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Philosophy Study Guide

by: Riley Lassiter

Philosophy Study Guide Phil 2003

Riley Lassiter
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Contains orgin of philosophy and beginning principles.
Dr. Busch
Study Guide
philosophy, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Riley Lassiter on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 2003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Busch in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Philosophy Test #1  Origin  Philosopher: lover of wisdom  Study of Philosophy  Part 1: Problems area  Part 2: History of Philosophy  3 Subject Areas 1. Epistemology a. Belief, theory of knowledge i. What is faith, religion, opinion, knowledge? ii. How do you justify what “you know”? iii. Knowledge justified belief. 2. Metaphysics a. “Beyond nature” or “Supernatural” i. You can’t know beyond nature unless you know nature, physics first. ii. Cause can come after effect 1. Today and yesterday iii. Why is there something rather than nothing? iv. Why is what is, the way it is? v. The only way you refute an argument is state why it won’t work or if  the argument is a fallacy but that doesn’t mean you’ve established the  truth. 3. Axiology a. Desire, value theory i. Ethics or moral philosophy 1. What acts are right/wrong? 2. What should you do/not do? 3. How do we define beauty? ii. Social/political philosophy iii. Aesthetics – sense perception  4 Historical periods in Philosophy  Ancient Period 600 B.C. – 529 A.D.  Natural phenomenon is no longer explained by supernatural events  They begin explaining natural phenomenon with what is natural  Presocratics  philosophers before Socrates, scientists  Medieval Period 529 B.C. – 1500  1  Meditation: Decarte  Four reasons for total doubt or skepticism 1. Your senses deceive 2. Insane 3. Dreaming a. You cannot dream of things of which its elements you have not experienced b. You dream things with elements of things you have experienced so it seems  real. c. Arithmetic is infalliable 4. Evil = Deceiver  What is Doubt?  Is a quality  Something that can’t exist unless you are using it to qualify something  “There is no loud, tall, or color etc…”  Quality requires substance  Tall = No  Tall Tree = Yes!  Mind is a substance, the essence of which is to think  Cogito Ergo Sum  “I think, therefore I am”  Nothing cannot think  Si Fallor, Sum  “If I am deceived, I exist”  Nothing can’t be deceived  2  Meditation 1. Innate God 2. Adventitious – sense perception a. Doesn’t work i. You can’t smell God ii. You can’t see God iii. You can’t touch God iv. God is not physically here 3. Factitious – self caused/created a. Doesn’t work i. You can’t remove Him ii. We all have a thought of God iii. No matter what you believe we all have the idea of God that wasn’t “made up,” it was already there iv. Ideas are effects that came from a cause v. You can’t get more from an effect than the cause has vi. God is the only one efficient enough to cause the idea of God 1. Its inborn/innate  What constitutes an idea  The object constitutes the idea  The idea constitutes the object  The idea of the object and the object of the idea are different  The idea of God is not perfect or eternal  The object God is perfect and eternal but the idea isn’t  In conclusion, innate­God­doesn’t work either  To error is human  Human defect is caused by our errors, God cannot cause it.  Defect: 1. Will/Desire 2. Understanding 3. We pass judgment about things we don’t understand  5  Meditation: essence of body  Body, matter, substance: the essence of which to take up space  Mind: thinks  Are they identical?  Can they be the same thing?  Ontological argument  If you think of God as nonexistent you aren’t thinking of God  6  Meditation: The existence of body  What caused our ideas of “stuff”?  You cannot be the cause of your ideas  Modal distinction: can be separated in your mind but in reality can’t be separated  Real distinction: can survive their separation  Have to prove the two things being separated exist.  Two things are the same when they have the same properties  If two things are exactly the same you only have one  The brain is Divisible and the mind isn’t.  They are the same thing 1.


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