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PSY 1010 Exam 1 Materials

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by: Rachel Belson

PSY 1010 Exam 1 Materials PSY 1010

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Rachel Belson

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These are my notes for all the material covered in lecture that will be on the first exam.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Amy Kohl
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chp 1 Tuesday, January 12, 2016 9:13 PM 1/14/16 What is Psychology? A. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes a. Scientific: Answering questions objectivelybased on observablefacts, data, and established methods b. Behavior: Observable c. Mental Processes:Thoughts, feeling, sensations, perceptions, motivations,dreams, etc. Goals of Psychology: 1. Describe: Accurately and completelyas possible. Tell WHAT occurred. Like, problem video game playing 2. Explain: The causes. WHY. Why do people develop problematic video games? Is it mental health, or something else? 3. Prediction:WHEN? Problem gamin is more likely during emerging adulthood. More likely when depressed. 4. Influence/Control:HOW. Find a therapy or treatment to prevent problem gaming Need for psychological science A. Not always obvious conclusions Hindsight Bias: Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome,that one would have foreseen it. OverconfidenceBias: When a persons subjective confidence in their judgement is greater than the objectiveaccuracy of their judgement. Students often underestimatehow long it will take to finish an assignment Material feels really familiar and seemsto make sense so they don’t study as much Critical thinking: does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. Examines assumptions, evaluates evidence, discerns hidden values, assesses conclusions. Scientific Attitude: A. Curiosity B. Skepticism C. Humility Scientific Method A. Theory B. Hypothesis construction C. Hypothesis testing D. Conclusions E. Report results Theory: A broad generalization about the world that is substantiated through observationand experimentation A. Falsifiable B. Based on replicated lines of research C. Concise D. Our body of knowledge in any given scientific discipline is comprisedof theories Theories yield hypotheses A. Hypotheses:A specific testable prediction derived from a theory B. Gather Data: different ways to design a study, the choice depends on the question though Case Studies: Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals, pretty rare group A. Rich description B. Can provide ideas for future research C. Limitations: a. Decreased generalizability b. Observer bias: the tendency for an observerto see what they expect to see. Pysch hospital study, normal people "hearing voices" get admitted then act fine Observation A. Naturalistic Observation-watchingpeople behave in real/natural settings a. Limitations i. Too much going on ii. Observer effect: The tendency for people to not behave normally when they know they are being observed B. Laboratory-ina controlled setting a. Limitations i. Observer effect ii. Unnatural iii. Ethics Survey: Determineself reported attitudes, opinions, or behaviors of people A. Usually done by questioning a representative,random sample a. Population:the entire group that a researcher is interested in i. All emerging adults b. Representativesample: randomly sample group of subjects from the larger population B. Questionnaires a. Most common b. Advantages i. Cheap and easy ii. Generalize c. Problems i. Writing a good questions ii. Getting a random sample iii. Honesty Correlation ( r ): a statistical measure of a relationship between 2 or more variables A. Ranges from -1 to +1 B. Two things to look at a. Strength of the relationship i. Absolute value of the value b. Direction of relationship i. Positiveor negative correlations ii. Positive,both x and y increase iii. Negative, when x increases, y decreases C. Examples a. Age and foot size= positive.70 b. Temperatureand freezing= negative .95 c. Money and happiness=positive.05 c. Money and happiness=positive.05 D. Importance a. Whether or not something is associated b. Used to make predictions E. Limits a. Cant show causation b. Third variable problem i. The relationship between two variables may be due to a third unstudied variable Statistics are great tools but terrible when done wrong Explaining with experiments A. Participant selection a. Randomly selected to achieve representative sample b. Randomly assigned to groups B. Variables a. Operation definition: Definition