Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Bio 230
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 230 at La Salle University taught by TBA in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Circulatory System (Animals) Some small organisms do not need a circulatory systemthey can transfer materials straight through the body wall Components Blood/fluid- carries material to/from cells Heart- pulsating vessels in lower organisms; pushes fluid through system Vessels- conduits, transport of fluids and materials to all cells Functions Transport- nutrients, respiratory gases, hormones, waste Regulation- body temperature (water in fluid carries body heat; gets rid of heat or heats internal organs) Defense- invasion of foreign microbes Body fluid maintenance Animals with no circulatory system Invertebrates o Porifera o Cnidarian o Platyhelmenthes (flatworms) o Hematoda (roundworms) Types of Circulatory systems Open circulatory system o Open ended vessels o Invertebrates, arthropods, nonchephalopod mollusks o Fluid leaves system and is picked back up o Loses pressure generated by pumping organ o For slow metabolically active animals o Components Hemolymph- connective tissue fluid, dumped out into body cavities and mixed with interstitial fluid and is indistinct; transport Vessels- arteries (away from heart, end open), veins (toward heart, begin open) Hemocoels- body cavities (sinusoids); exchange between circulatory system and cells of the body o Pumping organ- heart o Ostia- holes in heart o Pericardium- sac around heart- veins lead into pericardium and heart o Non-chephalopod mollusk blood flow Heartarterieshemocoelcollecting vesselspericardial sinusostia Heartr&l atriaventriclesarteryhemocoelveinsrespiratory hemocoelveinsatriapericardium Closed circulatory system o Continuous vessels o Cephalopods, annelida (earthworms), echinoderms (starfish), all vertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, reptiles, birds, mammals (invertebrate and vertebrate) o Fluid does not leave system o Types of vessels Arteries- away from heart Capillaries- site of exchange between circulatory system and cells of body Equivalent to hemocoel in open system Veins- toward heart o Fluid Blood- C.T. fluid Transport; distinct from interstitial fluid; does not leave system o Single and double circulation o More efficient than open system Hemolymph vs Blood Hemolymph o C.T.; transport of O2(hemoglobin, RBCs) o respiratory pigments- hemocyanin (sometimes hemoglobin) in fluid, not in cells; indistinct Blood o C.T.; transport o Respiratory pigment-hemoglobin In cells; distinct Formed elements of blood RBC- transport of O2; WBC- defense system Erythrocytes- RBC; transport of O (hemoglobin); mammals- enucleated cells; 2 non-mammalian vertebrates- whole nucleated cells Neutrophils- WBC; phagocytic Basophils- anti-inflammatory response Eosinophils- WBC; allergic reactions; parasite defense Monocytes- WBC; phagocyticmacrophages (out of system) Lymphocytes- WBC; specific immune response; antibody production Thrombocytes- blood clotting; mammals- cytoplasmic fragments, no nuclei; non-mammalian vertebrates- whole cells Plasma o 90% water o Ions- help establish osmotic balance of blood; buffering o Proteins- produced by liver; transported by circulatory system; albumins-osmotic balance and buffering o Hormones, waste, nutrients Clotting Hemostasis- stopping of bleeding Vessels injured- ruptured and plaque formationspontaneous clot Hemophilia- missing a blood clotting factor 3 steps o Blood vessel spasm- vasoconstriction Injured vessel’s nerves are stimulated and cause muscle to pulsate and slow down passage of blood o Platelet plug formation Platelets become sticky and form a plug o Clot formation Thromboplastin, calcium, and blood plasma factors; prothrombinthrombin, fibrinogenfibren As vessel is healing- clot retraction; bringing injured area closer together, dissolves-fibrinogen Vessels Arteries- blood away from heart; high pressures o 3 layers Tunica intima- simple squamous epithelium/endothelium Tunica media- vasoconstriction and dilation; ANS Tunica adventitia- C.T.; anchoring Vasa vasurum- blood vessels servicing wall of large arteries Veins- blood to heart; lower pressures; same layers as arteries o Get larger as they get closer to heart Capillaries- between artery and vein o Site of exchange between cardiovascular system and cells of the body o Pressure lessened because of large surface area- capillary bed o Microscopic vessels o 1 layer- endothelium Complimentary veins and arteries o Veins walls are thinner than tunica media of artery o Vein’s lumen is wider than in artery Valves- flaps directed in same direction as flow; prevent backflow Single type circulation Deoxygenated blood Animals with 2 chambered hearts Found in most fish (except dipnoams) and invertebrates Blood flows through heart once in complete circuit Only deoxygenated blood flows through heart 2 chambers- atrium and ventricles Double type circulation Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood 2 circuits Found in animals with 3 and 4 chambered hearts Found in vertebrates- most reptiles (not crocs/alligators), dipnoan fish, birds, mammals, amphibians Double circuit- blood flows through heart 2x in complete circuit 2 circuits- pulmonary and systemic Pulmonary circuit From heart to respiratory organs and back to heart; oxygenation Systemic circuit From heart to cells of body and back to heart Service cells with nutrients, respiratory gas and waste exchange Generalized heart Pericardial sac- serous membrane (lines cavities and organs in cavities that do not have access to exterior) o Parietal pericardium- outer layer, C.T. and epithelium o Pericardial space- serous fluid (watery fluid made by C.T. and epithelial cells) o Visceral pericardium- inner layer, C.T. and epithelium o Composition Pericardium- protection and reduction of friction Endocardium- endothelium, simple