Qiuz 1 Study Guide
Qiuz 1 Study Guide Soc 323
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natasha Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 323 at University of North Dakota taught by Gleditsch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Sociological Research Methods in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ch1 Data Collection: observation Data Analysis: The comparison of logic and observation. Looking for patterns, expected vs observed. Inaccurate Observations: Observations that happen unconsciously. Aggregates: What we are actually studying, groups we are comparing. Individuals. Attribute: Females and males in gender. Within variables are attributes. Deduction: Theory to data! Expected pattern to observation. Epistemology: Generalization: After you collect data, you choose to only look at a small part to make your generalization. Idiographic: A single instance: studied early, ate a good breakfast, single things that caused you to test well. Induction: Data to theory! Specific observations to discovery of a pattern. Methodology: Nomothetic: A class of situation or events: working in groups vs along, sleep vs up all night, shows relationships, broad, pattern that makes you do well on tests. Qualitative: Non-numerical data. Rich description, open ended interview, observation. Quantitative: Numerical data. Easier to aggregate, compare, summarize, survey, close ended interview. Theory: Logical explanations of what we saw. Help explain why we found these patterns. Help us avoid flukes, make sense of patterns, see other possibilities, shape and direct research, relates why questions. Tradition: ritual. Variable: • Independent: gender. • Dependent: voting. Dependent on something else, caused by another variable. Ch2 Concepts: Symbol and definition Conflict Paradigm: Power, exploitation, struggle, inequality, alienation, attempting to dominate others while trying not to be dominated. Society is made up of groups who have opposing interest, these groups struggle to maintain or gain power. Those without power experience alienation. Critical Race Theory: Race, racism, race awareness, racial justice. Similar to feminist paradigms. Examines the disadvantaged position of a social group. Darwinism: Sees a progressive evolution in social life. From simple hunting-and-gathering tribes to large industrial civilizations. Society is getting better and better. Ethnomethodology: “Methodology of the people” People are trying to make sense of life, daily patterns, routines. Violate expectations, elevator skit. Break a rule and see how people react, also evaluate how you yourself feels. Feminism: Gender, oppression, sexism, experience. Gender is a force that structures all human interaction and structure. Gender is used to define abilities, characteristics, qualities, and expectations. These traits are judged to be good or bad. Macro: Biggest. Entire United States. Meso: In between. Communities or organizations, UND. Micro: Smallest. Individuals or small groups, dating behaviors. Operationalization: Process of developing operational definitions, or specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable. Paradigm: Frame of reference. Organizes thoughts, observations. Implicit, assumed, taken for granted. Creates understanding. Explain, predict, direct future effort. Positivism: Enlightenment. Assumes that we can scientifically discover the rules governing social life. Society can be observed and then explained logically and rationally. Structural Functionalism: System, equilibrium, dysfunction, function, division of labor. Social entity is a system, made up of interrelated parts. Each part helps the functioning of the whole Symbolic Functionalism: Self, reference group, role-playing, perception. People transmit & receive symbols through interaction. Create perceptions of each other and themselves, then act on basis of those perceptions. Generalized other. Ch3 Methodological: How is the study conducted? Anonymity: Achieved in a research project when neither the researcher nor the readers of the finding can identify a given response with a given respondent. Code of Ethics: A set of principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior. Confidentiality: A research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given persons responses but promises not to do so publicly. Debriefing: Talking things out at the end of the study. Ethics: Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group. Morality, right and wrong. Informed Consent: Subjects base their voluntary participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risks involved. Institutional Review Board (IRB): Review proposal involving humans, federally funded, risk vs benefits, protected subjects. Politics: Substance and use of research. Ch4 Causation: can determine some causes but not all. Correlation: Found between two variables, we cant say that a casual relationship exists. Descriptive Research: What, were, when, how. Observe, then describe what was observed. Ecological Fallacy: Erroneously drawing conclusions about individuals solely from the observation of groups. Explanatory Research: Why. Assuming causality, correlation, time order, spuriousness. Exploratory Research: Curiosity, develop methods, feasibility. Explore a topic to start to familiarize a researcher with that topic. Necessary Cause: Condition that must be present for effect to follow. Reductionism: A strict limitation of the kinds of concepts to be considered relevant to the phenomenon under study. Social Artifact: Any product or social beings or their behavior. Books, poems, teen magazines. Spurious Relationship: A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable. Sufficient Cause: Condition that if present, guarantees the effect, not always the only cause. Unit of Analysis: The what or whom being studied.
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