Bio 230 Exam 2 study guide
Bio 230 Exam 2 study guide Bio 230
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 230 at La Salle University taught by TBA in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
CHAPTER 28 PART 1 1. ___________ is the name of the group of mostly unicellular eukaryotes. Protists 2. Protists constitute a ____________ group. polyphyletic 3. Eukaryotic cells have _________________ and are more complex than prokaryotic cells. organelles 4. Most protists are _____________. unicellular 5. _____________ combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition. mixotrophs 6. Protist diversity has its orgins in _______________. endosymbiosis 7. ________________ is a relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other organism. Endosymbiosis 8. The clade __________ is characterized by its cytoskeleton. excavata 9. ___________ have reduced mitochondria called mitosomes. diplomonads 10.___________ have reduced mitrochondria called hydrogenosomes. parabasilids 11.____________ causes yeast infections in human females. parabasilids 12.___________is a clade distinguished by their spiral or crystalline rod inside their flagella. Euglenozoans 13.___________ have a single mitochondrion with an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast. Kinetoplastids; euglenozoans 14.___________ causes sleeping sickness. trypanosoma 15.Chagas disease is caused by ________________. Trypanosome cruzi 16.Trypanosomes evade immune responses by ___________________. Switching surface proteins of RBCs 17._____________ usually have multiple flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell. euglinids 18.___________________ include some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on earth. stramenophiles 19.______________ have a hairy flagellum paired with a smooth flagellum. stramenophiles 20.______________ are unicellular algae with a unique two-part, glass-like wall of silicon dioxide. diatoms CHAPTER 28 PART 2 1. ___________ are named from their color, which results from their yellow and brown carotenoids. Golden algae 2. ___________ are the largest most complex algae. Brown algae 3. Brown alga seaweeds have plantlike structures: ___________,______________,_________. Holdfast, stipe, blades 4. ___________ is an emulsifying and bonding agent that is extracted from kelp. algin 5. ____________ is the alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms. Alternation of generations 6. ____________ generations are structurally different and __________ generations look similar. Heteromorphic, isomorphic 7. _______________ have membrane enclosed sacs just under the plasma membrane. alveolates 8. ___________ have two flagella and each cell is reinforced by cellulose plates. dinoflagellates 9. Toxic red tides are caused by ______________. dinoflagellates 10.______________ are parasites of animals and some cause serious human disease. They spread through their host as infectious cells called sporozites. apicomplexans 11.Species in the genus ____________ cause malaria. Plasmodium/ apicomplexan 12.___________ is a sublclass of microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled obligate intracellular parasites. They are the largest group of apicomplexan protozoa. coccidia 13._______________ is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals that spreads by contact with infected feces or ingestion of infected tissue. Coccidia 14._______________ is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and it infects warm-blooded animals. The primary host is the cat family. This can cause a spontaneous abortion. toxoplasmosis 15.__________ are a large varied group of protists. They have large macronuclei and small micronuclei and use conjugation. A paramecium is an example. ciliates 16.Many species in the rhizarian clade are ________. amoebas 17.Amoebas are protists that move and feed by __________. pseudopodia 18.Marine protists called ___________ have delicate, symmetrical internal skeletons that are usually made of silica. radiolarians 19.Most radiolarians are ___________, and get around by coasting along ocean currents. planktonic 20.Radiolarians were primarily studied by _______________. Micropaleontologists 21._______________ are named for porous, generally multichambered shells, called tests. forams 22.________________ include most amoeboid and flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia. They have chromatophores and no mouth. cercozoa CHAPTER 31 PART 1 1. Most species of fungi are ___________: they decompose dead matter. sapotrophic 2. Fungi store their food as ____________. glycogen 3. The most common body structures of fungi are _____________ and _____________. Multicellular filaments and single celled yeasts 4. __________ divide hyphae into separate cells. septa 5. ________ hyphae lack septa. coenocytes 6. A mass of hyphae is called _________. mycelium 7. ____________ are hyphae that penetrate the cells of the host. haustoria 8. Fungal cell walls contain ___________. chitin 9. _____________ are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots. Mycorrhizae 10._______________________ form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex. Ectomycorrhizal fungi 11._______________________ extend hyphae throughout the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi 12.Mycorrhizal fungi colonize soils by the dispersal of haploid cells called ______________. spores 13._________________ is a group of unclassified, nonspecific fungi. deuteromycota 14.The fusion of hyphae is called ______________. plasmogamy 15.Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called ____________ to communicate their mating type. pheromones 16._______________ is nuclear fusion. karyogamy CHAPTER 31 PART 2 1. Fungi are most closely related to unicellular __________________. nucleariids 2. ______________ are like a mutation that form nodules in roots of legumes and are a mixture of the bacterial and host genomes. Sym genes 3. _________ have flagellated spores, called zoospores. chytrids 4. __________ have coenocytic hyphae and are resistant to freezing and drying. zygomycetes 5. A _________ is a zygomycete that can aim and shoot their sporangia toward bright light. pilobolus 6. ____________ are called sac fungi. ascomycetes 7. ___________ are asexual spores that ascomycetes use to reproduce. conidia 8. ______________ include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi. basidiocymetes 9. A _____________ is a clublike structure. basidium 10.Basidiomycetes produce ______________. Fairy rings 11.A __________ is a symbiotic association between a photsynthetic microorganism and a fungus. lichen 12.Most endophytes are ____________. ascomycetes 13.Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation or the formation of _________, small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae. soredia 14.The general term for a fungal infection in animals is __________. Mycosis RINGWORM Ringworm, or tinea, is a skin infection that can stem from communal bathrooms and nail salons. It is a circular, red, itchy rash that can affect multiple parts of the body. It is treated with antifungal medications and creams. There are multiple types of ringworm. It can infect the feet (pedis), scalp (capitis), hands (manuum), groin (cruris), arms and legs (corposis), and face (barbae). It can cause blistering, swelling, peeling, itching, red or bald spots, crusted spots filled with pus, and scaliness. CANDIDIASIS Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts. These yeasts normally live in your body on the skin of mucous membranes, but when there is an overgrowth, they cause infection. There are many types of candidiasis, including thrush (mouth), genital/vulvovaginal, and invasive candidiasis. Thrush usually occurs in babies and the elderly or people with weakened immune systems. It causes white, sores in the mouth and pain with swallowing. It also causes cracks in the corners of the mouth and bleeding. Prevention of this is having good oral hygiene. It is treated with antifungal medications such as flucanozole. If it is left untreated, it can get into your bloodstream. Nystatin can help get rid of it. Genital/vulvovaginal is also called a yeast infection. It occurs in over 75% of adult women. It is caused by an imbalance of hormones or acidity and overgrowth of the yeast. It causes itching, burning, and a cottage cheese like discharge. Treatment includes a one time dosage of an antifungal medication, and creams and depositories. Prevention of this includes probiotics. Invasive candidiasis enters the bloodstream and the infection becomes systemic. Treatment requires an oral or IV antifungal medication. ASPERGILLOSIS Aspergillosis is a fungal infection caused by the mold, Aspergillus. It lives inside and outside and most people breathe it in without symtoms. People with weakened Immune systems are susceptible tot this. Symptoms include allergy symptoms and respiratory symptoms (lung infections) and infections in other organs. You get this from breathing in the spores of the mold or from spores entering skin through a break. It tends to remain in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Overtime, if untreated, it can cause respiratory capacity to be diminished because the alveoli pop. There are many types of aspergillosis including bronchopulmonary, sinusitis, aspergilloma (fungus ball), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, invasive, and cutaneous aspergillosis. Resp problems, cough up blood, weight loss, etc. It is treated by antifungal medicaitons and corticosteroids which are bronchodilators. TRYPANOSOMA Trypanosoma is a protist that switches the surface proteins of RBCs so it can go undetected. Trypanasoma cruzi is caused by mosquitos and is mostly in poverty stricken areas. Cracks of homes. Children. Defecates on opening of skin and replicates in blood stream. Acute phase- 2 months, flu-like symptoms; chronic- invades cardiovascular system and eats away and muscle; congestive heart failure and breaking down of smooth muscle of GI tract. Treatment-antifungal meds such as benzidazole and nifurtimox. HYPER AND HYPOTHYROIDISM Hyper- too high levels of iodine, take supplements, eat kelp, weight loss, always hot, tackycardia, arsenic in kelp, goiter, need radiation Hypo- too low levels of iodine, supplements to tweak thyroid, weight gain, always cold, goiter, 70% of women COCCIDIOSIS Parasitic infection caused by coming into contact with infected feces. Common in dogs. Species specific. Infects intestinal tractbloody stool or asymptomatic; treatment- meds to kill protozoa TOXOPLASMOSIS Parasitic infection with primary host as cat- eat infected meat or feces. Can spread to humans through scratchspontaneous abortion because it attacks the uterine arteries; flue-like symptoms. If untreated can lead to encephalitis, swelling of the brain which shuts down all organs. Drugs to reduce/eliminate protozoa so immune system can take over FUNGAL NAIL INFECTIONS Type of tinea (onychomycosis); discolored, cracked, thick nails; can spread to skin; caused by yeasts and molds (fungi); treatment prescribed oral antifungal meds or removal of nail, (flora in GI tract suppressed); prevention: keep hands and feet dry and clean, no barefeet
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