HIST 150 Test 1, COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE + THE APOLOGY
HIST 150 Test 1, COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE + THE APOLOGY HIST 150
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sandy Amador on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Edward D. Krzemienski (P) in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
H150—Exam One Possible Topics for Multiple Choice Questions 1. Paleolitich Era – a. About 3 million to 10,000 years ago b. No real evidence of it 2. “hunters and gatherers” a. “movers” b. developed ideas. Ex. cooperation c. In groups usually about 30100 (30 min. and 100 max.) 3. Neolithic Revolution a. About 10,000 years ago b. Discovery of agriculture (farming) c. B/c of revolution, people can now have SETTLEMENTS d. Settlements resulted in rise of population e. B/c of growing population people could now SPECIALIZE 4. Mesopotamia a. Had citystates (each had own laws/gov.) b. Rivers were most important mode of transportation…both ROUGH o Tigris River o Euphrates River c. Pessamistic People who viewed afterlife as problematic.. 2 options: o Tormented for Eternity o Become the tormentor 5. Tigris and Euphrates a. ROUGH rivers (look at 4b for more info) 6. Sumerians a. People called “Sumerians” b. 1 written language, used symbols as their alphabet o Negative aspect of alphabet – symbols are inconsistent c. Wrote in stone (not literally wrote in clay) 7. Cuneiform a. Name of Sumerians written language 8. Code of Hammurabi a. LAW b. creates this code by using cuneiform c. severe code 1. class and wealth are written into law – “eye for an eye” 2. gender written into law 3. trade written into law 9. Nile River a. CALM river b. Extremely predictable – every year it floods to the exact same spot 10. Hebrews a. Their written form of law is the bible b. Their contribution – a GOD (single) c. Introduced idea of FREE WILL 11. Yahweh a. Hebrews’ Gods’ name b. Soverign – anything godly is because of him c. Transdescent – he’s not OF nature, he’s ABOVE nature. d. Good – he gives the rules. People follow the rules because they want to be good o MORALITY 12. Monotheism a. One God b. Hebrews contributed this idea 13. JudeoChristianity 14. Greeks 15. “rational humanism” a. Free will + human dignity = HUMANISM o Human problems are caused by human beings therefore they can be solved by human beings 16. Homer a. Wrote the Oddysey and the Illiad 17. The Iliad a. About trojan war b. Achilies get a lot “booty of war” and Agememnan gets jealous so he takes one of the wives. Achilies sits out of battle in protest & his best friend gets killed. And king looses battle 18. Trojan War 19. King Agamemnon a. In charge of Greek forces 20. Achilles a. King Agamemnon’s most famous warier 21. Universal order a. Agememnon disrupted universal order (17b) o b/c King didn’t follow rules he lost battle b. Achilies wanted revenge so sat out battle (disrupted universal order) o b/c he sat out the battle his friend died 22. areté a. soundness in body AND mind b. idealistic greek pursued both halfs c. mind + body = intellectual + physical 23. polis a. name for the citystates in Greece 24. Sparta a. slave owners b. “land locked” c. Agriculture (farmers) d. military society called “GURISM” 25. Helots a. Prisoners of War used as SLAVES b. outnumber Spartans 10:1 c. Helot Olympics o children o Spartans killed winner of the games 26. Athens a. coastal polis – Mediteranean Sea o fishing o trading o navy o cosmopolitan – the “NYC” of ancient times o some slaves but NOT a slave society b. tried to farm – FAILED o kept tearing down olive trees and grapes to be able to farm 27. Solon the Reformer a. 594 BC b. Came up w/ idea to stop fighting the land and grow more grapes and olives o Grapes = wine o Olive = Olive oil o Soil = pottery 28. Olives a. Olive oil 29. Grapes a. wine 30. Cash crop a. Athens came up with first cash crop o Wine and oil b. Made huge pots to fill w/ wine and oil and they would trade this c. Athens goes from struggling city to vibrant rich city 31. Thespis 32. Sophocles a. 496406 BC b. Writes a trio of plays 33. Oedipus Rex a. Purpouse of this play was to send a message that you can’t disturb universal order 34. Socrates a. 496399 BC b. War Hero – ARETE c. Becomes teacher and