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AU / Biology / BIOL 5600 / What does allostasis focus on?

What does allostasis focus on?

What does allostasis focus on?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY (BIOMEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY)
Professor: Mendonća
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: BIOL 5600 Notes 1/14/16
Description: These are notes on the material covered in lecture on the date in the title.
Uploaded: 02/03/2016
6 Pages 64 Views 5 Unlocks
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∙ Humans are endotherms


What does allostasis focus on?



­Endotherms use internal processes to maintain a favorable temperature. 

∙ Homeostasis Vs. Allostasis 

­Same concept 

A) Homeostasis: 

­Focuses on the concept of constancy itself

B) Allostasis: 

­All that it takes to maintain the consistency 

­Focuses on what changes to keep the set point

 The set point can change depending on the conditions

∙ Homeostatic Imbalance 

A) Disorder 

B) Disease

­More specific than disorder

­Recognizable set of symptoms and signs

a) Symptoms

    ­Subjective to the patient 


What are the signs and symptoms of homeostatic imbalance?



    ­Ex. headache, nausea

b) Signs

    ­Something you can see, measure

    ­Ex. increase blood pressure, rash 

∙ Homeostatic state is highly dynamic

∙ One of the most critical thing the body must maintain

­Volume and composition of body fluids

   ­Body fluids are Dilute H2O solutions 

   (and dissolved in the H2O is gas, charged ions, proteins, nutrients, etc.) 

Body Fluids: 

Compartments: 

­Intracellular Fluid (ICF) compartment houses fluid in cells

­Extracellular Fluid (ECF) compartment houses fluid outside of cells 1) Interstitial fluid


What can be found in lymph fluid?



We also discuss several other topics like What do you call the study of sign systems?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between serial and parallel processing?

­Intercellular

­Fills space in between cells

2) Plasma

                  ­Liquid portion of blood

      ­Not formed elements of blood (WBC’s, RBC’s, platelets)

∙ Hematocrit is the percent of formed elements

            ­usually 50% in healthy humans

3) Minor Categories 

     A) Lymph

          ­Lymph vessels 

          ­One­way vessels

∙ In lymph fluid you will find:

­Fats

­Immune cells

>These get dumped back into the venous system We also discuss several other topics like What helps memory consolidation?
If you want to learn more check out What are the components of the criminal justice system?

     B) Trans cellular 

           ­Fluid secreted by special cells into enclosed cavities Ex. 

­Synovial fluid

>Fluid between bones and freely moving joints)

­CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)  

>Fluid in your central nervous system 

­Aqueous humor 

>In eye

­Gastric juice  

­GI secretions

­Urine

­Mucous

∙ The human body is 50­70% H2O (~60%) If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of crystalline solids?

­The percentage varies because of the ratio between fat and lean ­More lean = more H2O If you want to learn more check out Where did old buddhism originate?

­More fat = less H2O

­In general, women have lower percentages of water

∙ Total Body Mass

­Women 

45% solid

55% fluid

­Men 

40% solid

60% fluid

>2/3 Fluid is ICF 

  ­40% BM (Body Mass)

>1/3 Fluid is ECF

  ­20% BM

>> 80% is interstitial fluid ~50% of BM

>> 20% is plasma ~2% of BM

∙ Information from Chapter 1 in book:

­Boundaries between compartments 

 1) Intestine

Layers:

­Intestine wall

­Capillary wall

­Plasma (ECF)

­Capillary wall

­Interstitial (ECF)

­Cell membrane

­Intracellular (ICF)

∙ Dry weight method

­Weigh, heat at high temperature (cook), and weigh again

­Not useful for live patients

∙ Dilution technique

1. Used to calculate fluid volume in different compartments

2. Inject substance that will stay in the plasma membrane and not cross the capillary/  cell membrane

Ex. of substances

­Evans Blue

­Labeled albumin

3. Take blood sample and see how much diluted

Ex. of result

­100 mg of substance, then blood sample said 1 mg/ml

= 100 ml of plasma

­Equation: concentration = quantity/volume

      

      4. Take insulin. Insulin can cross capillary membrane, but not cell membrane Ex. of result

­300 mg of insulin

­1mg/ml of insulin in plasma 

= 200 mg/ml interstitial fluid 

      5. Then, do something that crosses all membranes (capillary and cell membranes)            ­Doubly labeled H*2O* (isotopes) 

Ex. 700 mg/ml

­1mg/ml of substance

=400 mg/ml of intracellular fluid

∙ Cell/plasma membrane ­Explained by fluid mosaic model

­1 of the most important things that maintain homeostasis

­Important because it’s selectively permeable 

­Phospholipid bilayer

­Hydrophilic phospho­heads on outer sides (peripheral)

­Hydrophobic lipid tails on inner sides (integral)

­Integral and peripheral proteins throughout

>Integral proteins extend through both layers

>Peripheral proteins extend through only one layer

 The phospho­heads and lipid tails can exchange places 10M times per second.  This, momentarily, creates very small holes that allow water to pass through.

­Composition of the lipid bilayer:

1) 75% of the molecules are phospholipids 

2) 20% of the molecules are cholesterol

>Has a steroid 4­ring backbone with hydroxyl group attached 

3) 5% of the molecules are glycolipids

>Lipid with carbohydrate group attached 

 The bilayer can be described as being amphipathic because it has a polar  (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) side

∙ The cholesterol component

­Weakly amphipathic

­Forms weak bond with phospho­head

­Makes lipid bilayer stronger, but less fluid by binding to it

­More cholesterol effects permeability and changes vascular composition

∙ The glycolipid component

­Carbohydrate group is polar

­Lipid group is non polar

­sticks out of the cell membrane

­found on the extracellular side

­part of the glycocalyx

>the glycocalyx gives identity to the cell by defining the cell type and defining the cell for each person

∙ Many integral proteins are glycoproteins that contribute to the glycocalyx

∙ Glycocalyx

­ formed by glycoproteins and glycolipids 

­ molecular signature of cell

­ helps cells adhere (stick) together 

­ protects cells form being digested by enzymes in the extracellular fluid

∙ Functions of plasma membrane proteins

1) formation of channel/pore/opening

­allows passing of certain types of ions

>certain ones allow the passage of water (aquaporin)

­channels can selectively be opened or closed 

A) passive channels 

­open all the time

B) regulating/gated

­facultatively open

­more often gated

1. Chemically gated

­responds to chemical signal

2. Voltage gated

­responds to electrical signal 

2) Proteins can function as transporters

­can bind to a substance and help move substances from outside the cell to  inside and vice versa

­can be integral or peripheral 

3) Proteins can act as receptors

­tend to be peripheral proteins

­tend to be extracellular

 Ligand: anything that binds to a receptor

­a receptor creates ad chemical reaction inside cell

­associated with another protein

4) Enzymes

­can catalyze some chemical function inside the cell

5) Act as specialized cell to cell contacts (linkers)

A) tight junction

­crosses two plasma membranes

B) Gap junction

C) Desmosome 

­reinforced tight junction 

­has cytoskeletal tubules/filaments to secure its place

6) Cell identity markers

∙ Cell membrane permeability

­lipid bilayer is directly permeable to most non polar, uncharged molecules

Ex. 

­lipid soluble substrate

­fat soluble substrate

­steroids

­vitamins

­O2

­CO2

­N

­H2O (polar)

>through the small breaks in the small breaks in the  structure between movements

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