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Bio 230 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Kiara Lynch

Bio 230 Final Exam Study Guide Bio 230

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > Bio 230 > Bio 230 Final Exam Study Guide
Kiara Lynch
La Salle

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These notes provide a multitude of questions from material on the final exam. Topics include Plant Diversity: How plants colonized land, the evolution of seed plants, plant structure, growth and d...
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 230 at La Salle University taught by TBA in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
CHAPTER 29: PLANT DIVERSITY HOW PLANTS COLONIZED LAND 1. 0*Land plants have ____________ ancestors. Terrestrial 2. 0*Land plants do not include _____________________. Photosynthetic protists (algae) 3. 0*Plants supply _____________ and are the ultimate source of most food eaten by land animals. Oxygen 4. 0*______________ called ________________ are the closest relatives of land plants and share a common ancestor. Green algae, charophytes 5. *Name the 3 traits land plants share with charophytes. Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins Structure of flagellated sperm Formation of phragmoplast 6. 0*__________________ is a layer of durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out. Sporopollenin 7. 0*Movement onto land by charophyte ancestors presented challenges such as: Scarcity of water Lack of structural support (lower turger pressure, secondary to h2o supply) 8. *List the five key traits in nearly all land plants that are absent from charophytes. Alternation of generations Multicellular, dependent embryos Walled spores produced in sporangia Multicellular gametangia Apical meristems 9. 0*List the historical traits of plants. Grew completely submerged in water Had different whorl of leaves Sexual reproduction via gametes (male- anthridia, female-oogonia and archegonia) Seed like oospores 10.0*What happens when the habitat declines or is polluted? The animals leave or die 11.0*____________ are useful components in aquatic ecosystems Charophytes 12.0*__________________ are areas of plants where mitosis and growth occurs. Apical meristems 13.0*__________________ is a reproductive cycle in which plants alternate between two stages. Alternation of generations 14.0*The ___________________ is haploid and produces haploid gametes by mitosis. Gametophyte 15.0*Fusion of the gametes gives rise to the diploid ______________ which produces haploid spores by meiosis. Sporophyte 16.0*Where is the diploid embryo retained? Within the tissue of the female gametophyte 17.0*Nutrients are transferred from parent to embryo through ________________. Placental transfer cells 18.0*Land plants are called __________________ because of the dependency of the embryo on the parent. Embryophytes 19.0*The sporophyte produces spores in organs called the ____________. Sporangia 20.0*Diploid cells called ______________ undergo meiosis to generate haploid spores. Sporocytes 21.0*_______________ contain sporopollenin which makes them resistant to harsh environments. Spore walls 22.0*Gametes are produced within organs called _______________. Gametangia 23.0*________________ are where plants sustain continual growth. Apical meristems 24.0*T/F Stem cells from the apical meristem can differentiate into various tissues T 25.0*The ___________ is a waxy covering of the epidermis. Cuticle 26.0*___________ are specialized cells that allow for gas exchange between the outside air and the plant and are like alveoli in humans. Stomata 27.0*Land plants can be informally grouped based on the presence or absence of _______________. Vascular tissue 28.0*Most plants have vascular tissue and these constitute __________________. Vascular plants 29.0*Nonvascular plants are commonly called __________. Bryophytes 30.0*Seedless vascular plants can be divided into clades: _____________ and _____________. Lycophytes and monilophytes 31.0*Give examples of lycophytes and monilophytes. Lycophyte- club mosses; monilophyte- fern 32.0*A __________ is an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat. Seed 33.0*_____________ are the “naked seed” plants and include the conifers. Ex: _____________. Gymnosperms, pinecone 34.0*______________are flowering plants. Ex: ____________, _______________. Angiosperms; apple tree, orchid 35.0*Bryophytes are split into 3 phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants: _________, ________, ___________. Liverworts (hepatophytes), mosses (bryophyte), hornworts 36.0*In all three bryophyte phyla ____________ are larger and longer-living than _____________. Gametophytes, sporophytes 37.0*______________ are typically present only part of the time in bryophytes. Sporophytes 38.0*A spore germinates into a gametophyte composed of a __________ and gamete producing ______________. Protonema, gametophore 39.0*Why is the height of bryophytes constrained? Lack of vascular tissues 40.0*____________ anchor gametophytes to substrate. Rhizoids 41.