FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide
FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide FTV 106A
Popular in History of the American Motion Pciture
Popular in Film
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Lans on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FTV 106A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Kuntz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see History of the American Motion Pciture in Film at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide Early Cinema -‐ Marey & Muybridge (1830-‐ 1904) o Zoetrope: 1 moving picture apparatus (study movements of horses) o Chronophotography-‐ several frames o (1882) Camera gun o (1888) Paper film o (1868) Flip book -‐ Photography emerging in early 1800s: Niepce’s photograph, daguerrotype, Talbot’s negatives, dry plate photography, plastic roll film -‐ Thomas Edison-‐ 35 mm. film o (1891) Kinetograph-‐ patented camera st o (1892) Black Maria-‐ 1 studio o (1894) Kinetoscope for sale-‐ watch moving pictures -‐ Lumiere Cinématographe-‐ hand cranked, portable filming device -‐ Magic Lantern-‐ projection device -‐ Vaudeville: dominant form of middle class mass entertainment; series of unconnected acts on stage; Edison brought motion picture -‐ Biograph (Dickson, 1895), Vitagraph (Blackton, 1897) o Mutoscope: reinvented, better quality 70mm camera -‐ Hale’s Tours (1900): amusement park ride that exploited motion picture -‐ Georges Melies (1861-‐ 1938)-‐ star films o Trip to the Moon (1902)-‐ 1 special effects, narrative storytelling -‐ Edwin S. Porter (1870-‐ 1941) o (1902) Jack & the Beanstalk-‐ American stswer to Trip to the Moon o (1902) Life of an American Fireman-‐ 1 close-‐up, multi-‐perspective o (1903) The Great Train Robbery-‐ starts Nickelodeon era Nickelodeon Era -‐ The Nickelodeon-‐ converted store front theaters, $0.05 admission, frequent change of program, films rented from distribution exchanges o One-‐reel subjects: topical, Westerns, melodramas -‐ Leading production companies: Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph o 1-‐2 reels/week o “Ben Hur” copyright case (1907)-‐ Kalem Companies sued for producing “Ben Hur” § Copyright law à Screenwriters -‐ Independent studios: Lubin, Selif, Essanay, Path, Kalem, Kleine, Gaumont -‐ The Motion Picture Patents Company o (1908) The Trust-‐ Edison collects money from licensing cameras to other studios; starts monopoly w/other studios § Sherman Anti-‐Trust Act & too much demand at downfall of The Trust § (1917) Final Supreme Court ruling, Trust fell apart o (1909) Independent Moving Picture Co.-‐ Carl Laemmle § Market films through publicizing stars st • Florence Lawrence-‐ 1 movie st star o (1910) MPPC forms General Film Co.-‐ 1 nationwide distributor of films o Greater New York Film Rental Co.-‐ William Fox (1879-‐ 1952) st -‐ D.W. Griffith (1875-‐ 1948) – 1 American filmmaker o Started at Biograph o Experimented w/ different shots/perspectives, close-‐up, crosscutting, alternate editing, moving camera, social commentary/big themes, parallel storytelling (4-‐ part structure), longer films (feature) § The Birth of a Nation (1915), Intolerance (1916) Feature Film -‐ Feature: 1-‐ 1.5 hr films -‐ Film d’Art (France): preserve classic French plays -‐ Adolph Zukor: Famous Players, Famous Plays-‐ brings feature to US o Public wanted to see young, beautiful stars (Mary Pickford-‐ 1 great Hollywood star) -‐ Film stage plays/ books; higher admission price -‐ Exhibition: o The Deluxe Theater: $1-‐2 admission, feature w/ live music, weekly change of program, ornate theater o The Roxy Theater-‐ quality of service, A/C in theaters o Grauman’s Chinese Theater (1927), Egyptian Theater (1922) -‐ Paramount: 1 Nationwide feature film distribution (W.W. Hodkinson, 1914) o (1916) Merged production & distribution w/ Zukor & Famous Players o Block Booking: could only rent films on all or none basis (50 features/yr.) -‐ Move to Hollywood: year round sunshine, warm weather, inexpensive/available land, unique environments, not unionized o “Movie Struck Girl” à “casting couch” -‐ Studio System o Thomas Ince (1880-‐1924) created 1 studio o Factory/mass production system o Producer, Film