New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide For Exam 3: Covers Chapters 11-13

by: Jenna Janssen

Study Guide For Exam 3: Covers Chapters 11-13 2500

Marketplace > University of Denver > Psychlogy > 2500 > Study Guide For Exam 3 Covers Chapters 11 13
Jenna Janssen
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study Guide for Exam 3. Chapters 11-13. Includes notes from class.
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Jennifer Joy
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Janssen on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer Joy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.


Reviews for Study Guide For Exam 3: Covers Chapters 11-13


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/02/16
▯ Substance Use and Addictive Disorders ▯ What is a drug?  Any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds  Doesn’t have to be medicine or illegal ▯ Substance Abuse Disorders  Pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated substance abuse  Physically dependent on substance  Tolerance o Start out taking a little bit, but then have to take more and more  Withdrawal  Affects 9% of all teens and adults in the U.S. ▯ Categories  Depressants o Slow central nervous system (CNS) activity o Alcohol  Binge drinking= 5 or more drinks  7% of people binge drink 5 times a month  Men outnumber women 2:1  Clinical picture?  Using alcohol to do things you don’t normally do. Wake in the morning and feel ashamed, use alcohol to not feel ashamed anymore.  Inhibits Glutamate and Increases Gaba  End result is thinking clearly about very little o Sedative-hypnotic drugs  Produce feelings of relaxation and drowsiness  Barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal)- prevent the reuptake of Gaba  Benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Valium)- reduce anxiety, make people feel relaxed; increase Gaba activity o Opioids  Opioids- opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone, “narcotics”  Bind to receptors in brain that usually receive endorphins  Tolerance -> Withdrawal  Twitching, aches, diarrhea  Overdose  Ignorance of tolerance; take large dose after not using for a while  2% of people who are addicted die this way every year.  Stimulants o Increase CNS activity o Cocaine, amphetamines, Caffeine, Nicotine  Cocaine  Increase dopamine at key receptor sites  Cocaine intoxication= mania, paranoia, impaired judgment  Danger of overdose  Long term use leads to neurological damage  Risky behavior  Body stops producing dopamine when not using, which leads to more using  Amphetamines  Stimulates CNS, increases dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin  Increased energy and alertness  Intoxication and psychosis  Caffeine  Increases CNS activity, releases dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine  Most widely used stimulant  Withdrawal symptoms can include headaches, depression, anxiety, and fatigue  Nicotine o Stimulant Use Disorder  Stimulant comes to dominate the individual’s life  Tolerance and withdrawal reactions may occur  0.5% of people display stimulant use disorder from cocaine and 0.25% display it from amphetamines  Other substances o Hallucinogens  Mescaline, Psilocybin, LSD- binds to serotonin neurotransmitters, MDMA  Can have bad trips, flashbacks, hallucinations o Cannabis  Any form of marijuana o Substances in Combination  If you are taking one drug, you can be getting a tolerance to other drugs.  Synergistic effects  Certain drugs when taking in combination can have different effects when taking them together than when taking them apart.  Antagonistic effect  Drugs will compete with each other and you wont feel one when other the effect of the other. ▯ Cannabis Use disorder  Some users develop tolerance and withdrawal, experience flu-like symptoms, restlessness, and irritability  1.7% of people in the U.S. displayed marijuana abuse or dependence in the past year. ▯ Causes of Substance use Disorders  NO single explanation has gained broad support  Current theory- combination of factors  Stressful socioeconomic conditions; substance use is valued or accepted  Lack of parental nurturing  Operant conditioning, expectancy that substances will be rewarded  Genetic predisposition, biochemical factors ▯ Substance Disorder Treatment  Cross theoretical approach; psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive- behavioral, biological, and sociocultural therapies  Sometimes have great success  Behavioral and Cognitive-behavioral therapy o Aversion therapy- based on classical conditioning techniques o Cognitive-behavioral treatments help clients identify and change patterns and cognitions  Biological treatments o Used to help people withdraw from substances, abstain from them, or maintain level of use without increase. o Limited success on their own, helpful in combination  Sociocultural Therapies o Self-help programs o Culture- and gender-sensitive programs o Community prevention programs ▯ Gambling Disorder  2.3% of adults and 3-8% of teens and college students  Not defined by amount of time or money spent  Similar treatments as for substance use disorder. ▯ Internet Use Disorder  Uncontrollable need to be online  Should it be included in the DSM?  ▯ Eating Disorders ▯ Thoughts on Eating, Eating Disorders, and Disordered Eating….  What connections do we make with people who suffer from an eating disorder? o Society is very pressuring on what the “ideal body” is o They want control  If someone finds out their friend has an eating disorder, what might he/she do to help? o Get them help. o Talk to them  Is disordered eating and an eating disorder always the same thing? o No, there is a difference between a diet and an eating disorder. And there is also a difference between binging occasionally, and having an eating disorder ▯ Eating Disorders  Two main diagnoses o Anorexia Nervosa  A refusal to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight  Intense fears of becoming overweight  Distorted view of weight and shape  Amenorrhea  Loss of menstrual cycle  5-10% are males  Mostly gay or bisexual  Onset is 14-18 years old  Most can recover over time, but around 2% die, either from medical complications or suicide  May follow a stressful event  Separation from parents  Move away from home  Experience of personal failure  The Clinical picture:  Motivation is fear  Distorted thinking  Low opinion of their body shape  Overestimate their actual proportions  Hold maladaptive attitudes and misperceptions.  What other psychological problems do people with anorexia often display?  Insomnia/ other sleep disturbances  Anxiety  Depression  Lower self-esteem  Substance abuse  Obsessive compulsive tendencies  Perfectionism  Medical Problems  Caused by starvation  Amenorrhea  Low body temp  Low blood pressure  Body swelling  Reduced bone density  Slow heart rate  Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances  Dry skin, brittle nails  Poor circulation o Bulimia Nervosa  Repeated bouts of uncontrolled overeating during a period of time  Inappropriate compensatory behaviors, including  Forced vomiting  Misusing laxatives, diuretics, or enemas  Fasting  Exercising excessively  Later onset between 15-21  Many people struggling are of average weight.  Cycle  Binges are usually preceded by feelings of great tension  Binge often followed by feelings of extreme self- blame, guilt, depression, and fears of weight gain and being discovered  Compensatory behaviors may temporarily relieve the negative feelings attached to binge eating  Over time, however, a cycle forms: binging > purging > binging  Different from Anorexia?  Research shows that people with Bulimia nervosa tend to be…  More concerned about pleasing others/ being attractive to others  And having intimate relationships/ tend to be more sexually experienced and active  More likely to have histories of mood swings, low frustration tolerance, and poor coping  Medical- not amenorrhea, but acid reflux and problems with the digestive tract. o Bulimia vs. Anorexia  Similarities  Begin after a period of dieting  Fear of becoming obese  Drive to become thin  Preoccupation with food, weight, appearance  Feelings of anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, perfectionism  Heightened risk of suicide  Substance abuse  Distorted body perception  Disturbed attitudes toward eating o Binge Eating Disorder  Individuals with binge eating disorder engage in repeated eating binges during which they feel no control  Two-thirds of people with this disorder become overweight or obese.  No gender difference. o Diabulimia  When people with Type I diabetes purposely don’t take their insulin to lose weight.  What causes Eating Disorders? o Most theorists and researches use a multidimensional  Psychological Perspectives:  Hilde Bruch (psychodynamic): eating disorders are the result of disturbed mother-child interactions  Cognitive: Improper labeling of internal sensations and needs  Depression, mood disorders- set the stage  Biological Perspectives  Serotonin defects  Dysfunction of the hypothalamus (weight thermostat)  Sociocultural Perspectives  Societal pressure  Standards of attractiveness  Subcultures o Dancers o Models o Actors o Gymnast o Wrestlers o Body builders o Swimmers o Long distance runners  Family environment  Modeling  Enmeshment o Families who are overly involved in what everyone is doing. o Multicultural factors  1995 study: eating behaviors and attitudes of young African American women were more positive than those of young white American women.  