squamous epithelium Myocardium- cardiac muscle, thickest layer, pumping; ANS Epicardium (visceral pericardium)- C.T. and epithelial tissue Outer layer of heart and inner layer of membrane are the same layer Chambers o At least 1 atria and 1 ventricle o Atria- receiving chambers; blood enters o Ventricle- distributing chambers; blood leaves o Difference in thickness in myocardium in atria and ventricles (thicker in ventricle) AV valve o Atrioventricular valve- between atria and ventricle Prevents backflow into atria o 2 or more cusps or flasks o Chordatendinae- fibrous C.T. cords anchor to under surface of flaps o Papillary muscles- anchor cords into walls of ventricles Single type circulation 2 chambered heart o In most fish (except dipnoads) o Composition 1 atrium, 1 ventricle, 1 AV valve o Only deoxygenated blood in 1 complete circuit Double circulation 3 chambered heart o 2 atria, 1 ventricle o Trabeculae carnea- irregularity of cardiac muscle in the wall of the ventricles that create small pouches to catch blood; prevents O an2 CO 2lood from mixing in single ventricle o In dipnoan, amphibians, most reptiles (except crocs, alligators) 4 chambered heart o 2 atria, 2 ventricles o Crocs/alligators, birds, all mammals o No chance of mixing o Left side- oxygen, right side- carbon dioxide Conduction system of the heart Responsible for the cardiac cycle rhythmic contractions of the heart chambers Special cardiac muscle cells that act like neurons to initiate muscle contraction ANS slows up or speeds up beat o Does not start itconduction system does Ventricular mass>atrial mass o Excitation of whole mass- thinner o Have to excite both ventricles- thicker Sinoatrial node- establishes normal heart beat Interatrial fibers- in wall of right atrium Atrioventricular node- alternate pacemaker- slower beat Bundles of His- run down interventricular septum Purkinje fibers- throughout walls of ventricles As excitation moves from the SA through interatrial to AV node, the entire atrial muscle mass is excited= contraction While atria contract, the excitation is moving down the bundles of his and up the purkinje to excite entire ventricular muscle mass and atrial mass relaxes Cardiac cycle Relaxation phase- diastole, filling, blood entering chamber Contraction phase- systole, emptying, blood leaving chambers Maintained by the conduction system of the heart 70% ventricular filling occurs when both atrial and ventricular muscles are relaxed 1 heart sound- AV valve closing nd 2 heart sound- semilunar valve closing Exchange at the capillaries Forces or Pressures o Blood or hydrostatic- blood pressure generated by pumping action of heart in outward direction (out of blood to capillaries) o Osmotic pressure- due to solute concentration of fluid into blood (proteins) HPbloodnto capillary out of capillary (pressure dissipates) Not all of water that got out of arterial end gets back in at venus end but is picked up by lymphatic capillaries Bleeding o BP decreases o OP does not change unless bleeding o Reduces capillary exchange Respiratory System Tracheal, gill, or lung system Most cells die without oxygen which is necessary as the final electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation cycle (energy production) To provide oxygen, gases must be exchanged with environment- external respiration Exchange of these gases between cardiovascular system and tissues of body is internal respiration Cells utilize oxygen and give off carbon dioxide-cellular respiration External- exchange between environment and respiratory organs Internal- between circulatory system and cells of body (not in tracheal system) Capture of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide by organisms depend on diffusion of these gases in water o In vertebrates, the gases diffuse into the aqueous layer covering epithelial cells that line the respiratory systems of these animals The diffusion process is in all cases passive, driven only by concentration of these gases in the respiratory organs versus the outside environment Adaptations for gas exchange Body surface- animals are small with a high ratio of surface volume o Nudibranch (no shell) mollusks, most annelids, small arthropods, a few vertebrates Tracheal systems o Insects and certain other arthropods o Only respiratory system not associated with cardiovascular system gills o mainly in aquatic organisms: invertebrate and vertebrate lungs o arachnids, some mollusks, and terrestrial vertebrates all gas exchange is passive- simple diffusion down concentration gradient; oxygen is higher in atmosphere than in cells, carbon dioxide is higher in cells than in atmosphere Book Gills certain mollusks (crustacean) have met their respiratory needs by evolving an new kind of gill- a heavily pleated and folded structure Book lungs terrestrial respiratory organ characteristic of arachnids such as scorpions and primitive spiders each book lung consists of hollow flat plates air bathes the outer surface of the plates and hemolymph circulates within them, facilitating the exchange of gases in most species, adequate gas exchange occurs without any muscular movement to ventilate the lung Tracheal system found in insects and some other arthropods network of tracheal tubes highly efficient because tracheal function depends on diffusion and diffusion is efficient with a small body surface and a relatively low metabolic rate, so that only small quantities of oxygen are needed does not use circulatory system to transport respiratory gases spiracles- series of openings outside of body into tracheal tubes tracheal tubes- branch into smaller branches smallest branches- tracheals o to cells of body, gas exchange between cells and tracheal system o at end of tracheals is fluid, no tinideas tinidea- spiral rings embedded in walls of tubes o made of cutin o prevents wall from collapsing
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