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Physiology 201 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Natalie Adlam

Physiology 201 Exam 1 Study Guide PSIO 201

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Physiology > PSIO 201 > Physiology 201 Exam 1 Study Guide
Natalie Adlam
GPA 3.4

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These are some key terms to know for the first exam
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Study Guide
Physiology Anatomy
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Adlam on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSIO 201 at University of Arizona taught by Stanescu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Physiology at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Physiology 201 Exam 1 Study Guide Anatomy- study of body structure Physiology- study of body functions Metabolism- sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body Catabolism- breaking down molecules Anabolism- building up molecules Five characteristics of living things: 1. Metabolism (chemical processes in body), 2. Responsiveness (ability to respond to environment), 3. Movement (Ability to move or move an organ, cell, or cell component), 4. Growth and differentiation (Growing in size or adding more cells), 5. Reproduction (New cells/individuals) Levels of Structural Organization: 1. Chemical, 2. Cellular, 3. Tissue, 4. Organ, 5. Organ System, 6. Organismic Five Steps of Scientific Method: 1. Observation, 2. Hypothesis, 3. Experimental Testing, 4. Analysis and Conclusion, 5. Development of New Hypothesis Negative Feedback Loops- Maintenance of homeostasis through the stopping of a process (ex. blood sugar), most abundant type of feedback loop in body Positive Feedback Loops- Maintenance of homeostasis through the intensifying of a process Steady State- Constant state maintained through time Equilibrium- Constant state achieved without energy expenditure Homeostasis- Condition in which the body’s internal environment remains relatively constant Cell Theory- 1. Cells are building blocks, 2. Cells arise from pre-existing cells, 3. Cells are the smallest living units, 4. Homeostasis of more highly organized systems arises from coordinated activity of cells Plasma membrane- interaction surface between cell and outside world Nucleus- contains genetic material of cell Cytoplasm- everything between membrane and nucleus Membranous organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, mitochondria Non-membranous organelles: cytoskeleton, ribosomes Amphipathic- a molecule that contains both a polar and non-polar region Integral proteins- extend all the way across a lipid bilayer, are amphipathic Peripheral proteins- attached either to inner or outer surface of bilayer Passive transport- Substances move down concentration gradient without requiring energy Active transport- Substances move against concentration gradient and do require energy Endocytosis- transport into cell Exocytosis- transport out of cell Transcytosis- transport from outside of cell all the way through cell to outside of other side of cell Microfilaments- strands of protein, influence motility and shape Intermediate filaments- structural stability Microtubules- cell structure and shape Endoplasmic Reticulum- lipid and protein synthesis, storage, transport within cell, detoxification Golgi Apparatus- packaging and processing of protein products Lysosomes- recycle old cell material Peroxisomes- detoxify byproducts of metabolism Nucleoside- base + sugar Nucleotide- nucleoside + phosphate Codon- three base pairs in a sequence Gene- sequence that represents a polypeptide Transcription- synthesis of RNA from DNA Translation- synthesis of protein from RNA


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