COMM 2500 Final Test Review
COMM 2500 Final Test Review Comm 2500
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2500 at Clemson University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communication at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Communications 2500 Vocabulary Review Chapter 9 Strategic organization: putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience Main points: the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points Chronological order: a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern. Spatial order: a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern Causal order: a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship Problem-solution order: a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem. Topical order: a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics. Supporting materials: the materials used to support a speaker’s ideas. The three major kids of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony Connective: a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship among them. Transition: a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving onto another Internal preview: a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next Internal summary: a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker’s preceding point or points Signpost: a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas Chapter 10 Rhetorical question: a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic Goodwill: the audience’s perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind Preview statement: a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body Crescendo ending: a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity Dissolve ending: a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement Chapter 11 Preparation outline: a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation Visual framework: the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker’s ideas Bibliography: a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech Speaking outline: a brief outline used to job a speaker’s memory during the presentation of a speech Delivery cues: directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she of he wants to deliver key parts of the speech Chapter 12 Denotative meaning: the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase Connotative meaning: the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase Thesaurus: a book of synonyms Concrete words: words that refer to tangible objects Abstract words: words that refer to ideas or concepts Clutter: discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea Imagery: the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas Simile: an explicit comparison, introduced with the word “like” or “as”, between things that are essentially different yet have something in common Cliché: a trite or overused expression Metaphor: an implicit comparison, not introduced with the word “like” or “as” between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common Rhythm: the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words Parallelism: the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences Repetition: reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences Alliteration: repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words Antithesis: the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure Inclusive language: language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors Generic “he”: the use of “he” to refer to both women and men Chapter 13 Nonverbal communication: communication based on a person’s use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words Manuscript speech: a speech written out word for word and read to the audience Impromptu speech: a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation Extemporaneous speech: a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes Conversational quality: presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed Volume: the loudness or softness of the speaker’s voice Pitch: the highness or lowness of the speaker’s voice Inflections: changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker’s voice Monotone: a constant pitch or tone of voice Rate: the speed at which a person speaks Pause: a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech Vocalized pause: a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as “uh,” “er,” and “um” Vocal variety: changes in a speaker’s rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness Pronunciation: the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language Articulation: the physical production of particular speech sounds Dialect: a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary Kinesics: the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication Gestures: motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during a speech Eye contact: direct visual contact with the eyes of another person Online speech: a speech that has been created specifically for an audience that will view it online and in real time Graph: a visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns Chart: a visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form Chapter 15 Informative speech: a speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding Object: anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form Process: a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product Event: anything that happens or is regarded as happening Concept: a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like Description: a statement that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness Comparison: a statement of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc. Contrast: a statement of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc. Personalize: to present one’s ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience Chapter 16 Persuasion: the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions Mental dialogue with the audience: the mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech Target audience: the portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade Question of fact: a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion Question of value: a question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action Question of policy: a question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken Speech to gain passive agreement: a persuasive speech in which the speaker’s goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy Speech to gain immediate action: a persuasive speech in which the speaker’s goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy Need: the first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy? Burden of proof: the obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary Plan: if there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem? Practicality: will the speaker’s plan solve the problem? Problem-solution order: a method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem Problem-cause-solution order: first main point identifies a problem, second point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem Comparative advantages order: each main point explains why a speaker’s solution to the problem is preferable to other proposed solutions Monroe’s motivated sequence: five steps of the sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action Chapter 17 Ethos: credibility Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic Initial credibility: credibility before the speaker starts speaking Derived credibility: credibility by everything she or he says and does during the speech Terminal credibility: credibility of a speaker at the end of a speech Creating common ground: speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience Evidence: supporting materials used to prove or disprove something Logos: logical appeal of the speaker. Major elements are evidence and reasoning Reasoning: process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence Reasoning from specific instances: reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion Reasoning from principle: reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion Causal reasoning: reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects Analogical reasoning: reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second Fallacy: an error in reasoning Hasty generalization: fallacy in which a speaker jumped to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence False cause: fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second Invalid analogy: analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike Bandwagon: fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable Red herring: fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion Ad hominem: a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue Either-or: fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist Slippery slope: fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented Appeal to tradition: a fallacy which assumes that something old is automatically better than something new Appeal to novelty: a fallacy which assumes that something new is automatically better than something old Pathos: emotional appeal
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