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POLI 2500 International Relations Study Guide - Exam 1

by: Lauren Notetaker

POLI 2500 International Relations Study Guide - Exam 1 POLI 2500

Marketplace > Tulane University > Political Science > POLI 2500 > POLI 2500 International Relations Study Guide Exam 1
Lauren Notetaker

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This is a comprehensive study guide covering the basic ideas of realism, liberalism, constructivism and feminist theory. Hope this helps!
International Relations
Christina Kiel
Study Guide
international relations, Politics, world, global
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 2500 at Tulane University taught by Christina Kiel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Study Guide for Midterm Exam I, February 5 International Realtions Lauren Ellis 2/1/16 I. Major Ideas of Readings 1. Keohane, 2007: cooperation vs. conflict, role of sovereignty, concept of power, problems with IR (studying war - rare event - compared to peace), question such as - how did technology influence IR? environmental influence? do humans have an obligation to one another? 2. New York Times, 2014: political right to break away? should the international community allow Crimea to break away and join Russia? — U.S. argues that Kosovo had the right to break away from Serbia, but Crimea had no right to succeed from Ukraine because self-determination does not mean a neighboring country has the right to take over parts of a state —> succession is okay only when violence is present 3. Morgenthau: talks about Realism and the power struggle, sees world as opposing interests and views, moral obligation is state survival, power does not always mean force, it means control over other’s minds/actions; thinks that institutions are naive to think they can overcome individual power hunger 4. Mearsheimer, 2001: talks about anarchy and the power struggle, assumptions: 1. the international system is anarchic 2. great power inherently posses offensive military capability 3. state cannot be certain about other states’intentions 4. survival is the primary goal of great powers 5. great powers are rational actors 5. Kant, 1795: gave three answers to why there may be a positive trend toward peace (wars are less often), believes cooperation is more rational than war 1. intergovernmental organizations, organizations/rules to facilitate cooperation, existence of a world federation (UN) 2. Republicanism, democracies (leaders who take into account the masses) 3. Universal hospitality, trade, economic interdependence 6. Miller, 2012: talks aboutAmerica’s democratization efforts (U.S. foreign policy trend = democracy promotion) and the Democratic Peace Model • strengths - democracies less likely to be violent, more likely to trade with U.S., more resistant to hegemony • weaknesses - often times fails, can be destabilizing, implementation done carelessly (ex: lack of infrastructure) — U.S. needs to fix these weaknesses by fixing its alliance network and global-aid distribution 7. Fukuyama, 1998: feminist IR theory, violence and aggression in men (biological comparisons to chimps), claims that a world run by women would be different/ more peaceful/less prone to conflict, says that gender digression in military is important for “male-bonding” 8. Snyder,, 2004: discusses the major theories of IR and compares them (see chart) 9. Drezner, 2010: speaks about “zombies” (unknown unknowns in IR) and how they would affect world politics 1. realist - says the power stubble would continue, would not affect much, or people would exploit situation for personal gain 2. liberals - cooperate to defeat zombies 3. neoconservatism - kill all the zombies because they are from hell; no attempt at cooperation because think that the zombies are part of a single axis of evil enemies III. Terms and Concepts 1. Levels of analysis: ordering system in IR; sorts influences, actors and processes into categories -> individual, domestic (state, society) and system (international, interstate) 2. Non-state actors: “transnational” actors when operating across borders, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs, ex: UN, OPEC), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multinational corporations 3. Sovereignty: states can rule their own internal affairs, state has completely authority over its territory, no challenge to ruler internally, no outsider can interfere with internal affairs, recognition of sovereign from other states 4. State: recognized by other countries as sovereign, territory with boundaries, government with the ability to make rules/regulations, contains a population, exercises sovereignty (any type of sovereign regime) 5. Nationalism: the devotion to the interests of one’s nation 6. Self-determination: people who identity as a nation have the right to freely decided their political destiny (clashes with idea of sovereignty sometimes) 7. Realism (assumptions, weaknesses): explains IR in terms of power, the principle of dominance, reaction to Idealism (which emphasizes law, morality and international organizations; sees people are good-natured) • assumptions - anarchy, states are central/unitary/rational actors, international political is amoral, distribution of power is the central force in IR • weaknesses - international organizations or agreements/treaties counteract “anarchy” 8. Power: the ability to get another actor to do what it would not have done otherwise; the ability or potential to influence others 9.Anarchy: no central authority (no world government) 10. Security dilemma: situation in which states’actions to ensure their own security, in turn threatens the security of other states (ex: arms race) 11. Balance of power: relationships and interactions between countries in order to “balance” or check each other’s power, counterbalancing, stability from recurring wars that adjust power relations, power transition theory - wars result from challenges to the top power, when a rising power surpasses/threatens to surpass the most powerful state 12. Bipolarity: two great power centers, stable? 