of a variable that allows for objectivemeasure i. What does healthy mean? Be specific. b. Independent Variable: The variable that is being changed by researcher c. Dependent: The variable that represents the result Groups: A. Experimental:the group exposed to the independent variable Placebo Effect: Expectationsof the effect change the behavior Ethics A. Human subject boards who review studies, many scientists in different fields and possibly religious leaders Guidelines 1. People first and research second 2. Participants need to be able to make an informed decision about participation a. Participants need to be informed on risks and benefits b. Informed consent 3. Deceptionmust be justified Participants may withdraw from study at any time Participants must be protected from risks when possible and explicitly told about risks Investigatorsmust debrief participants, if deceptions are used they must know afterward Data must remain confidential (false names, group level averages for other research) If the study results in undesirable/unexpectedoutcomesfor the participant, the researcher needs to detect, and correct or removethe consequences Chp 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 5:56 PM Neurons: Cells that specialize in the transfer of informationwithin the nervous system A. Average human brain: 100 billion B. Each connects to 15,000other cells Three types of neurons: A. Sensory Neurons: Carry messages from sense organs to spinal cord or brain (afferent) B. Interneurons: Carry messages from neuron to neuron C. Motor Neurons: Carry messages from spinal cord or brain to the muscles and glands (Efferent) Components of Neurons: A. Dendrites: Receive informationfrom other neurons B. Cell body: Creates transmitter moleculesand houses typical cell components(eg nucleus) C. Axon: Passes info away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Always travels in one direction a. Myelin insulates nerve cell, speeds up conduction of nerve messages. We continue myelinating nerve cells through our teenage years b. Axon terminal buttons: release transmitters D. Synapse is a gap between axon and neurotransmitter Glial cells:cells in the nervous system that provide support to neurons A. Help cells migrate to final location during development B. Nutrients C. Removingdead neurons D. Provide structure and insulation during migration How do neurons communicate? Overview: A. Dendrite or receptor (in the case of sensory neurons) is stimulated B. Begins a chemical reaction within the neuron called an action potential C. The action potential travels down the axon to the terminal buttons, resulting in the release of neurotransmittersinto the synapse D. Cross the synapse and enter another neuron Resting potential: state of neuron when not communicatingwith other neurons A. Polarization: inside of neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside (-70mV) a. Greater positive ions outside the cell b. Greater negative inside the cell Action Potential: Brief electrical charge that travels down the axon A. Generate by movementof positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axons membrane B. This moves in one direction due to the refractory nerve? Depolarization: positive ions enter neuron A. Makes neuron more susceptible to fire and action potential Hyperpolarization: extra negative ions enter neuron A. Makes neuron less susceptible to fire Threshold: level of charge an impulse must exceed to cause neuron to fire A. Neuron receives depolarizing (pos ions) and hyperpolarizing (neg ions) currents from many neurons neurons B. Neuron fires when the sum of currents exceeds threshold All or none response: neurons fire or they don’t Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon A. Strong signals make neurons more likely to fire and lead to more rapid firing B. Weak signals make neurons less likely to fire and lead to less rapid firing Refractory Period: after neuron fires, it pauses to recharge itself to fire again A. Hyperpolarization, because it is morenegatively charged than resting state Synapse is a junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron Neurotransmitters:chemicals that- A. Stored within vesicles B. Released in response to action potential C. Travel across synapse and bind to receptor sites D. Generates action potential, or does not ExcitatorySynapse: synapse that causes fire Inhibitory Synapse: that inhibits, and causes the neuron to remain at rest Reuptake: NTs in synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons A. Puts brakes on NT action B. Acetylcholine(ACh) is degraded by enzymes instead, rather