Study Guide For Exam 3: Covers Chapters 11-13
Study Guide For Exam 3: Covers Chapters 11-13 2500
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Janssen on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer Joy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
▯ Substance Use and Addictive Disorders ▯ What is a drug? Any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds Doesn’t have to be medicine or illegal ▯ Substance Abuse Disorders Pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated substance abuse Physically dependent on substance Tolerance o Start out taking a little bit, but then have to take more and more Withdrawal Affects 9% of all teens and adults in the U.S. ▯ Categories Depressants o Slow central nervous system (CNS) activity o Alcohol Binge drinking= 5 or more drinks 7% of people binge drink 5 times a month Men outnumber women 2:1 Clinical picture? Using alcohol to do things you don’t normally do. Wake in the morning and feel ashamed, use alcohol to not feel ashamed anymore. Inhibits Glutamate and Increases Gaba End result is thinking clearly about very little o Sedative-hypnotic drugs Produce feelings of relaxation and drowsiness Barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal)- prevent the reuptake of Gaba Benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Valium)- reduce anxiety, make people feel relaxed; increase Gaba activity o Opioids Opioids- opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone, “narcotics” Bind to receptors in brain that usually receive endorphins Tolerance -> Withdrawal Twitching, aches, diarrhea Overdose Ignorance of tolerance; take large dose after not using for a while 2% of people who are addicted die this way every year. Stimulants o Increase CNS activity o Cocaine, amphetamines, Caffeine, Nicotine Cocaine Increase dopamine at key receptor sites Cocaine intoxication= mania, paranoia, impaired judgment Danger of overdose Long term use leads to neurological damage Risky behavior Body stops producing dopamine when not using, which leads to more using Amphetamines Stimulates CNS, increases dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin Increased energy and alertness Intoxication and psychosis Caffeine Increases CNS activity, releases dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine Most widely used stimulant Withdrawal symptoms can include headaches, depression, anxiety, and fatigue Nicotine o Stimulant Use Disorder Stimulant comes to dominate the individual’s life Tolerance and withdrawal reactions may occur 0.5% of people display stimulant use disorder from cocaine and 0.25% display it from amphetamines Other substances o Hallucinogens Mescaline, Psilocybin, LSD- binds to serotonin neurotransmitters, MDMA Can have bad trips, flashbacks, hallucinations o Cannabis Any form of marijuana o Substances in Combination If you are taking one drug, you can be getting a tolerance to other drugs. Synergistic effects Certain drugs when taking in combination can have different effects when taking them together than when taking them apart. Antagonistic effect Drugs will compete with each other and you wont feel one when other the effect of the other. ▯ Cannabis Use disorder Some users develop tolerance and withdrawal, experience flu-like symptoms, restlessness, and irritability 1.7% of people in the U.S. displayed marijuana abuse or dependence in the past year. ▯ Causes of Substance use Disorders NO single explanation has gained broad support Current theory- combination of factors Stressful socioeconomic conditions; substance use is valued or accepted Lack of parental nurturing Operant conditioning, expectancy that substances will be rewarded Genetic predisposition, biochemical factors ▯ Substance Disorder Treatment Cross theoretical approach; psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive- behavioral, biological, and sociocultural therapies Sometimes have great success Behavioral and Cognitive-behavioral therapy o Aversion therapy- based on classical conditioning techniques o Cognitive-behavioral treatments help clients identify and change patterns and cognitions Biological treatments o Used to help people withdraw from substances, abstain from them, or maintain level of use without increase. o Limited success on their own, helpful in combination Sociocultural Therapies o Self-help programs o Culture- and gender-sensitive programs o Community prevention programs ▯ Gambling Disorder 2.3% of adults and 3-8% of teens and college students Not defined by amount of time or money spent Similar treatments as for substance use disorder. ▯ Internet Use Disorder Uncontrollable need to be online Should it be included in the DSM? ▯ Eating Disorders ▯ Thoughts on Eating, Eating Disorders, and Disordered Eating…. What connections do we make with people who suffer from an eating disorder? o Society is very pressuring on what the “ideal body” is o They want control If someone finds out their friend has an eating disorder, what might he/she do to help? o Get them help. o Talk to them Is disordered eating and an eating disorder always the same thing? o No, there is a difference between a diet and an eating disorder. And there is also a difference between binging occasionally, and having an eating disorder ▯ Eating Disorders Two main diagnoses o Anorexia Nervosa A refusal to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight Intense fears of becoming overweight Distorted view of weight and shape Amenorrhea Loss of menstrual cycle 5-10% are males Mostly gay or bisexual Onset is 14-18 years old Most can recover over time, but around 2% die, either from medical complications or suicide May follow a stressful event Separation from parents Move away from home Experience of personal failure The Clinical picture: Motivation is fear Distorted thinking Low opinion of their body shape Overestimate their actual proportions Hold maladaptive attitudes and misperceptions. What