Studio, Screenplay, Division of Labor -‐ Early silent movie stars: st o Mary Pickford-‐ st star, innocent heroine o Theda Bara-‐ 1 screen vamp, sexuality o William S Hart-‐ Westerns o Charlie Chaplin (1889-‐1997)-‐ complete filmmaker, slapstick, acrobatic skills, “The Tramp” o Mack Sennett (1880-‐1960)-‐ slapstick, founds Keystone Studios Silent Era -‐ Paramount: Adolph Zukor; built vertically integrated films throughout US; people feared his monopoly -‐ First National (WB): nationwide distribution o Vertically integrated: production, distribution, exhibition -‐ United Artists (1919): Distribution only company; independent films o Threatened by Paramount & FN -‐ Loew’s Inc.—MGM o Marcus Leow owned movie houses in NY, came to Hollywood & purchased several companies (Metro Co., Goldwyn Co.) -‐ Universal, Fox -‐ Movie Stars of ‘20’s o Douglas Fairbanks: he-‐man, athletic hero o Rudolph Valentino: Great Latin Lover o Clara Bow: flapper star, IT girl o Greta Garbo: reclusive star o Tom Mix: Western o Lon Chaney: Man of a Thousand Faces o Charlie Chaplin o Buster Keaton: acrobatic slapstick routines, famous for falls o Harold Lloyd: All-‐ American boy/nerd, lost half of his hand o Cecil B DeMille: director; gigantic films, big budget big profit (Paramount) Sound Film -‐ Needed amplification & synchronization for transition to sound film -‐ Lee De Forest: (1907) Audion tube (amplifies sound), phonofilm (optical sound on film) -‐ AT&T-‐ monopoly founded by Alexander Graham Bell o Purchases De Forest’s amplifier system-‐ long distance calls, sound on disc (electronically sync sound & film) -‐ Warner Brothers: Vitaphone (WB & AT&T experiment w/sound-‐ Don Juan) o Radio as free broadcasted entertainment was threat to movie studios o (1928) Studios sign w/AT&T & Western Electric-‐ conversion to sound films begin o Warner makes talkies (The Jazz Singer, 1927); builds sound stages -‐ Fox Movietone: Fox Case optical sound on film o Tries to compete w/WB w/newsreels with sound (1927 Lindbergh Flight) o Star-‐driven approach, establishes self as best news reel -‐ Changes: o Production: § Static camera-‐ too loud/heavy to be moved; resembled filmed staged plays § (1930s) Housing for camera built allowing it to be moved § Conversion to sound stages (light & sound proof) o Exhibition: US theaters wired by AT&T o Hollywood: § Hiring of sound personnel, stage directors to supervise dialogues, vocal coaches, composers, songwriters § Hiring of Broadway actors; some silent stars couldn’t make transition to sound -‐ Early sound genre: musical Hollywood in the Depression -‐ 1930’s Depression & New Deal o (1933) Half the companies are in bankruptcy (stock market crash of 1929) o Exhibition attempts to make more money: concessions, half-‐price nights/giveaways, double bill & B-‐movie (2 for the price of 1) -‐ Recovery Act Administration-‐ Roosevelt traveled around country & tried to find solutions for every business sector (Hollywood code included block booking, tried to ban double bill); Code of Fair Practices -‐ Bankruptcy & receivership for Paramount, Fox, RKO, Universal -‐ Exploitation (sex & crime) as reaction to Depression to draw audiences in o Mae West: Former Vaudeville star, frank presentation of sexuality o Catholic Legion of Decency-‐ negative evaluation of films, condemned films -‐ Attacks on Hollywood: o National Board of Censorship: established by Edison (before Hollywood); self-‐ censorship to forestall outside censorship & gov’t regulation o Hollywood hit w/series of scandals in ‘20’s (Roscoe Arbuckle tried for manslaughter, William Taylor gunned down, Wallace Reid’s heroin addiction) o Establish MMPDA: Clean up Hollywood & lobby in DC against gov’t legislation; run by Will Hayes § Hayes addresses casting couch issue-‐ creates Central Casting Agency § Writes more specific Production Code in conjunction w/Catholic figures o Legion of Decency created to formalize opposition to films § Production Code Admin. (Joseph Breen) reviews film production & gives films seal of approval -‐ Shirley Temple replaces Mae West as #1 female at box office -‐ Principle: films shouldn’t lower moral standards of audience; law shouldn’t be ridiculed
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