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FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Andrea Lans

FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide FTV 106A

Marketplace > University of California - Los Angeles > Film > FTV 106A > FTV 106A Midterm 1 Study Guide
Andrea Lans

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About this Document

These notes cover Early Cinema to Hollywood during the Depression.
History of the American Motion Pciture
Dr. Kuntz
Study Guide
History of the American Motion Picture, midterm, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Lans on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FTV 106A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Kuntz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see History of the American Motion Pciture in Film at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
FTV  106A  Midterm  1  Study  Guide     Early  Cinema   -­‐   Marey  &  Muybridge  (1830-­‐  1904)   o   Zoetrope:  1  moving  picture  apparatus  (study  movements  of  horses)   o   Chronophotography-­‐  several  frames   o   (1882)  Camera  gun   o   (1888)  Paper  film   o   (1868)  Flip  book   -­‐   Photography  emerging  in  early  1800s:  Niepce’s  photograph,  daguerrotype,  Talbot’s   negatives,  dry  plate  photography,  plastic  roll  film   -­‐   Thomas  Edison-­‐  35  mm.  film   o   (1891)  Kinetograph-­‐  patented  camera   st o   (1892)  Black  Maria-­‐  1  studio   o   (1894)  Kinetoscope  for  sale-­‐  watch  moving  pictures   -­‐   Lumiere  Cinématographe-­‐  hand  cranked,  portable  filming  device   -­‐   Magic  Lantern-­‐  projection  device   -­‐   Vaudeville:  dominant  form  of  middle  class  mass  entertainment;  series  of  unconnected   acts  on  stage;  Edison  brought  motion  picture   -­‐   Biograph  (Dickson,  1895),  Vitagraph  (Blackton,  1897)   o   Mutoscope:  reinvented,  better  quality  70mm  camera   -­‐   Hale’s  Tours  (1900):  amusement  park  ride  that  exploited  motion  picture   -­‐   Georges  Melies  (1861-­‐  1938)-­‐  star  films   o   Trip  to  the  Moon  (1902)-­‐  1  special  effects,  narrative  storytelling   -­‐   Edwin  S.  Porter  (1870-­‐  1941)   o   (1902)  Jack  &  the  Beanstalk-­‐  American  stswer  to  Trip  to  the  Moon   o   (1902)  Life  of  an  American  Fireman-­‐  1  close-­‐up,  multi-­‐perspective   o   (1903)  The  Great  Train  Robbery-­‐  starts  Nickelodeon  era   Nickelodeon  Era   -­‐   The  Nickelodeon-­‐  converted  store  front  theaters,  $0.05  admission,  frequent  change  of   program,  films  rented  from  distribution  exchanges   o   One-­‐reel  subjects:  topical,  Westerns,  melodramas   -­‐   Leading  production  companies:  Edison,  Biograph,  Vitagraph   o   1-­‐2  reels/week   o   “Ben  Hur”  copyright  case  (1907)-­‐  Kalem  Companies  sued  for  producing  “Ben   Hur”   §   Copyright  law  à  Screenwriters   -­‐   Independent  studios:  Lubin,  Selif,  Essanay,  Path,  Kalem,  Kleine,  Gaumont   -­‐   The  Motion  Picture  Patents  Company   o   (1908)  The  Trust-­‐  Edison  collects  money  from  licensing  cameras  to  other  studios;   starts  monopoly  w/other  studios   §   Sherman  Anti-­‐Trust  Act  &  too  much  demand  at  downfall  of  The  Trust   §   (1917)  Final  Supreme  Court  ruling,  Trust  fell  apart   o   (1909)  Independent  Moving  Picture  Co.