Current research: suggests body image concerns, dysfunctional eating patterns, and eating disorders are on the rise among young African American women and other minority groups  Eating disorders are equal among young Hispanic women and young white women.  Males account for 5-10% of all eating disorders  How are eating disorders treated? o Treatments for anorexia  The immediate aims of treatment for anorexia:  Regain lost weight  Recover from malnourishment  Eat normally again  Combination of therapy and education: individual, group, and family approaches  Interventions: behavioral and cognitive o Treatments for Bulimia  The immediate aims of treatment for bulimia:  Eliminate binge-purge patterns  Establish good eating habits  Eliminate the underlying cause of bulimic patterns  Cognitive-behavioral therapy  Antidepressant medications o Treatments for binge Eating disorder  Cognitive behavioral therapy  Antidepressant medications  People with binge eating disorder who are overweight require additional medical intervention. o Mindfulness based approaches are being used to treat eating disorders.  Examples of mindless eating  Eating until you are too full and then feeling guilty  Emotional eating- eating when you are bored, stressed, or anxious rather than hunger  Grazing on food without really tasting it  Mindlessly munching on snacks while watching TV  Mindful eating  Balancing how you eat, the way you eat, with what you eat. o ▯ Disorders of Sex and Gender ▯ General Categories:  Sexual dysfunctions: failure to respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning o Prevalence and Implications  Men: 31%; women: 43%  Can be distressing  Often leading to frustration, guilt, loss of self-esteem, and interpersonal issues o Sexual response Cycle  Sexual dysfunctions affect 1+ of the first 3 phases  Desire, Excitement, Orgasm  Stage 1: Desire o Starting to think about sex  Stage 2:Excitement o Increases in heart/breathing rate, muscle tension, and respiration  Men: erection  Women: swelling in clitoris and vaginal lubrication  Stage 3:Orgasm o Sexual pleasure peaks o Sexual tension is released and the muscles o Sexual Dysfunction can be:  Lifelong vs. acquired  Generalized vs. Situational o Disorders of Desire  Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder  Lack of interest in sex or little sexual activity  Female sexual interest/arousal disorder  Lack of normal interest in sex  Causes  Biological  Hormones  Neurotransmitters (excessive serotonin, dopamine)  Medications/drugs  Psychological  Anxiety, depression, anger  Psychological disorders  Sociocultural  Situational pressures  Cultural expectations  Sexual trauma o Disorders of Excitement  Female sexual interest/arousal disorder  Erectile Disorder (men): persistent inability to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity  Causes  Biological  Hormones  Vascular problems  Nervous system damage  Medications  Substance abuse  Psychological  Same as Desire  Cognitive: performance anxiety and the spectator role  Sociocultural  Same as Desire o Disorders of Orgasm  Premature ejaculation: persistent reaching of orgasm and ejaculation within 1 min of beginning sexual activity with a partner and before he wishes to  Psychological explanations  Common in young, sexually inexperienced men  Anxiety, hurried masturbation experiences, or poor recognition of arousal  Biological  Genetic predisposition  Over-/under-active serotonin receptors  Penile sensitivity  Delayed ejaculation: repeated inability to ejaculate or by a very delayed ejaculation after normal sexual activity with a partner  Biological  Hormones (e.g. T)  Injury or disease  Medications  Psychological  Performance anxiety and the spectator role  Female Orgasmic Disorder: persistent failure to reach orgasm, experiencing orgasms or very low intensity, or delay in orgasm  24% of women (10%+ never; 9% rarely)  Factors  Sexual assertiveness and comfort o More assertive= more orgasms  Relationship status o Safe in the relationships= more orgasms o Emotional security  Causes  Biological o Physiological conditions o Medications (same as those affecting erection in men) o Postmenopausal changes  Psychological o Same as previous (e.g. depression) o Memories of childhood trauma o Relationship distress  Sociocultural o Stressful events, traumas, or relationships o Relationship quality (emotional intimacy) o Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions  1950s and 1960s: behavioral therapy  relaxation training; systematic desensitization  1970: human sexual inadequacy  combination of cognitive, behavioral, couples, and family systems therapies  recently, biological interventions also  General Components of Modern Sex Therapy  Assessment and conceptualization of the problem  Mutual responsibility  Education about sexuality  Emotion identification  Attitude change  Elimination of performance anxiety and the spectator role  Increasing sexual and general communication skills  Changing destructive lifestyles and marital interactions  Addressing physical and medical factors  Specific Components for Disorders of Desire/ Excitement/ and Orgasms  Disorders of Desire  Self-instruction training,  Behavioral techniques,  Insight-oriented exercises, and  Biological interventions such as hormone treatments  Disorders of Excitement  Erectile disorder o Reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation o Sensate-focus exercises (‘tease technique’) o Medications  Disorders of Orgasm  Premature ejaculation o “stop-start” or “pause” procedure o SSRIs  Delayed Ejaculation o Reducing performance anxiety and/or increasing stimulation o Medication to increase arousal of the sympathetic nervous system  Female orgasmic disorders o CBT, self-exploration o Hormone therapy o Lack of orgasm during intercourse is not necessarily a sexual dysfunction  Paraphilic disorders: repeated and intense sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations o Paraphilia’s: intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve objects or situations outside the usual sexual norms  Only diagnosed when they cause significant distress or impairment OR when the disorder places the individual or others at risk of harm (e.g. pedophilic disorder) o Strongly influenced by the norms of the particular society o Disorders  Fetishistic disorder  Sexual arousal from a nonliving object, often to the exclusion of all other stimuli  Common: underwear, shoes, and boots  Behavioral approach: classical conditioning  Treatment: aversion therapy, masturbatory satiation, or orgasmic reorientation.  Transvestic Disorder  Dressing In the clothes of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal  Transvestitism or cross-dressing  Most commonly a heterosexual male who began cross-dressing in childhood or adolescence  Operant conditioning  Exhibitionistic Disorder  Exposure of genitals in a public setting  Goal: to shock or surprise  Treatment: aversion therapy and masturbatory satiation o Orgasmic reorientation, social skills training, or CBT  Voyeuristic Disorder  Observing people as they undress or engage in sexual activity  Masturbation  Risk  Psychodynamic approach: seeking power  Behavioral approach: learned behavior that can be traced to a chance to observe observation of a sexually arousing scene.  Pedophilic Disorder  Prepubescent or early pubescent children  Child pornography  Sexual activity with children  Possible explanations: neglect, excessive punishment, lack of close relationships, immaturity, distorted thinking, additional psychological disorder (s)  Most people with this disorder are imprisoned or forced into treatment  Aversion therapy, masturbation satiation, orgasmic reorientation, antiandrogen drugs  CBT for relapse-prevention  Sexual Sadism Disorder  Physical or psychological suffering of another individual  Imagined total control over a victim  Behavioral approach: classical conditioning and/or modeling  Psychodynamic and cognitive approaches: underlying feelings of sexual inadequacy  Biological approach: brain and hormonal abnormalities  Treatment: aversion therapy  Sexual Masochism Disorder  Being humiliated, beaten bound, or otherwise made to suffer  Distress or impairment needed to diagnose  Behavioral approach: classical conditioning  Gender Dysphoria: a pattern in which people feel that they have been born to the wrong sex. o Gender Identity  Is how you think about your self in your head o Gender Expression  How you demonstrate your gender  i.e. clothing, hair o Biological Sex  The genitals you were born with. o Sexual Orientation  Who you are physically, emotionally, and spiritually attracted to o Gender Dysphoria  Feeling as though one has been assigned to the wrong biological sex, and that gender changes would be desirable.  Controversial  Think it shouldn’t be considered a psychological disorder.  Associated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts  May or may not involve altering sexual characteristics  Hormones and/or sexual reassignment surgery


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.