetic material Gene flow- the diffusion of new genetic material from one population to another of the same species Genetic drift- random change in the frequency of alleles; effects a small population more powerfully than it does a large population; the breeding sample is very small therefore the mutation/adaptive trait becomes common more quickly Four causes of evolution- 1. Natural selection 2. Mutation 3. Gene flow 4. Genetic drift DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid, makes chromosomes Crossing over- the process by which homologous chromosomes wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis; this process makes sure that no two people are alike by introducing variability Endemic disease- a disease that never goes away; it is always in the environment; it is a constant selective factor Epidemic disease- a disease which surfaces for a certain amount of time but then goes away until it resurfaces again Founder effect- where a small population acts as the founder of an eventual larger population; all variation stems from that small population Microevolution- small-scale evolution; changes in allele frequency that occurs from one generation to the next Macroevolution- large-scale evolution, which occurs over hundreds or thousands of generations Balanced polymorphism- alleles must add up to the maximum number of carriers; the difference between alleles equals the maximum Fixation- The inevitable consequence that happens in a small population when alleles have no adaptive value; one allele becomes 100% while the others diminish Hardy-Weinberg Law of equilibrium- a mathematical calculation of population genetics which reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes; frequencies between generations are mathematically predictable, unless something is altering it (drift or evolution) Homozygous- refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are the same Heterozygous- refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different Polymorphism- the presence of two or more alleles at a locus and where the frequency of the alleles is greater than 1% in the population Mitosis- the process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells Meiosis- the production of gametes through one DNA replication and two cellular and nuclear divisions; creates four haploid gametic cells; the replication phases which allows variability through crossing over Sickle Cell Trait- a deleterious gene when in the right circumstance can have an adaptive advantage Point mutation- the smallest possible mistake that can occur on DNA
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