than reuptake Neurotransmitters A. Serotonin (5-HT) a. Sleep, mood regulation, anxiety, appetite b. Depressed individuals have lower amounts B. Dopamine (DA) a. Movement,learning,, and attention b. Schizophrenia has been linked to overproductionof this c. Parkinson's has been linked to underproduction of this C. Acetylcholine(Ach) a. Found in synapses between neurons and muscle cells b. In alzheimers disease, these deteriorate c. Curare: a poison that operates by blocking Ach receptor sites, resulting in paralysis i. Antagonist: a chemical that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter ii. Have to be similar shape to do this d. Black widow venom:stimulates the release of too much Ach causing convulsions i. Agonist: a chemical that mimicsor enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter ii. Have to be similar shape to do this D. Endorphins a. Reduce pain by inhibiting the neurons that transmit pain messages to the brain E. Norepinephrine: a. Influences wakefulness and arousal, as well as learning, memory,emotionalmood i. Undersupply can depress mood F. GABA (gamma-aminobutyricacid) a. Major inhibitory neuron after birth (actually excitatoryin the fetus) b. Undersupply linked to seizures, insomnia and tremors G. Glutamate a. Excitatorytransmitter a. Excitatorytransmitter b. Involved in memory c. Oversupply can overstimulatethe brain leading to migraines and seizures OVERVIEW Messages are received by dendrites IF it crosses threshold Action potential carry message through axon All or nothing Stronger signals cause more neurons to fire more often Neurotransmittersare released at axon terminals The messages influence the behavior a Nervous System A. Body's electrochemicalcommunicationsystem B. Consists of bodys nerve cells Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System: Sensory and motorneurons that connect CNS to rest of body A. Contains nerves a. Neural cables containing many axons b. Connect muscles and glands and sense organs to CNS Somatic Nervous system:Controls bodys skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System: controls glands and other muscles Sympathetic nervous system: arouses body, readies body in response to threat A. Fight or flight B. Accelerated heart beat, raised blood pressure, slowed digestion to conserve energy, raised blood sugar, moresweat to cool you down Parasympathetic Nervous System: calms body down, conservesenergy. This is opposite to Sympathetic Endocrine system:the body's "Slow" chemical communicationsystem;a set of glands that communicate by secreting hormonesdirectly into blood stream A. Communicatesat diffuse target sites in body, everywhererather than where neurons are B. Hormonesbind to receptors Pituitary gland: master gland, simulated by hypothalamus A. bonding, growth, stress Thyroid gland: metabolism Adrenal Glands: emergency situations, secrete adrenaline The brain: A. Weighs about three pounds B. Texture of Jell-O C. Size of a grapefruit D. Different parts of the brain have different functions How to examine the brain: A. EEG- electroencephalogram a. Monitorselectrical activityin the brain B. PET- Positronemission tomography a. Person is given a radioactive form of glucose (a sugar used by brain) and the PET detects where and how much glucose parts of the brain are using b. More glucose used, more brain activity in that area C. MRI- Magnetic resonance imaging C. MRI- Magnetic resonance imaging a. Uses magnets to provide computer generate pictures of the different soft tissue structures of the brain D. fMRI- functional magnetic resonance imaging a. Beyond just showing soft tissue structure also shows what areas are lighting up based on activity in that region of the brain (oxygen, like PET uses glucose) The Brain A. The hind brain: a. The oldest part of the brain (evolutionarysense) b. Directly above and connected to spinal cord c. Responsible for automatic survival function d. Parts of the hind brain include i. Medulla: Controls heart rate and breathing ii. Reticular Formation: Maintains consciousness, regulates arousal levels iii. Cerebellum 1) Little brain 2) Helps coordinate voluntary movementsand balance 3) Involved in learning and memory B. The forebrain a. Thalamus i. On top of brainstem ii. Brain's sensory switchboard iii. Receivessensory input from neurons and routes them to higher regions of the brain b. Limbic System i. Doughnut shaped system of neural structures ii. Borders brainstem and cerebrum iii. Associated with emotions 1) Fear, aggression, drives for food and sex iv. Reward area of the brain c. Amygdala i. Involved in learning and recognition of fear