*A sporophyte consists of a _____________, _____________ , and a ____________. Foot, seta (stalk), sporangium 42.*The sporangium is also called a _____________ which discharges spores through __________. Capsule, peristome 43.0*_____________ are capable of inhabiting diverse and sometimes extreme environments but are especially common in moist forests and wetlands. Mosses 44.0*Mosses are ecologically important because they can __________________________. Retain nitrogen in the soil that we need 45.0*_______________ or “peat moss” forms extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material known as peat. Sphagnum 46.0*___________ can be used as a source of fuel. Peat 47.0*____________ is an important global reservoir of organic carbon. Sphagnum (needs moderation) 48.0*What are the two types of vascular tissue in vascular plants? Xylem and phloem 49.0*___________ conducts most of the water and minerals and includes tracheids. Xylem 50.0*___________ are tube-shaped cells in xylem. Tracheids 51.0*Water-conducting cells are strengthened by ___________ and provide structural support (sheath) Lignin 52.0*___________ has cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products. (spread out food) Phloem 53.0*What did vascular tissue allow for that provided an evolutionary advantage? Increased height 54.0*____________ are organs that anchor vascular plants and increase absorption. Roots 55.0*___________ are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plats, thereby capturing more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis. Leaves 56.0*Leaves are categorized by 2 types: ___________ and ______________. Microphylls and megaphylls 57.0*_________ are leaves with a single vein. Microphylls 58.0*__________ are leaves with a highly branched vascular system. Megaphylls CHAPTER 30: PLANT DIVERSITY THE EVOLUTION OF SEED PLANTS 1. 0*List a few ways in which seeds are dispersed. Air, animals, people, water 2. 0*Name 4 characteristics common to all seed plants. Reduced gametophytes Heterospory Ovules Pollen 3. *The gametophytes of seeds plants develop within __________ that are retained within tissues of the ________________. The walls of spores; parent sporophyte (like a baby) 4. 0*____________ produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes. Megasporangia 5. 0*____________ produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes. Microsporangia 6. 0*____________ consist of a megasporangium, megaspore, and one or more protective integuments. (epidermis, dermis) Ovule 7. 0*____________ megasporangia have one integument. Gymnosperm 8. 0*____________ megasporangia usually have two integuments Angiosperm 9. 0*Microspores develop into ____________, which contain male gametophytes. Pollen grains 10.0*_______________ is the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules. Pollination 11.0*If a pollen grain germinates, it gives rise to the _____________ that discharges sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule. Pollen tube 12.0*List 3 evolutionary advantages of seeds over spores. Remain dormant for days to years Have a supply of stored food Can be transported long distances 13.0*_____________ means “naked seeds.” Gymnosperms 14.0*The gymnosperm seeds are exposed on _________ that form cones. Sporophylls 15.0*Most gymnosperms are cone-bearing plants called ______________. Conifers 16.*List the 3 key features of the gymnosperm life cycle. Miniaturization of their gametophytes (miniaturization) Development of seeds from fertilized ovules (seed formation by fertilization) The transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen (pollination) 17.0*____________ may have served as food for herbivorous dinosaurs. Gymnosperms 18.0*Angiosperms now dominate more __________ ecosystems though conifers still dominate some regions including the northern latitudes. Terrestrial 19.0*List the 4 phyla of gymnosperms. Cycadophyta (cycads) Gingkophyta (one living species: ginkgo biloba) Gnetophyta (three genera: gnetum, ephreda, welwitschia) Coniferophyta (conifers: pine, fir, redwood) 20.0*___________ is a fat burning stimulant that increases heart rate and can cause a stroke. Ephreda 21.0*______________ have a high tolerance to air pollution. Ginkgophyta 22.*____________ vary in appearance, and some are tropical whereas others live in deserts (resiliency) and can span a variety of environments and can therefore thrive in hot or dry conditions. Gnetophyta 23.0*_______________ are the largest of the gymnosperm phyla and most are evergreens and can carry out photosynthesis all year round. Coniferophyta 24.0*_______________ are seed plants with reproductive structures called flowers and fruits. Angiosperms 25.0*List the two key adaptations of angiosperms for survival. Fruits and flowers 26.0*The ______________ is an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction. Flower 27.0*A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves called modified organs. List them and their functions. Sepals (enclose flower) Petals (brightly colored, attract pollinators) Stamens (produce pollen) Carpels (produce ovules) 28.0*A