other psychological problems do people with anorexia often display? Insomnia/ other sleep disturbances Anxiety Depression Lower self-esteem Substance abuse Obsessive compulsive tendencies Perfectionism Medical Problems Caused by starvation Amenorrhea Low body temp Low blood pressure Body swelling Reduced bone density Slow heart rate Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances Dry skin, brittle nails Poor circulation o Bulimia Nervosa Repeated bouts of uncontrolled overeating during a period of time Inappropriate compensatory behaviors, including Forced vomiting Misusing laxatives, diuretics, or enemas Fasting Exercising excessively Later onset between 15-21 Many people struggling are of average weight. Cycle Binges are usually preceded by feelings of great tension Binge often followed by feelings of extreme self- blame, guilt, depression, and fears of weight gain and being discovered Compensatory behaviors may temporarily relieve the negative feelings attached to binge eating Over time, however, a cycle forms: binging > purging > binging Different from Anorexia? Research shows that people with Bulimia nervosa tend to be… More concerned about pleasing others/ being attractive to others And having intimate relationships/ tend to be more sexually experienced and active More likely to have histories of mood swings, low frustration tolerance, and poor coping Medical- not amenorrhea, but acid reflux and problems with the digestive tract. o Bulimia vs. Anorexia Similarities Begin after a period of dieting Fear of becoming obese Drive to become thin Preoccupation with food, weight, appearance Feelings of anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, perfectionism Heightened risk of suicide Substance abuse Distorted body perception Disturbed attitudes toward eating o Binge Eating Disorder Individuals with binge eating disorder engage in repeated eating binges during which they feel no control Two-thirds of people with this disorder become overweight or obese. No gender difference. o Diabulimia When people with Type I diabetes purposely don’t take their insulin to lose weight. What causes Eating Disorders? o Most theorists and researches use a multidimensional Psychological Perspectives: Hilde Bruch (psychodynamic): eating disorders are the result of disturbed mother-child interactions Cognitive: Improper labeling of internal sensations and needs Depression, mood disorders- set the stage Biological Perspectives Serotonin defects Dysfunction of the hypothalamus (weight thermostat) Sociocultural Perspectives Societal pressure Standards of attractiveness Subcultures o Dancers o Models o Actors o Gymnast o Wrestlers o Body builders o Swimmers o Long distance runners Family environment Modeling Enmeshment o Families who are overly involved in what everyone is doing. o Multicultural factors 1995 study: eating behaviors and attitudes of young African American women were more positive than those of young white American women. Current research: suggests body image concerns, dysfunctional eating patterns, and eating disorders are on the rise among young African American women and other minority groups Eating disorders are equal among young Hispanic women and young white women. Males account for 5-10% of all eating disorders How are eating disorders treated? o Treatments for anorexia The immediate aims of treatment for anorexia: Regain lost weight Recover from malnourishment Eat normally again Combination of therapy and education: individual, group, and family approaches Interventions: behavioral and cognitive o Treatments for Bulimia The immediate aims of treatment for bulimia: Eliminate binge-purge patterns Establish good eating habits Eliminate the underlying cause of bulimic patterns Cognitive-behavioral therapy Antidepressant medications o Treatments for binge Eating disorder Cognitive behavioral therapy Antidepressant medications People with binge eating disorder who are overweight require additional medical intervention. o Mindfulness based approaches are being used to treat eating disorders. Examples of mindless eating Eating until you are too full and then feeling guilty Emotional eating- eating when you are bored, stressed, or anxious rather than hunger Grazing on food without really tasting it Mindlessly munching on snacks while watching TV Mindful eating Balancing how you eat, the way you eat, with what you eat. o ▯ Disorders of Sex and Gender ▯ General Categories: Sexual dysfunctions: failure to respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning o Prevalence and Implications Men: 31%; women: 43% Can be distressing Often leading to frustration, guilt, loss of self-esteem, and interpersonal issues o Sexual response Cycle Sexual dysfunctions affect 1+ of the first 3 phases Desire, Excitement, Orgasm Stage 1: Desire o Starting to think about sex Stage 2:Excitement o Increases in heart/breathing rate, muscle tension, and respiration Men: erection Women: swelling in clitoris and vaginal lubrication Stage 3:Orgasm o Sexual pleasure peaks o Sexual tension is released and the muscles o Sexual Dysfunction can be: Lifelong vs. acquired Generalized vs. Situational o Disorders of Desire Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder Lack of interest in sex or little sexual activity Female sexual interest/arousal disorder Lack of normal interest in sex Causes Biological Hormones Neurotransmitters (excessive serotonin, dopamine) Medications/drugs Psychological Anxiety, depression, anger Psychological disorders Sociocultural Situational pressures Cultural expectations Sexual trauma o Disorders of Excitement Female sexual interest/arousal disorder Erectile Disorder (men): persistent inability to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity Causes Biological Hormones Vascular problems Nervous system damage Medications Substance abuse Psychological Same as Desire Cognitive: performance anxiety and the spectator role Sociocultural