gets introuble for “corrupting youth” 35. Dialectics a. The idea that you can draw an answer out of anyone 36. The Apology a. see my study guide for THE APOLOGY 37. Persian Wars a. Ionian Greeks are part of Persia and are fighting for their independence, Athenians help them b. Persia sends 250,000 soldiers to conquer Greece 38. King Darius I a. King of Persia 39. Battle of Marathon a. 490 BC b. 2 military forces meet on plain (MARATHON) which is 26 miles from Athens c. Athens defeats Persians 40. King Xerxes a. Darious’ son b. Vows revenge for battle of monopoly c. Wants to take all of Greece o Battle plan: Start in the north and work their way down 41. Battle of Thermopylae a. Spartans vs. Persia b. 300 spartans c. Spartans prove themselves d. Spartans slow Persians down, DON’T defeat them 42. Themistocles a. Athenian b. His plan is to outsmart the Persians o Says the need to abandon the city o Lure Persians into naval battle 43. Battle of Salamis Bay a. Persian fleet is defeated b/c their ships were huge and they were in shallow water 44. Battle of Platae a. 479 BC b. Spartans ca have their revenge on Persia c. This is last attempt to clean out Persians from Greece d. Spartans win 45. Peloponnesian League a. Created by Spartans, offers protection if the city states pay taxes to them 46. Delian League a. Created by Athenians, offers protection if the city states pay taxes to them 47. Plato a. Wrote the apology b. Socrates student c. Belived in platonic relationships (no sex) 48. The Republic a. Platos definition of what a perfect society looks like (UTOPIA) 1. Rulers – most intelligent 2. Soldiers – protect rulers 3. Producers – workers 49. Aristotle a. Plato’s student b. His works were saved c. Believed in moderation d. Political moderation = middle class o Belived people who were not completely rich or poor should rule 50. Philip of Macedonia a. Came up with Phalenx (troops march in square) b. 336 BC Phillip is in parade and man runs up and stabs him to death o Wife and son seem unsurprised 51. Alexander the Great a. Philips son b. Creates world empire c. WARRIER + STUDENT (of Arristotle) = ARETE d. Took ENEMIES and turned into ALLIES o They then bacme CITIZENS 52. Hellenistic a. Alexander is king, wants to spread the ideas Ancient Greece o Through war against Persia b. Spread to India 53. Rome a. City state b. Slowly expands c. Located on Tiber river & mediteranean sea 54. Etruscans a. control Rome 55. Roman Republic a. 509527 BC b. Rome breaks away from Etruscans c. They need to expand so they’re prepared if Etruscans want to come back and take over d. create an ORGANIZED MILITARY e. expands by defending themselves f. turn enemies into allies too 56. Carthage a. City state in Africs b. fighting with Africa over who can trade with the islands of Sicili, Sardania, Corsica, and Mesina 57. First Punic War a. Rome and Carthage war over islands b. 246241 BC c. Rome Wins War 58. Sicily a. Island off of Italy 59. Messina a. Island off of Italy 60. Sardinia a. Island off of Italy 61. Corsica a. Island off of Italy 62. Second Punic War a. Carthage decides to attack by starting in Spain/France and working its way down from the North b. 219201 BC 63. Hannibal a. Leader of Carthage forces 64. Cannae a. Battle of Cannae 216 b. Hannibal kills 60,000 soldiers just 70 miles from Rome 65. Scipio Africanus a. 66. Battle of Zama 67. World community 68. Rule by Law a. Republic 69. Law of Nations a. Rome wants to create a law that wont change when new rulers come to power 70. Latifundia 71. Urban underclass a. Start stealing from the rich because they cant find jobs 72. Tiberius Gracchus + Gaius Gracchus a. Roman Brothers b. Came up with an idea based on an old law that says no one can have more that 100 acres of land c. Killed by the senate 73. First Triumvirate a. 3 people 1. Pompey 2. Crassus 3. Julius Ceaser b. Goal was to reform the senate 74. Julius Caesar a. politician 75. Crassus a. Money b. Leaves the group because he knows he cannot win gaint 2 military men 76. Pompey a. Military 77. Gaul a. 59 BC Senate sends Julius Ceaser to Gaul (france) thinking they have gotten rid of him b. 53 BC Senate recalls Jullius Ceaser…he has 2 choices o Go back and get killed o Flee and never go back c. Takes his army back with him croses the