13. Multipolarity: five or six power centers, not grouped alliances, less stable? 14. Hegemony: when one state holds most of the power in the international system; dominates rules/arrangements; central executive that anarchy is missing? stabilizes the system? (hegemonic stability theory) 15. Rationality: policy makers are rational actors, taking into account the interests of each state 16. Cost-benefit-analysis: systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives 17. Offensive realism: “holds the anarchic nature of the international system is responsible for aggressive state behavior in international politics” 18. Prisoner’s Dilemma: says that cooperation between rational actors is unlikely, not always practical in real world application because international actors interact and change strategic behavior 19. Liberalism (assumptions, weaknesses): unlike Realism, draws on reciprocity or identity principles, more optimists about the prospects for peace/cooperation • assumptions • weaknesses 20. Liberal institutionalism: worldwide federation of states, reciprocity, understands anarchy exists and that states are rational actors, cooperation in each states interest (sees military force as not as effective as cooperation) sovereignty and peaceful conflict resolutions, collective punishment for cheaters 21. Complex interdependence: multiple channels/issues connect states or motivate actors, variety of actors, web of relationships 22. Democratic peace (monadic and dyadic arguments, weaknesses) • monadic - in general, democracies are more peaceful (not necessarily true - fight as many wars) because they take into account the opinions of the people • dyadic - democracies do not fight democracies; democracies still go to war, just not with one another; why? 1. structural - compromise, keep promises 2. normative - values, shared democratic norms 3. institutional (ration choice theory) - political costs if war is lost, leader accountability, institutional constraints (declaring war, congress, etc.) • weaknesses - difficult to conceptualize and define democracy, how significant is the absent of war in democracies (war is already rare), historically there are few democracies, hard to study/make broad assumptions 23. Constructivism: focuses on the nature of norms, identity and social interaction, holds that shared identities are complex and changing and arise form interactions with other states (socialization is the cause of identity) - - - “the claim that significant aspects of international relations are historically and socially constructed, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics” 24. Socialization: interactions in the international community create socially constructed interests 25. Norms: shared expectations of behavior; international norms may have the power to retain state action 26. Economic structuralism: sees classes as the main actors, claims that international and domestic politics arise from unequal relationships between economic classes, sees collaboration as the exploitation of the poor 27. Class struggle: unequal relationships among classes, possible cause of unequal political relationships domestically and globally 28. Marxism: sees economics as motivation in politics and source of power (economic determinism), think poverty/political inequality derives from unequal wealth distribution 29. Imperialism: “a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force” 30. Liberal feminism: focuses on the integration of women into the primarily male- dominated areas of foreign policymaking and the military, rejects the argument that women bring unique or different assets to IR, claims that female participation will enhance state capabilities 31. Difference feminism: claims that women’s unique abilities will transform the world system, focuses on the differences between women and men • weaknesses - bell curve shows that allow difference exists, they usually do not come into play in real world practice of IR (given by Kiel) Examples for specific concepts: 1. What/Who are the actors in international relations? 2. What are the characteristics of a state? What is the difference between a state and a nation? 3. What is the scientific process of approaching IR questions? 4. What are three uses for theory? 5. What are the assumptions of realism? 6. How can we measure power? 7. What are some norms of the international system? 8. What is the hegemonic stability theory? The power transition theory? 9. What is rational behavior? What are the implications for IR? 10. What were Immanuel Kant’s three answers why peace and international cooperation are possible? 11. How does liberal institutionalism differ from realist theory? Where does liberalism agree with realism? 12. What differentiates “difference feminism” from “liberal feminism”?


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