BIO 123- Chapter 35
BIO 123- Chapter 35 BIO 123
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany Liao on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 123 at Syracuse University taught by Jason Wiles in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chp 35 Vascular plants- 3 basic organs- roots, stems, leaves Root system and shoot system (stems and leaves) Root not photosynthetic and absorb water and minerals from soil for shoots Shoot produce photosynthates for roots Root system- Anchors plant, absorbs mineral and water, stores carbohydrates – Eudicots and gymnosperms have taproot system develops from an embryonic root – Taproot give rise to lateral roots (branch roots) - In most monocots (ex. Grasses) no taproot, but adventitios grows in all directions Adaptation of roots- - Fibrous root system- thin roots that don’t go deep into soil - Root hair- increase surface area of root for absorption - Buttress roots- shallow roots of tall trees in moist tropics - Pneumatophores- air roots - Strangling aerial roots- grow to the ground, wrapping around the host tree and objects - Storage root- store food and water in root (ex: Beet) - Prop roots- adventitious roots that support tall, top-heavy plants Stem- raises or separates leaves, exposing to sunlight, raise reproductive structure Axillary bud- a structure that can form a lateral shoot (branch) Apical bud- terminal bud, composed of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes Apical dominance- inhibition of axillary buds by an apical bud Adaptations of stems- 1) Rhizomes- a horizontal shoot that grows just below surface, vertical shoots emerge from axillary buds 2) Buds- vertical underground shoots consisting mostly of the enlarged bases of leaves that store food (ex. Onion) 3) Stolons- Horizontal shoots that grow along the surface “runners”, reproduce asexually (ex. Strawberry) 4) Tubers- Enlarged ends of rhizomes or stolons specialized for storing food (ex. Potatoes) Derma, Vascular, Ground Tissue Tissue system - Connects all of the plant’s organs - Dermal tissue system- outer protective covering 1) Epidermis- non-woody plants, layer of tightly packed cells Plant cells- 1) Parenchyma cells- lacks secondary walls, have a large central vacuole. Perform most of the metabolic functions, synthesizing and storing organic products 2) Collenchyma cells- elongated, provide flexible support w/o restraining growth in young parts of shoots 3) Sclerenchyma cells- rigid wall that contain lignin (dry mass of wood), cannot elongate after mature a. Sclereid- boxier than fibers, have thick, lignified secondary walls, import hardness to nutshells and seed coats and gritty texture to pear fruits b. Fiber- long, slender, tapered 4) Water conducting cells of Xylem- both have lignin secondary wall, dead at functional maturity a. Tracheids- long, thin cells with tapered ends b. Vessel elements- wider, shorter, thinner walled, enable water to flow freely through 5) Sugar-conducting cells of the Phloem- alive at functional maturity a. Sieve-tube elements- where nutrients are transported through, lack a nucleus, ribosomes, vacuole, and cytoskeleton - Sieve plates- end walls between sieve-tube elements, have pores b. Companion cell- help load sugars into the sieve-tube elements Indeterminate growth- growth occurs continuously throughout the plant’s life Determinate growth- leaves, flowers, stop growing after reaching a certain size Meristems- undifferentiated tissues that divide when conditions permit, allowing indeterminate growth a. Apical meristems- the tips of roots and shoots and in axillary buds of shoots provide additional cells that enable primary growth- allow roots to extend throughout the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light (mostly in herbaceous, non-woody, plants) b. Lateral meristems- called vascular cambium and cork cambium, which extends along the length of roots and stems enable secondary growth- growth in thickness in woody plants Vascular cambium- adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem Cork cambium- replaces the epidermis with the thicker, tougher periderm Root cap- protects the delicate apical meristem, secretes polysaccharide slime that lubricates the soil 3 zones of cell division in primary growth- produce epidermis, ground tissue, and vascular tissue 1) Cell division- include root apical meristem 2) Elongation- where growth occurs as root cells elongate 3) Differentiation (maturation)- cells complete differentiation and become distinct Endodermis- innermost layer of the cortex, a selective barrier that regulates passage of substances from the soil into the vascular cylinder Pericycle (lateral roots)- outermost cells layer in the vascular cylinder LEAF- main photosynthetic organ - Blade and petiole joins the leaf to the stem at a node - Monocot and eudicots differ in veins arrangement - Simple leaf - Compound leaf- leaflet - Doubly compound leaf – leaflet Special leaves- 1) Tendrils- forms a coil that brings plant closer to the support (ex. Pea plant) 2) Spines- prickly pear that protect the plant from animals, shade it from the sun and also collect moisture (ex. Cacti) 3) Storage leaves- adapted for storing water (ex. Succulents) 4) Reproductive leaves- produce adventitious plantlets which an fall off and take root in the soil (ex. Succulents) 5) Bracts- brightly color (red parts of the poinsettia) Leaf primordial- finger-like projections along the sides of the apical meristem that develop leaves In eudicots- ground tissue toward the inside is called pith, ground tissue toward the outside is called cortex (ring) In monocots- ground tissue is not partitioned into pith and cortex (scatter) - Ground tissue consist mostly of parenchyma cells Stomata- allow exchange of CO2 and O2 between the air and photosynthetic cells inside leaf Guard cells- regulate the opening and closing of the pore Mesophyll- ground tissue of a leaf consist mostly of parenchyma cells for photosynthesis two layers: palisade mesophyll consists parenchyma cells on the upper part of the leaf, spongy mesophyll consists loose parenchyma cells and air spaces which CO2 and oxygen circulate around and up to the palisade region Monocot leaves- Have parallel venation Dicot leaves- Netted venation Monocot stem where vascular bundles are scattered Eudicot stem where vascular bundles are in a distinct ring form (pith, Primary growth- adds leaves and lengthens stems and roots in younger regions of a plant Secondary growth- caused by lateral meristems, occurs in stems and roots of woody plants, but rarely in leaves; increases the diameter of stems and roots in older regions - Vascular cambium- adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem - Cork cambium- replaces the epidermis with the thicker, tougher periderm - Vascular cambium consists of a continuous cylinder of undifferentiated parenchyma cells. In woody stem- located outside the pith and primary xylem and to the inside of the cortex and primary phloem. In woody root- forms to the exterior of the primary xylem and interior to the primary phloem and pericycle - Most of the thickening is from secondary xylem - Bark includes all tissues external to the vascular cambium, its main components are the secondary phloem Adaptations for photosynthesis- - - Most leaves have broad, flattened blade- efficient in collecting sun’s radiant energy - - Stomata open during day – for gas exchange needed in photosynthesis. Close at night to conserve water when photosynthesis is not occurring - * Except for in CAM plants (usually arid environments) then, the stomata open at night - - Transparent epidermis- allow light to penetrate into middle of leaf, where photosynthesis occurs - Transpiration- loss of water vapor from aerial parts of plants- occurs primarily through stomata - - Rate of transpiratoaffected by environmental factors- temperature, wind, relative humidity - - Effect of transpiration- - Both beneficial and harmful to plant - Trade-off between- CO2 requirement for photosynthesis – need for water conservation
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