-­‐  Carl  Laemmle   §   Market  films  through  publicizing  stars   st •   Florence  Lawrence-­‐  1  movie st star   o   (1910)  MPPC  forms  General  Film  Co.-­‐  1  nationwide  distributor  of  films   o   Greater  New  York  Film  Rental  Co.-­‐  William  Fox  (1879-­‐  1952)   st -­‐   D.W.  Griffith  (1875-­‐  1948)  –  1  American  filmmaker   o   Started  at  Biograph   o   Experimented  w/  different  shots/perspectives,  close-­‐up,  crosscutting,  alternate   editing,  moving  camera,  social  commentary/big  themes,  parallel  storytelling  (4-­‐ part  structure),  longer  films  (feature)   §   The  Birth  of  a  Nation  (1915),  Intolerance  (1916)   Feature  Film   -­‐   Feature:  1-­‐  1.5  hr  films   -­‐   Film  d’Art  (France):  preserve  classic  French  plays   -­‐   Adolph  Zukor:  Famous  Players,  Famous  Plays-­‐  brings  feature  to  US   o   Public  wanted  to  see  young,  beautiful  stars  (Mary  Pickford-­‐  1  great  Hollywood   star)   -­‐   Film  stage  plays/  books;  higher  admission  price   -­‐   Exhibition:   o   The  Deluxe  Theater:  $1-­‐2  admission,  feature  w/  live  music,  weekly  change  of   program,  ornate  theater   o   The  Roxy  Theater-­‐  quality  of  service,  A/C  in  theaters   o   Grauman’s  Chinese  Theater  (1927),  Egyptian  Theater  (1922)   -­‐   Paramount:  1  Nationwide  feature  film  distribution  (W.W.  Hodkinson,  1914)   o   (1916)  Merged  production  &  distribution  w/  Zukor  &  Famous  Players   o   Block  Booking:  could  only  rent  films  on  all  or  none  basis  (50  features/yr.)   -­‐   Move  to  Hollywood:  year  round  sunshine,  warm  weather,  inexpensive/available  land,   unique  environments,  not  unionized   o   “Movie  Struck  Girl”  à  “casting  couch”   -­‐   Studio  System   o   Thomas  Ince  (1880-­‐1924)  created  1  studio   o   Factory/mass  production  system   o   Producer,  Film  Studio,  Screenplay,  Division  of  Labor   -­‐   Early  silent  movie  stars:   st o   Mary  Pickford-­‐ st  star,  innocent  heroine   o   Theda  Bara-­‐  1  screen  vamp,  sexuality   o   William  S  Hart-­‐  Westerns   o   Charlie  Chaplin  (1889-­‐1997)-­‐  complete  filmmaker,  slapstick,  acrobatic  skills,  “The   Tramp”   o   Mack  Sennett  (1880-­‐1960)-­‐  slapstick,  founds  Keystone  Studios   Silent  Era   -­‐   Paramount:  Adolph  Zukor;  built  vertically  integrated  films  throughout  US;  people  feared   his  monopoly   -­‐   First  National  (WB):  nationwide  distribution   o   Vertically  integrated:  production,  distribution,  exhibition   -­‐   United  Artists  (1919):  Distribution  only  company;  independent  films   o   Threatened  by  Paramount  &  FN   -­‐   Loew’s  Inc.—MGM     o   Marcus  Leow  owned  movie  houses  in  NY,  came  to  Hollywood  &  purchased   several  companies  (Metro  Co.,  Goldwyn  Co.)   -­‐   Universal,  Fox   -­‐   Movie  Stars  of  ‘20’s   o   Douglas  Fairbanks:  he-­‐man,  athletic  hero   o   Rudolph  Valentino:  Great  Latin  Lover   o   Clara  Bow:  flapper  star,  IT  girl   o   Greta  Garbo:  reclusive  star   o   Tom  Mix:  Western   o   Lon  Chaney:  Man  of  a  Thousand  Faces   o   Charlie  Chaplin   o   Buster  Keaton:  acrobatic  slapstick  routines,  famous  for  falls   o   Harold  Lloyd:  All-­‐  American  boy/nerd,  lost  half  of  his  hand   o   Cecil  B  DeMille:  director;  gigantic  films,  big  budget  big  profit  (Paramount)   Sound  Film   -­‐   Needed  amplification  &  synchronization  for  transition  to  