Rubican River and wins d. He begins reform, now controls the senate 78. Letters from Gaul a. Julius sends letters back to Rome – “Letters from Gaul” o These letters make him the most popular person in Rome and he’s not even there 79. Rubicon River a. See 77c 80. Ides of March a. March 15 44 BC b. JC assinated for challenging senate 81. Second Triumvirate o Octavion o Mark Anthony o Lepidus b. (power battle between Octavion & Mark Anthony 82. Octavian a. Adopted son of Julius ceaser 83. Marc Anthony a. 84. Lepidus a. Leaves b/c he relizes he will be taken out since both are stronger than him. 85. Cleopatra a. Joins forces with Mark Anthony 86. Battle of Actium a. 31 BC b. This is the battle that ends it all c. Octavion wins 87. Senate a. Octavian takes back senate when he wins battle of Actium 88. Purges a. 27 BC b. Octavion has purged senate of his enemies 89. Princeps a. = 1 Citizen 90. Emperor a. Instead they call him Emperor Ceaser Augustus 91. Augustus Caesar a. = saint & Ceaser in honor of his step dad b. Lives a long life c. 27 BC – 14 AD 92. Roman Empire a. 27 BC – 476 b. About 500 years 93. Roads a. Roman empire build roads for people to travel safely 94. Aqueducts a. Roman empire provides water for people through aqueducts History 150—Study Guide for The Apology The Apology Questions What does Socrates say he “does not have the slightest skill as”? o “I have not the slightest skill as a speaker…” pg. 39 How old is Socrates at his trial? o “…this is my first appearance in a court of law, at the age of seventy…” pg. 40 Who is indicting Socrates? o “…and has encouraged Meletus to draw up this indictment.” pg. 41 How much does Socrates charge to teach people? o Free pg. 43 What does the god at Delphi tell Chaerephon? o There was no one wiser than Socrates pg. 44 Socrates says that he is wiser than another because he does not think that he knows what? o He does not think that he knows what he does not know. pg, 45 What do many poets think they know that Socrates says they really do not? o Their own ignorance What has reduced Socrates to extreme poverty? o His service to God pg. 47 What does Socrates believe to be the reason for his unpopularity? o Plain Speaking pg. 48 Who does Socrates’s accuser believe makes the young good? o Jurymen* (LAWS) , Spectaters, Members of the council, and members of the assembly pg. 49 What animal does Socrates say most people do harm to? o Horses pg. 49 What does Socrates say should happen to someone who unintentionally has a bad influence on others? o Take him aside privately for instruction and reproof pg. 50 Socrates says his accuser is contradicting himself how? o “Socrates is guilty of not believing in gods, but believing in gods.” Pg 52 What does Socrates define “supernatural beings” as? o Gods or children of Gods Socrates states that a man who is worth anything ought not weigh the prospects of what? o Life and death pg. 54 “Ignorance most culpable” is thinking one knows what? o Ignorance which thinks it knows what it does not. (ex. death is the worst evil/what happens after death) pg. 55 What specifically does Socrates say does not bring goodness? o Wealth pg. 56 To what animals does Socrates compare Athens and himself to? o Thouroughbred horse What “debars” Socrates from entering public life (office)? o He is subject to divine experience (supernatural sign) The true champion of what must leave politics alone? o Justice What does Socrates offer to allow his accuser to produce? o Evidence How many sons does Socrates have? o Three Socrates states that he believes it is not what to appeal to a jurty to get acquitted? o Just (fair) pg. 63 What is the main reason Socrates is not distressed by the verdict? o It was NOT unexpected What alternative punishment does Socrates suggest? o Free maintenance by the states expense pg. 65 “Life without” what is not woth living? o Examining himself and others pg. 66 Give the best example of arête that Socrates represents? o Knowledge How does Socrates view death? o It is eitherone of two thing: Annihilation (the dead have no consciousness of anything) OR migration of the soul (change) pg. 69 Socrates wonders as he leaves court as to whether the jury or he will be what? o The happier prospect pg. 70
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