stamen consists of a stalk called a ________________ with a sac called an _____________ where the pollen is produced Filament; anther 29.0*A carpel consists of an ___________ at the base and a ____________ leading up to a _____________, where pollen is received. Ovary, style, stigma 30.0*Flowers that have all four organs are called ___________________. Complete flowers 31.0*For flowers with __________________, any imaginary line through the central axis divides the flower into two equal parts. Give an example of a flower with this symmetry. Radial symmetry; daffodil 32.0*In ___________________, a flower can be divided into two equal parts by a single imaginary line. Give an example of a flower with this symmetry. Bilateral symmetry; orchid 33.0*A fruit is formed when _____________________________________. The ovary wall thickens and matures 34.0*What is the function of fruit? To protect seeds and aid in their dispersal 35.0*What is the female gametophyte of an angiosperm? Embryo sac 36.0*Most flowers have mechanisms to ensure ____________________ between flowers from different plants of the same species. Cross-pollination (like twins, fraternal or identical) 37.0*The ovule is entered by a pore called the ___________________ in the angiosperm life cycle. Micropyle 38.0*_____________________ occurs when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within an ovule. Double fertilization 39.0*One sperm fertilizes the egg, while the other combines with two nuclei in the central cell of the female gametophyte and initiates development of food- storing ____________. Endosperm 40.0*The triploid endosperm ____________ the developing embryo. Nourishes 41.0*Within a seed, the embryo consists of a root and two seed leaves called _______________. Cotyledons 42.0*______________________ include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages. Give an example. Basal angiosperms; water lilies 43.0*More than one quarter of angiosperm species are ___________________. Monocots 44.0*More than 2/3 of angiosperm species are _____________. Eudicots 45.0*Seed plants are key sources of _____________________. Food, fuel, wood products, and medicine CHAPTER 35: PLANT STRUCTURE, GROWTH, AND DEVELOPMENT 1. 0*The development of plants depends on the ____________ and is highly _______________. Environment, adaptive 2. 0*An ______________ consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions Organ 3. 0*A _____________ is a group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that together perform a specialized function Tissue 4. 0*Plants take up water and minerals from ______________ and take up CO2 and light from _________________. Below ground, above ground 5. 0*List the three basic organs of plants. Roots, stems, leaves 6. 0*___________ rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis in the shoot system. Roots 7. 0*___________ rely on water and minerals absorbed by the root system. Shoots 8. 0*List the functions of a root. Anchoring the plant Absorbing minerals and water Storing carbohydrates 9. 0*The primary root braches to form __________ which improve anchorage and absorption. Lateral roots 10.0*The _________________ is the major stabilizer (like an anchor) that develops from the primary root and prevents the plant from toppling. Taproot (lateral roots are mostly responsible for absorption) 11.0*Small or trailing plants generally have a fibrous root system that is _____________________. More durable, less likely to breakdown; shock absorber 12.0*_______________ near the root tip increase the surface area of the root. Root hairs 13.0*What does the stem consist of? Alternating system of nodes (where leaves are attached) and internodes (stem segments between nodes) 14.0*The growing shoot, or ____________, causes elongation of a young shoot. Apical bud (similar to epiphyseal growth plate in humans) 15.0*The __________ is the main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants Leaf 16.0*List 4 functions of leaves. Intercept light Exchange gases Dissipate heat Defend plant from herbivores and pathogens 17.0*What do leaves generally consist of? Flattened blade Petiole (stalk that joins the leaf to a node of the stem) 18.0*Monocots and eudicots differ in the arrangement of ____________, the vascular tissue of leaves. Veins 19.0*Most ____________ have parallel veins. Monocots 20.0*Most ____________ have branching veins. Eudicots 21.0*What three tissues does each plant organ have? Dermal, vascular, and ground tissues 22.0*What do the dermal, vascular, and ground tissues form? Tissue system 23.0*Each tissue system is _______________________. Continuous throughout the plant 24.0*Why would a plant die if the tissue system wasn’t continuous throughout it? There would be no perfusion to tissues (similar to circulatory system in humas) 25.0*In nonwoody plants, the dermal tissue system consists of the ___________. Epidermis 26.0*A waxy coating called the _____________ helps prevent water loss from the epidermis. Cuticle 27.0*In woody plants, protective tissues called ____________ replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots. Periderm 