d. Hypothalamus i. Directs maintence activities a. Eat, drink, body temp, emotionalcontrol Ii. Activates endocrine system when stressed C. Cerebrum a. Largest structure of human brain b. Consists of cerebral hemispheres i. Right and left of cerebrum are connected by corpus callosum ii. Covered by the cerebral cortex D. Cerebral Cortex a. Intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells b. Ultimate control and informationprocessing center c. Large surface area that fits in a compact space d. Outermostsurface of cerebrum Lobes A. Broad divisions of the cerebral cortex a. Frontal lobe b. Parietal lobe c. Occipital lobe d. Temporal lobe Function of the cortex A. Motor cortex: area at the rear of the frontal lobe a. Controls voluntary movement B. Sensory Cortex: receivesinfo from skin and sense organs C. Association cortex a. Higher processes. Thinking, judging, problem solving, planning b. Related to memoryand personality c. Covers large part of the cerebral cortex,mostly located in the frontal lobe D. Language Functions a. Parts of cerebral cortex (left hemisphere) related to language use b. Broca's Area: Directs muscle movementsinvolvedin speech c. Wernicke's Area: involved in spoken and written comprehension Split Brain Procedures a. When the corpus callosum is cut, there is no longer a connection between the left and right hemispheres b. Things in the right visual field can be named, while things in the left field cannot be named c. Done to treat severecases of epilepsy Hemispheric Specialization A. Left a. Primarily controls the right side of body b. Speech c. Language d. Writing e. More active when doing language related activities B. Right a. Left side of body b. Facial recognition c. Spatial construction d. Non-verbal imagery e. More active when doing perceptual activities Chp 4? Tuesday, January 26, 2016 6:00 PM Consciousness:subjective awareness of mental events, and being aware of ourselves and our environment Dualism: the mind and body are separate A. Descartes-connected by pineal glad, can have casual interaction Minimal Materialism- everything has to be made of matter,so the mind cannot be separate Altered states of consciousness A. Mental state other than ordinary waking consciousness B. Can be either a decrease or increase in alertness a. Ex- using stimulants can make you more aware/alert Can be divided A. Dangerous B. Texting and driving Examples of altered states of consciousness- Daydreaming, sex, orgasm, food, hallucinations, dreaming, hypnosis, etc. Conscious vs unconscious A. Unconscious mind processes info simultaneously- bottom of the iceberg, its deeper and bigger, not seen B. Conscious mind processes info sequentially- tip of iceberg Dual processing: the principle that informationis often simultaneously processed on a separate conscious and unconscious tracks A. Best exhibited by blindsight, a condition in which a person can respond to visual stimulus without being consciouslyaware of it Suggests we have a visual action track and a visual perception track Selective attention: the focusing on conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is focused elsewhere Change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment,sometimeswe don't notice changes in people when asking for directions, constructionworker story Sleep: periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness,as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, anesthesia, etc Circadian Rhythm A. Internal clock set on a 24.8 hour cycle-newbornshave no sense of day or night, this is not something we're born with B. Hypothalamus a. Regulates temp, metabolism,sleep C. Light influences your sleep cycle a. Jet lag b. Screen time at night can trick your body into thinking it is still light out, and make it difficult to sleep D. Circadian rhythm includes dip at midday a. Siestas-many countries allow for a midday nap in their employeesor students schedules b. Not related to eating E. Short naps increase alertness and productivity E. Short naps increase alertness and productivity Sleep stages A. EEGs show we go through 5 distinct sleep stages about every 90 minutes B. More recent research showed only 4 C. We go through a fairly regular pattern through these stages while we sleep D. REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep): a. a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonlyoccur, also called paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active E. NREM-1: just falling asleep a. Can have that feeling of falling and hypnogogic hallucinations b. If awoken in this stage, we often don't think we were asleep F. NREM-2: presence of sleep spindles (bursts of brain activity) G. NREM-3: AKA slow wave sleep a. Difficult to waken REM Sleep: A. Heart rate increases B. Breathing becomes rapid and irregular C. Dreams are vivid, emotional,story like D. Genitals becomearoused, regardless of dream content E. Motorcortex is active but you are paralyzed (sleep paralysis) Why do we sleep? 