sound  film   -­‐   Lee  De  Forest:  (1907)  Audion  tube  (amplifies  sound),  phonofilm  (optical  sound  on  film)   -­‐   AT&T-­‐  monopoly  founded  by  Alexander  Graham  Bell   o   Purchases  De  Forest’s  amplifier  system-­‐  long  distance  calls,  sound  on  disc   (electronically  sync  sound  &  film)   -­‐   Warner  Brothers:  Vitaphone  (WB  &  AT&T  experiment  w/sound-­‐  Don  Juan)   o   Radio  as  free  broadcasted  entertainment  was  threat  to  movie  studios   o   (1928)  Studios  sign  w/AT&T  &  Western  Electric-­‐  conversion  to  sound  films  begin   o   Warner  makes  talkies  (The  Jazz  Singer,  1927);  builds  sound  stages   -­‐   Fox  Movietone:  Fox  Case  optical  sound  on  film     o   Tries  to  compete  w/WB  w/newsreels  with  sound  (1927  Lindbergh  Flight)   o   Star-­‐driven  approach,  establishes  self  as  best  news  reel   -­‐   Changes:   o   Production:   §   Static  camera-­‐  too  loud/heavy  to  be  moved;  resembled  filmed  staged   plays   §   (1930s)  Housing  for  camera  built  allowing  it  to  be  moved   §   Conversion  to  sound  stages  (light  &  sound  proof)   o   Exhibition:  US  theaters  wired  by  AT&T   o   Hollywood:     §   Hiring  of  sound  personnel,  stage  directors  to  supervise  dialogues,  vocal   coaches,  composers,  songwriters   §   Hiring  of  Broadway  actors;  some  silent  stars  couldn’t  make  transition  to   sound   -­‐   Early  sound  genre:  musical   Hollywood  in  the  Depression   -­‐   1930’s  Depression  &  New  Deal   o   (1933)  Half  the  companies  are  in  bankruptcy  (stock  market  crash  of  1929)   o   Exhibition  attempts  to  make  more  money:  concessions,  half-­‐price   nights/giveaways,  double  bill  &  B-­‐movie  (2  for  the  price  of  1)   -­‐   Recovery  Act  Administration-­‐  Roosevelt  traveled  around  country  &  tried  to  find   solutions  for  every  business  sector  (Hollywood  code  included  block  booking,  tried  to  ban   double  bill);  Code  of  Fair  Practices   -­‐   Bankruptcy  &  receivership  for  Paramount,  Fox,  RKO,  Universal   -­‐   Exploitation  (sex  &  crime)  as  reaction  to  Depression  to  draw  audiences  in   o   Mae  West:  Former  Vaudeville  star,  frank  presentation  of  sexuality   o   Catholic  Legion  of  Decency-­‐  negative  evaluation  of  films,  condemned  films   -­‐   Attacks  on  Hollywood:   o   National  Board  of  Censorship:  established  by  Edison  (before  Hollywood);  self-­‐ censorship  to  forestall  outside  censorship  &  gov’t  regulation   o   Hollywood  hit  w/series  of  scandals  in  ‘20’s  (Roscoe  Arbuckle  tried  for   manslaughter,  William  Taylor  gunned  down,  Wallace  Reid’s  heroin  addiction)   o   Establish  MMPDA:  Clean  up  Hollywood  &  lobby  in  DC  against  gov’t  legislation;   run  by  Will  Hayes   §   Hayes  addresses  casting  couch  issue-­‐  creates  Central  Casting  Agency   §   Writes  more  specific  Production  Code  in  conjunction  w/Catholic  figures   o   Legion  of  Decency  created  to  formalize  opposition  to  films   §   Production  Code  Admin.  (Joseph  Breen)  reviews  film  production  &  gives   films  seal  of  approval   -­‐        Shirley  Temple  replaces  Mae  West  as  #1  female  at  box  office   -­‐        Principle:  films  shouldn’t  lower  moral  standards  of  audience;  law  shouldn’t  be  ridiculed    


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