Same as Desire o Disorders of Orgasm Premature ejaculation: persistent reaching of orgasm and ejaculation within 1 min of beginning sexual activity with a partner and before he wishes to Psychological explanations Common in young, sexually inexperienced men Anxiety, hurried masturbation experiences, or poor recognition of arousal Biological Genetic predisposition Over-/under-active serotonin receptors Penile sensitivity Delayed ejaculation: repeated inability to ejaculate or by a very delayed ejaculation after normal sexual activity with a partner Biological Hormones (e.g. T) Injury or disease Medications Psychological Performance anxiety and the spectator role Female Orgasmic Disorder: persistent failure to reach orgasm, experiencing orgasms or very low intensity, or delay in orgasm 24% of women (10%+ never; 9% rarely) Factors Sexual assertiveness and comfort o More assertive= more orgasms Relationship status o Safe in the relationships= more orgasms o Emotional security Causes Biological o Physiological conditions o Medications (same as those affecting erection in men) o Postmenopausal changes Psychological o Same as previous (e.g. depression) o Memories of childhood trauma o Relationship distress Sociocultural o Stressful events, traumas, or relationships o Relationship quality (emotional intimacy) o Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions 1950s and 1960s: behavioral therapy relaxation training; systematic desensitization 1970: human sexual inadequacy combination of cognitive, behavioral, couples, and family systems therapies recently, biological interventions also General Components of Modern Sex Therapy Assessment and conceptualization of the problem Mutual responsibility Education about sexuality Emotion identification Attitude change Elimination of performance anxiety and the spectator role Increasing sexual and general communication skills Changing destructive lifestyles and marital interactions Addressing physical and medical factors Specific Components for Disorders of Desire/ Excitement/ and Orgasms Disorders of Desire Self-instruction training, Behavioral techniques, Insight-oriented exercises, and Biological interventions such as hormone treatments Disorders of Excitement Erectile disorder o Reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation o Sensate-focus exercises (‘tease technique’) o Medications Disorders of Orgasm Premature ejaculation o “stop-start” or “pause” procedure o SSRIs Delayed Ejaculation o Reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation o Medication to increase arousal of the sympathetic nervous system Female orgasmic disorders o CBT, self-exploration o Hormone therapy o Lack of orgasm during intercourse is not necessarily a sexual dysfunction Paraphilic disorders: repeated and intense sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations o Paraphilia’s: intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve objects or situations outside the usual sexual norms Only diagnosed when they cause significant distress or impairment OR when the disorder places the individual or others at risk of harm (e.g. pedophilic disorder) o Strongly influenced by the norms of the particular society o Disorders Fetishistic disorder Sexual arousal from a nonliving object, often to the exclusion of all other stimuli Common: underwear, shoes, and boots Behavioral approach: classical conditioning Treatment: aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation, or orgasmic reorientation. Transvestic Disorder Dressing In the clothes of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal Transvestitism or cross-dressing Most commonly a heterosexual male who began cross-dressing in childhood or adolescence Operant conditioning Exhibitionistic Disorder Exposure of genitals in a public setting Goal: to shock or surprise Treatment: aversion therapy and masturbatory satiation o Orgasmic reorientation, social skills training, or CBT Voyeuristic Disorder Observing people as they undress or engage in sexual activity Masturbation Risk Psychodynamic approach: seeking power Behavioral approach: learned behavior that can be traced to a chance to observe observation of a sexually arousing scene. Pedophilic Disorder Prepubescent or early pubescent children Child pornography Sexual activity with children Possible explanations: neglect, excessive punishment, lack of close relationships, immaturity, distorted thinking, additional psychological disorder (s) Most people with this disorder are imprisoned or forced into treatment Aversion therapy, masturbation satiation, orgasmic reorientation, antiandrogen drugs CBT for relapse-prevention Sexual Sadism Disorder Physical or psychological suffering of another individual Imagined total control over a victim Behavioral approach: classical conditioning and/or modeling Psychodynamic and cognitive approaches: underlying feelings of sexual inadequacy Biological approach: brain and hormonal abnormalities Treatment: aversion therapy Sexual Masochism Disorder Being humiliated, beaten bound, or otherwise made to suffer Distress or impairment needed to diagnose Behavioral approach: classical conditioning Gender Dysphoria: a pattern in which people feel that they have been born to the wrong sex. o Gender Identity Is how you think about your self in your head o Gender Expression How you demonstrate your gender i.e. clothing, hair o Biological Sex The genitals you were born with. o Sexual Orientation Who you are physically, emotionally, and spiritually attracted to o Gender Dysphoria Feeling as though one has been assigned to the wrong biological sex, and that gender changes would be desirable. Controversial Think it shouldn’t be considered a psychological disorder. Associated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts May or may not involve altering sexual characteristics Hormones and/or sexual reassignment surgery
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