5 theories 1. Sleep protects: sleep at night when we don't see well keeps us away from harm, allowing us to breed another day 2. Sleep helps recuperate: we restoreand repair brain tissue when we sleep 3. Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day: memoriesare consolidated when we sleep a. Problemsare easier the next day, our brain works on them while we sleep 4. Sleep feeds creative thinking 5. Sleep supports growth: growth hormoneis secreted during sleep Why do we have to dream? Theory 1: Freuds wish fulfillment A. Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"that helps us discharge unacceptable feelings a. Manifest content: according to Freud, this is the rememberedstory line of a dream b. Latent content: the underlying meaning of a dream, which could be threatening if expressed directly B. Criticisms a. Lacks scientific support b. Dreams can be interpreted myriad ways Theory 2: Information Processing A. Dreams help us to sort out and even fix our memoriesof daily events a. Research supports this view i. Brain areas involvedin learning and memoryare active during REM B. Criticism a. This may also take place in other stages b. What about things we haven't done? Why are those things in our dreams? Theory 3: physiologicalfunction A. We sleep to develop and preserve pathways B. Developmentallythis makes sense B. Developmentallythis makes sense a. Infants are developing their neural networksand spend more time in REM sleep C. Criticism a. Why do we have meaningful dreams? Theory 4: neural activation A. We dream to make sense of the neural static that happens. (Neural firings occur while dreaming) B. Random neural firing in visual cortex + limbic system (emotions)activation = dreams C. Criticism: a. The individual is still weaving the story, so even if the firing is random, how they interpret it is not, and is meaningful on its own Theory 5: Cognitive development A. The content of dreams reflect the developmentof the dreamer in terms of their knowledge and understanding B. Criticisms a. Doesn’t address the neuroscience of dreams Daydreams A. Newer research has explored the link between daydreams and dreams a. Has similar functions of dreaming b. We may be unconsciously solving problems and consolidating knowledge and memories Sleep disorders A. Night terrors a. Sudden arousal with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions i. Not consciouslyaware b. Occur during NREM-3 i. Vs nightmares that occur in REM 1) A bad dream ii. Occurs more often in children because they spend more time sleeping B. Insomnia a. Recurring problems staying asleep or falling asleep i. Hard to treat ii. Anxiety exacerbates C. Narcolepsy: overpoweringurge to fall asleep a. May occur while talking or standing up b. Often treated with specific stimulants D. Sleep apnea: failure to breathe when asleep a. Often occurs in overweight men b. Can lead to tiredness during the day and puts strain on the heart c. People who experiencesleep apnea have varying degrees of it occurring d. Raise in veterans-Couldhave to do with dust and chemicals mixed with stress of combat E. Sleepwalking and Sleep talking a. Occurring during NREM-3 sleep b. Usually harmless i. Often don't recall the event c. Appears to be heritable d. Occurs more often in children F. REM behavior disorder- sleep paralysis is inhibited, and someonethrashes around a lot or in some cases acts out nightmares cases acts out nightmares a. 20 murder cases involving this as a defense PsychoactiveDrug: a chemical substance that alters thinking, memory,perceptions, and or mood. A. Includes street drugs, prescriptions, and many herbs Tolerance: the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effects Addiction: increasing doses needed to experiencethe effect of the drug Physicaldependence: a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal Withdrawal: the discomfortand distress that follow continuing the use of an addictive drug Psychologicaldependence: a psychological need for a drug, such as to escape negative emotions Types of drugs that alter consciousness: Hallucinogens:psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input A. LSD, PCP, and mescaline B. Alter interpretation of sensory info to produce bizarre or unusual perceptions