28.0*____________ are outgrowths of the shoot epidermis and can help with reducing water loss and insect defense. Trichomes 29.0*What are the main functions of the vascular system? Transport of materials through plant Mechanical support 30.0*What are the two vascular tissues? Xylem and phloem 31.0*What is the function of xylem? Conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots to shoots 32.0*What is the function of phloem? Transports sugars 33.0*In angiosperms the ____________ of the root is a solid central vascular cylinder. Stele 34.0*The stele of stems and leaves is divided into _________________, strands of xylem and phloem. Vascular bundles 35.0*Ground tissue internal to the vascular tissue is _________ and ground tissue external to the vascular tissue is ________. Pith; cortex 36.0*What are the 3 major types of plant cells? Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma 37.0*List 4 characteristics of mature parenchyma cells. Thin and flexible primary walls Lack secondary walls Perform most metabolic functions Retain ability to divide and differentiate 38.0*_______________ cells are grouped in strands and help support young parts of the plant shoot and have thicker and uneven cell walls Collenchyma 39.0*_______________ cells are rigid because of thick secondary walls strengthened with lignin. Sclerenchyma 40.0*___________ is an indigestible strengthening polymer. Lignin 41.0*What are the two types of water-conducting cells that are dead at maturity? Tracheids and vessel elements 42.0*Where are tracheids found? Xylem of all vascular plants 43.0*Vessel elements are common to most ____________. Angiosperms 44.0*Vessel elements align end to end to form long micropipes called ____________. Vessels 45.0*________________ are alive at functional maturity, though they lack organelles. Sieve-tube elements 46.0*If a plant can grow throughout its life it is called _________________ growth. Indeterminate 47.0*________________ are perpetually embryonic tissue and allow for indeterminate growth. Meristems 48.0*Some plant organs cease to grow at a certain size; this is called ________________ growth. Determinate 49.0*_______________ are located at the tips of roots and shoots. Apical meristems 50.0*Apical meristems elongate shoots and roots in a process called _______________. Primary growth 51.0*Lateral meristems add thickness to woody plants in a process called ___________________. Secondary growth 52.0*What is the difference between the vascular cambium and the cork cambium? Vascular adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem Cork replaces the epidermis with periderm (like the dermis) 53.0*______________, also called stem cells, remain in the meristem. Initials 54.0*How can flowering plants be categorized? By the length of their lifecycle Annuals- complete lifecycle in year or less; ex: pansies, begonias, marigolds, geraniums Biennials- require two growing seasons; ex: carrot, onion, parsely Perennials- live for many years; ex: hostas, hydrangeas, tulips, lilies CHAPTER 52 1. 0*__________ is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment Ecology 2. 0*Ecology determines the _________ and ___________ of organisms. Distribution and abundance 3. 0*Why do we study ecology? To see changes in the environment and determine what is native and natural 4. 0*What are unnatural? Buildings, trash, people 5. 0*List the 6 different levels of ecology. Global Landscape Ecosystem Community Population Organismal 6. 0*What type of ecology did not exist 100 yrs ago? Why not? Global; technology has developed (satellites, remote sensing, temperatures, co2 levels) 7. 0*The ___________ is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems. Biosphere 8. 0*________________ examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere Global ecology 9. 0A _______________ is a mosaic of connected ecosystems. Landscape 10.0__________________ focuses on the exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems Landscape ecology 11.0*An ______________ is the community (multiple species) of organisms in an are and the physical factors with which they interact. Ecosystem 12.0*______________ emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling (N, P, O Fe, Mg) among various biotic and abiotic components. Ecosystem ecology 13.0A ______________ is a group of populations of different species in an area. Community 14.0*__________________ examines the effect of interspecific interactions on community structure and organization. Ex: mutualism, symbiotic relationships Community ecology; does not include abiotic components 15.0*A _____________ is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area. Population 16.0*________________ focuses on factors affecting population size over time. Population ecology 17.0*__________________ studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet environmental challenges. Organismal ecology 18.0*The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute ____________. Climate 19.0*List four major abiotic components of climate. Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, wind 20.0_______________ consists of patterns on the global, regional, and landscape level. Macroclimate (from landscape up) 21.0*_______________ consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log. Microclimate (from community down) 22.What are global climate patterns largely determined by? Solar energy and earth’s movement in space 23.0What does the warming effect of the sun cause? Latitudinal variations in climateTemperature variationsevaporation and circulation of air and water 24.0*The intensity of the sun is strongest in the ___________. Tropics 25.0*Describe the circulation patterns of air and water. Air evaporates and rises at the equator cools  water condenses  precipitation at equator  drier air toward poles 26.0Air flowing close to Earth’s surface creates ______________. Predictable global wind patterns 27.0_______________ is related to the tilt of the earth. Seasonality (variations of light and temp) 28.0Climate is affected by what? Seasonality, large bodies of water, mountains 29.0*Describe the Coriolis effect and how it relates to ocean circulation. Deflection of a moving object attempting to move on a spinning surface Currents toward equator- cold water from poles Currents away from equator- warm water to poles 90 degree deflection; Right-north, left-south 30.0*Describe the effect of mountains of climate. Rainforest on one side desert on other Cool air flow  precipitation  rain shadow Affect amount of sunlight reaching an area 31._______________ is determined by fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns. Microclimate 32.Every environment is characterized by differences in __________ and ____________. Abiotic and biotic factors 33.*Give examples of how global climate change affects organisms. Sugar maple moves a lot American beech moves little and is unable to keep up with climate change becoming extinct 34.0*A __________ plots the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a region. Climograph 35.0*Biomes are affected not just by average temperature and precipitation but also by__________. The pattern of temperature and precipitation throughout the year. 36.0The area of intergradation is called an ___________ that can be wide or narrow. Ecotone 37.0______________ are often named for major physical or climatic factors and for vegetation and usually grade into each other without sharp boundaries. Terrestrial biomes 38.0*Layering of vegetation in all biomes provides ________. Diverse habitats 39.0*___________ is anything such as a storm, fire, or human activity that changes a community. Disturbance 40.0___________ occur in bands near 30 degrees north and south of the equator and in the interior of continents. Deserts 41.0What are some adaptations of desert plants? Heat and desiccation tolerance Water storage Reduced leaf surface area 42.____________ occurs in midlatitude coastal regions on several continents and precipitation is highly seasonal with rainy winters and dry summers. Chaparral 43.______________ are found on many continents and precipitation is highly seasonal; winters are cold and dry and summers are hot and wet. Temperate grassland 44.The _________________, or taiga, spans northern north America and Eurasia and is the largest terrestrial biome on earth. Northern coniferous forest 45.A mature _____________________ has vertical layers, including a closed canopy, understory trees, a shrub layer, and an herb layer. Temperate broadleaf forest 46.A ______________ covers expansive areas of the arctic; alpine _______ exists on high mountaintops at all altitudes. Tundra CHAPTER 38: ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION AND BIOTECHNOLOGY NOT ON TEST*** 1. ___________ help angiosperms to reproduce sexually with physically distant members of their own species. Insects; they attempt to mate with flowers because they mistake it for a female and the flower is then pollinated 2. T/F the flower unusually does not produce nectar and the male receives no benefit from pollination. True 3. Many angiosperms lure insects with _______ and both the plant and pollinator benefit. Nectar 4. _____________ are common between plants and other species. Mutual symbiosis 5. ________________ can reproduce sexually and asexually. Angiosperms 6. Plant life cycles are characterized by the alternation between ___________________. Sporophyte and gametophyte generations 7. In angiosperms, the _____________ is the plant that we see; they are larger and longer lived than gametophytes. Sporophytes 8. The angiosperm life cycle is characterized by: The three F’s: flowers, double fertilizations, and fruits 9. What are the four floral organs? Which are reproductive and which are sterile? Carpels- reproductive Stamens- reproductive Petals- sterile Sepals- sterile 10.A _________ has a long style with a stigma on which pollen may land. Carpel 11.At the base of the style is _________________. An ovary containing one or more ovules 12.A single carpel or group of fused carpels is called a ________________. Pistil 13.A stamen consists of a filament topped by an __________ with pollen sacs that produce