C. Chronic use leads to psychotic symptoms,paranoia, depression, and changes in the brain D. Abnormal firing in visual pathways E. Tolerance comesquick Depressant: drugs that reduce neural activity and slows the body function Alcohol: slows judgements and impairs impulse control A. Slows neural processing B. Disrupts memoryformation C. Reduces self awareness and control D. Chronic heavy alcohol use is associatedwith brain shrinkage Barbiturates:tranquilizers A. Used to treat anxiety, and a sleep aid B. Less commonlyprescribed today due to abuse potential, and safer drugs have been invented Opiates: heroin, oxycodone,morphine are examples A. Can block pain receptors and depress neural functioning B. Also can cause euphoria C. Heavy prolonged use can cause the brain to stop producing its own endorphins D. Prolonged use means more of the same drug for the same effect Stimulants: excite neural activity and speed up bodily function A. Caffeine, nicotine, methamphetamine,cocaine, ecstasy B. They can a. Dilate pupils b. Diminish appetite c. Allow you to stay awake longer d. Bring about euphoria e. Hypertension f. Cause addiction Methamphetamine: causes euphoria due to the release of dopamine A. Highly addictive B. Toxic effect to the brain, even a few months of regular use can lead to change in appearance, depression, and loss of neural activity depression, and loss of neural activity C. Effects can last 8 hours from single dose Cocaine: euphoric effects similar to stimulants a. Quick rush b. Highly addictive, especially in crack c. Crash comes quickly due to depletion of several neurotransmitters Ecstasy:MDMA, causes release of natural reserves of serotonin. This causes feelings of euphoria, empathy, increases tactile sensations, and a loss of inhibition A. Created to help during therapy B. Research suggests that long term use could cause permanent serotonin depletion and cause serotonin receptors to become less responsive Marijuana A. Difficult to classify because it shows characteristics of several classes B. Setting can play a large role in effects, as can expectationof effects C. Can disinhibit like alcohol and has mild hallucinogenic effects D. Euphoria, loss of muscle control, and memoryloss Hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur An individual who is hypnotized is believed to be in a highly relaxed, and in a suggestible state A. People differ in how hypnotizable they are The basic suggestion effect: the tendency to act as though their behavior is out of their control, participant will do things they might not normally do because they feel the burden lies on the hypnotist Can hypnotized individuals really be made to do things they normally wouldn’t? A. Hypnotized individuals dipped their hand in "acid" (it was water) and splashed it in the researchers face, all due to suggestion B. People said they didn’t do it How to induce hypnosis 1. Hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said 2. The person is told to relax and feel tired 3. The hypnotist tells the person to let go, and accept suggestions easily 4. The person is supposed to use vivid imagination Memoryrecalled under hypnosis is not admissible in court Hypnosis in therapy A. Found effective in stress related disorders and obesity, but not addictions B. Posthypnotic suggestion:a suggestion made during hypnosis session, to be carried out while the person is no longer hypnotized Hypnosis as dissociation: A. Essentially dual processing B. Hypnotism works on the conscious mind and the unconscious mind is actually aware of what is going on C. Miller and Bowers 1993-ice water case, participants reported that they felt no pain Hypnosis as social role playing: Hypnosis as social role playing: Social-CognitiveTheory of Hypnosis: People are not actually in an altered state, but are merely playing the role 1/28/16:Watched Nova's What are Dreams? Chp 6 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 6:00 PM Sensation: process through which senses pick up visual, auditory, and other sensory stimulus from the environment,and transmit them to the brain A. Transduction: process of converting energy, chemicals, and physical stimuli in the environment into neural activity Absolute Threshold: minimum stimulation necessary to detect a stimulus a. Level needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time Difference threshold: just noticeable threshold a. Level needed to detect DIFFERENCES between two stimuli 50% of the time b. These are proportional,not absolute c. In terms of percentages Light: energy that behaves as both particles and waves, and is transduced by the eyes