pollen. Anther 14.Clusters of flowers are called __________________. Inflorescences 15.What are the four general trends that can be seen in the evolution of flowers? Bilateral symmetry Reduction in the number of floral parts Fusion of floral parts Location of ovaries inside receptacles 16.The angiosperm life cycle includes: Gametophyte development Pollination Double fertilization Seed development 17.Angiosperm ____________ are microscopic and their development is obscured by protective tissues. Gametophytes (like in human development) 18.Compare and contrast the development of sporophytes and gametophytes. ------------------------ 19.The ________________ or female gametophyte develops within the ovule. Embryo sac 20.Within an ovule, two integuments surround a ______________. Megasporangium 21.One cell in the megasporangium undergoes meiosis, producing #________________, only one of which survives. (others have secondary roles) Four megaspores 22.The __________ divides without cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division) producing 1 large cell. Megaspore 23.Pollen develops from ____________ within the microsporangia, or pollen sacs, of anthers. Microspores 24.Each microspore undergoes mitosis to produce what two cells? Generative cells and tube cells 25.A ________________ consists of the two-celled male gametophyte and the spore wall. Pollen grain 26.In angiosperms, ___________ is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Pollination 27.After landing on a receptive stigma, a pollen grain produces a ______________ that grows down into the ovary and discharges two sperm cells near the embryo sac. Pollen tube (like the male urethra) 28.______________ is the fusion of gametes that occurs after the two sperm reach the female gametophyte. Fertilization 29.One sperm fertilizes the egg, and the other combines witht eh two polar nuclei, giving rise to the triploid food-storing _________________. Endosperm (analogous to placenta in humans for nourishment) 30._________________ ensures that the endosperm only develops in ovules containing fertilized eggs. Double fertilization 31.After double fertilization each ovule develops into____________ and the ovary develops into ___________. Seed; fruit 32._______________ is the joint evolution of interacting species in response to selection imposed by each other. Coevolution 33.List the stages of the development of a seed into a flowering plant. Endosperm development Embryo development Seed dormancy Seed germination Seedling development Flowering 34._______________ development usually precedes _______________ development. Endosperm; embryo 35.In most monocots and many eudicots, ______________ store nutrients that can be used by the seedling. Endosperm 36.In other eudicots, the food reserves of the endosperm are exported to the ________________. Cotyledons 37.The embryo and its food supply are enclosed by a hard, protective ________________. Seed coat 38.A mature seed is only about ___________% water. 5-15% 39.Below the cotyledons the embryonic axis is called the _______________ and terminates in the ______________. Hypoctyl; radicle (embryonic root) 40.Above the cotyledons it is called the ______________. Epicotyl 41.The ________ comprises the epicotyl, immature leaves, and shoot apical meristem. Plumle 42.The breaking of seed dormancy often requires __________________. Environmental cues such as temp, light, water 43.A __________ is the mature ovary of a flower. Fruit 44.___________________ may increase the quality and quantity of food worldwide. Genetically modified food 45.Some transgenic crops have been developed to produce the Bt toxin, which is___________ and can prevent _______________ to increase crop yield. Toxic to insect pests Cornbore worm 46.List two other resistances of genetically modified plants. Can tolerate herbicides; can resist specific diseases 47.What are some possible harmful effects of genetically modified plants? Increase of tumors, carcinogens, free radicals 48.__________ are fuels derived from living ____________, the total mass of organic matter in a group of organisms Biofuels; biomass 49.__________ can be produced by rapidly growing crops such as switchgrass and poplar and can reduce the net emission of CO2, a greenhouse gas. Biofuels 50.One concern is that genetic engineering may transfer ___________ from a gene source to a plant used for food. Allergens 51.Some GMOs have health benefits such as: Bt toxin corn has 90% less of a cancer causing toxin than non Bt toxin corn Bt corn has less insect damage and lower infection by fusarium fungus (produces cancer causing toxin) 52.Widespread adoption of Bt cotton in India has led to a decrease in _________ and a reduction in ___________. Insecticide use; acute poisoning cases 53.Many ecologists are concerned that the growing of GM crops might have unforeseen effects on nontarget organisms. This process is called ______________. Cross-contamination 54.What is an example of cross-contamination? Crop-to-weed hybridizationsuperweeds resistant to herbicides


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