into neural activity. A. Brightness:determined by the amplitude, higher = brighter B. Color: determined by wavelength, C. Saturation: refers to purity of the color The Eye A. Sclera- white part of eye that maintains shape and provides protection B. Iris- colored part of the eye, contracts and relaxes to allow light, controls size of pupil C. Pupil- opening in the middle of the iris, changes size due to light conditions D. Cornea- clear membranein front of the iris that bends light rays E. Lens- behind the pupil a. Visual Accommodation: lens changes shape from thick to thin, enabling us to focus near/far F. Retina- light sensitive area on back wall of the eye a. Three layers i. Ganglion cells ii. Bipolar cells iii. Photoreceptors(rods and cones) G. Fovea- small area on retina comprised of mostlycones a. Most sensitive to detail b. Vision is sharpest H. Optic disk- where ganglion cells leave the retina to become optic nerve a. Contains no photoreceptors,meaning there is a blind spot Process: 1. Light enters eye, passes through first two layers of the retina and strikes rods and cones 2. Activates bipolar cells which activates ganglion cells 3. Ganglion cells bundle together to form optic nerve that goes to the brain Convergence: A. one cone per one bipolar cell a. Low convergence,greater acuity b. Small pixel B. Many rods per one bipolar cell a. High convergence,lower acuity b. Big pixels Sensitivity: A. Cones need brighter light to fire B. Rods can also fire when stimulated by lower levels of light Cones are sensitive to color a. three types of cones sensitive to different wavelengths b. Less light = less cones firing = less color vision Trichromatictheory A. Three types of cones a. Original: red, green, blue b. Reality: blue/violet,green, green-yellow c. The combination and rate at which these fire produce color vison Opponent-process theory A. Four primary colors arranged in opposing pairs a. Red Green b. Blue Yellow c. If one is stimulated, the other is inhibited B. Evidence to support this: there are no greenish-reds, or yellowish-blues, and afterimages Deviations in cones A. Monochrome colorblindness a. No cones, truly no color B. Colorblindness (dichromatic vision) a. Missing one cone, or having a cone that does not work properly b. Red-green colorblindness common i. Sees in blues, yellows, and greys C. Tetrachromacy a. Four cones b. Extra cone is red orange yellow c. No dramatic difference *This is sex linked inheritance Feature detection A. Some visual neurons respond to specific features of a visual scene a. Lines, edges, angles B. Many of these feature detecting cells fire at any given time C. Brain constantlyassembles details into coherent image SUMMARY 1. We see something 2. Retinal processing (rods and cones, then to the bipolar cells, and then the ganglion cells) 3. Feature detection (edges, gradient, bars) 4. Abstraction (combine info from feature detecting cells to create one coherent image) 5. Recognition Audition: the sense or act of hearing; our ability to detect and transduce sound waves A. Psychologicalproperties a. Pitch: a sounds detected highness or lowness i. Frequency: the number of wavelength in a period b. Loudness b. Loudness i. The height of the wave The Ear A. Outer ear a. Pinna: visible ear structure, funnels sound waves into auditory canal i. Different shapes lead to slight differences in auditory sensation ii. Your height also impact sensation B. Middle Ear a. Ossicles:three tiny bones: hammer,anvil, stirrup b. These amplify the vibration of the ear drum C. Inner ear a. Cochlea: contains fluid which vibrates and stimulates the organ of corti b. Organ of Corti: contains hair cells, which are our auditory receptor cells i. Vibration bending the hair cells is what causes them to fire a message to the Auditory nerve Place theory A. The pitch we hear is due to which hair cells are stimulated a. Closer to oval window results in high pitch b. Lower pitch is further down the organ Frequency Theory A. Pitch depends on speed of vibration a. Fast = high pitch b. Slow = low pitch Olfaction: the sensation of smell, the process of smelling A. A type of chemoreception, meaning that we detect chemicals in the air and transduce them into neural patterns a. Only detect chemicals that are volatile (readily form vapors) b. Chemicals also need to have shapes that bind to the receptorsites The Nose A. Olfactory epithelium a. Two 1 square inch patches of tissue, one at the top of each nasal cavity, which together contain about 10 million olfactoryneurons, receptors for smell. B. Olfactory Bulbs a. Two match stick sized structures above the nasal cavity where smell sensations first register in the brain b. Sends info directly to the olfactory cortex C. Olfaction is the only sense that is not routed through the thalamus! Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to the constant unchanging info A. Still detect/processsensory info B. Odorants can enter bloodstream/prolongeffect Sensory adaption: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to an unchanging stimulus A. No longer detecting sensory info A. No longer detecting sensory info Olfactory fatigue: your olfactoryreceptors are tired, and no longer send information about that smell Gustation: the sensation of taste A form of chemoreception,we detect chemicals in food Five basic tastes Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (triggered by glutamate) The Mouth Papillae: the small bumps on your tongue A. Four types B. Three of them contain taste buds Tasted buds A. Structures composedof 60 to 100 sensory receptors for taste Supertasters A. Greater number of papillae = more intense taste B. Occurs more in women C. Particularly sensitive to bitter Flavor is a combined sense of taste and smell To discern the difference… A. Eat food with nose plugged a. Taste B. Eat food normally a. Flavor Touch A. Pressure B. Warmth C. Cold D. Pain a. Extremelyimportant b. Nociceptorsfire in response to extremesin pressure, temperature, or chemicals Different types A. Visceral:organs B. Somatic: skin, muscles, tendons, joints Congenital analgesia: inability to experience pain Phantom limb pain: feeling pain in a limb that has been removed,research suggests due to a trauma to nerves during amputation Endorphins A. Chemicals produced by the pituitary gland that reduce pain and positivelyaffect mood Kinesthetic sense A. The sense providing information about relative position and movementof body parts B. Gives the position of body parts in relation to each other and the movementof the entire body and or its parts Vestibular sense A. The sense that provides info about the body's movementand orientationin space through sensory receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs, which detect changes in the movementand orientation of the head Perception A. Sensations are disassembled, so perception is reassembling them (various stimuli info) into a meaningful and recognizable form B. Our brains construct our perceptions, and not always accurately Constancy Size constancy: the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size regardless of distance Shape constancy: tendency to interpret an object's shape as constant, no matter the angle/position Brightnessconstancy: tendency to interpret an object's brightness as constant, regardless changes in lighting conditions Perceptionchanges from momentto moment,mostresponsive to most relevant sensations. EG- cocktail party effect: related to sensory adaption Gestalt means "whole" "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" They applied this to sensation and perception Figure/Ground: objects in the visual field tend to stand out more than what surrounds the object Grouping- tend to group objects together into meaningful categories A. Proximity B. Similarity C. Closure D. Continuity Images that go to the retina are two dimensional but we see on three dimensions Retinal Disparity:each eye gets slightly different image A. Brain interprets these differences Angle of convergence: if object is close, eyes must have sharp angle to see object (rotationof eyes in sockets) A. If far away, angle is less. Linear Perspective:parallel lines converge with distance Relative size: if objects are the same size, one farther away will appear smaller Overlap: thing in front (partially blocking another) is closer Aerial perspective:stuff farther away looks hazier/blurier Texture gradient: stuff closer to you is more distinctly textured than stuff farther away Motion parallax: close objects appear to movemore quickly than objects farther away Expectation of what will be perceived affects what actually is perceived Also can be called a mental predisposition Tendency to look for order in random events and ambiguous stimuli A. This why you freak out after c's come 5 times in a row on a test Pareidolia: the tendency to find patterns in ambiguous stimuli Top down processing A. Use our knowledge and completepicture to make sense of stimuli B. Going to meet friend somewhere,you see someonewho looks like your friend so you wave Bottom up processing Bottom up processing A. Using features to make sense of stimuli B. But as you're approaching, its not your friend


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