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Reproductive System

by: Kiara Lynch

Reproductive System Bio 230

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > Bio 230 > Reproductive System
Kiara Lynch
La Salle

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These notes cover the reproductive system of animals and provide ovarian menstrual cycle scenarios.
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 230 at La Salle University taught by TBA in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ovarian­Menstrual Cycle Scenarios No HCG If there is no HCG there is no pregnancy. The corpus luteum dies and progesterone levels decrease.  Menses, the shedding of the endometrium follows this. Death of corpus luteum around day 26 If the corpus luteum dies around day 26, the uterus will begin to shed its lining which  causes menstruation to begin. No LH If there is no LH, there will be no ovulation.  The ruptured follicle cell would not be  healed, and the corpus luteum would not be formed. Little or no estrogen produced during the follicular phase If little or no estrogen is produced during the follicular phase, the luteal phase will not  begin and therefore there will be no ovulation or formation of the corpus luteum.  Also,  the endometrium will not proliferate and therefore the embryo cannot implant. Progesterone levels remain high at day 46  If progesterone levels remain high, the endometrium will continue to proliferate and be  maintained.  Progesterone helps maintain a pregnancy by preventing menstruation. Reproductive Systems Reproduction in animals  Asexual- more primitive; 1 parent  Sexual- generally same species; 2 parents Modes of Reproduction  Asexual o Budding- outgrowths of existing individuals o Fission- organism divides into 2 parts and will grow o Gemmules- specialized cells set aside to develop into new individuals; remain dormant during winter (ex: sponges) o Fragmentation- breaking into pieces followed by regeneration (ex: worms) o Parthenogenesis- new individual from unfertilized egg (ex: bees, lizards) o Mitosis- increasing cell number  Advantages of Asexual reproduction o Fast reproduction o 1 parent o No sexually transmitted diseases o Favorable genes  Disadvantages of Asexual reproduction o Clones; species is identical o No adaptation to changing environments o Can’t hide bad alleles  Sexual Reproduction o Creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and a female gamete (egg) to form a zygote  Haploid gametes produce diploid zygote o Gametes- sex cells; produced by meiosis o Zygote- fertilized egg o Genetic variation of meiosis is due to crossing over at metaphase and anaphase  Advantages of Sexual Reproduction o Genetic variation o Adaptation o May hide deleterious genes Hermaphroditism  Individuals with both male and female gonads and other reproductive structures  Generally not self-fertilizing  In many invertebrates/ some vertebrates  ex: slugs, earthworms o each slug produces sperm and eggs; in a few weeks, new individuals will hatch from fertilized eggs  Cross fertilization Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction  All fertilization requires courtship and mating behaviors  External fertilization o Fusion of gametes outside of body o Large numbers of eggs being released into moist environment o Number of eggs released is affected by proximity of male and female o Species specific chemical attractants o Pheromones- hormone like; attract male to female  Internal fertilization o Fusion of gametes inside body o Few eggs shed o Need a copulatory organ for deposition of sperm o Modes of development  Oviparous- lay eggs (birds)  Viviparous- embryos develop inside body and have a placenta that connects mother and child to take care of embryo’s needs; live births (humans)  Ovoviviparous- develop inside female, encased in an envelope, no placenta --> yolk; often look like live births but aren’t (reptiles) Reproductive cycles o Timing of ovulation- release of egg o Estrous  Most mammals  Female is only receptive in estrous  Endometrium (lining of uterus) is resorbed not shed  No bleeding o Menstrual  Endometrium is shed  Can be receptive outside of cycle time o Environment plays a role in hormones Reproductive systems o Gonads- primary reproductive organs; produce gametes and sex hormones o Accessory structures- ducts (for transport); glands (for secretion, protection, support, nutrition, etc.) o External genetalia Human Reproduction  Male reproductive system o Testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, glands (seminal vesicles, prostate, Cowper’s), penis/ urethra, semen  All paired except prostate and urethra o Ducts  Epididymis  Ejaculatory  Vas Deferens  Urethra o Testis  Function- produc3e sperm and testosterone  Structure  Located in scrotum  Little or no adipose tissue  Tunica albuginea- tough fibrous C.T. covering  Compartments- lobules; separated by thin connective tissue (Septa) o Several seminiferous tubules with straight ends that meet rete testis o 2 types of cells in wall  Sperm at luminal surface (most developed) and sperm at stages of development  Sertoli cells- associated with developing gamete and essential for gamete formation  Rete testis- network of tubes to transport sperm out of testes  Interstitial cells of Leydig o In compartments but outside of seminiferous tubules o Produce testosterone  Permanent testicular displacement, cryptorchidism (undescended testis/ testes) o Epididymis  Structure  Pair of highly coiled tubes  Located in scrotum on top of testis  Function  Accepts sperm as they exit testis  Storage of sperm  Sperm gain motility and ability to fertilize through physiological maturation o Vas Deferens  Structure  Straight tube that runs into seminal vesicle and is continuous with the epididymis  Function  Transport of sperm o Seminal vesicle  Structure  Pair of glands  Function  Secrete watery, yellowish secretion high in fructose and prostaglandins  Thin out mucus in vaginal track o Ejaculatory duct  Structure  Short duct that exits seminal vesicle and leads into urethra  Function  Transports sperm and seminal fluid o Prostate  Structure  Single gland under urinary bladder  Has ducts that lead to urinary bladder  Function  Secretes milky substances containing anticoagulants & alkaline solutions  Reduces acidity in female track o Cowper’s gland  Structure  Paired glands  Function  Secretes mucus to help reduce acidity in urethra from urine o Penis  Structure  External genetalia  Erectile tissue  Center column containing single urethra (transport urine and semen)  Function  Gets sperm to female tract o Semen  Sperm and glandular fluids  Ejaculate- 2-5 mL  # sperm- 60-300 million  Seminal vesicles- 60% of fluid (nourishment)  Female reproductive system o Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva/pudenum o Ovaries  Structure  Located within pelvic cavity (paired)  Covering o Outer- germinal epithelium (single layer) o Inner- tunica albuginea- C.T. o Not continuous with any other reproductive structures  Primary follicles o Hundreds of thousands scattered throughout ovaries o Immature follicle o Single large primary oocyte arrested at prophase I surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells o Primary oocyte- has potential to become egg o Follicle cells- produce estrogen and progesterone o Fallopian tubes (oviducts)  Structure  Infundibulum with fimbriae to catch ovulated secondary oocyte  Ampulla o Where fertilization occurs o Ectopic tubal pregnancy- embryo embeds in fallopian tube o Placenta previa- embryo embeds in cervix o Abdominal/ pelvic pregnancy  Isthmus- bridge that connects fallopian tube to uterus  Function  Transport and fertilization o Uterus  Structure  Endometrium- glandular epithelium; receives developing embryo; embryo implants and develops; renews itself (menstrual cycle)  Myometrium- smooth muscle; contractions  Perimetrium- C.T.; anchoring  Parts: Fundus, body, cervix  Function  Houses developing embryo fetus  Forms maternal part of placenta o Vagina  Structure  Short muscular tube with opening to outside  Function  Birth canal  Accepts erect penis o Pudendum (vulva)  Structure  2 openings (vaginal and urethral orifice) Gametogenesis  Gamete formation and maturation  Formation- by meiosis  Maturation o physiological and anatomical changes into a mature fertilizable gamete o no change in genetic material  comparison: male vs. female o male- 1 primary spermatid; 4 sperm o female- 1 primary oocyte; 1 egg  male o 2 steps  Spermatogenesis- formation (meiosis); primary spermatocyte-> spermatids; diploid -> haploid  Spermiogenesis- maturation; spermatids-> sperm; haploid -> sperm (haploid); streamlining o Controlled by anterior pituitary hormones o Timing  Does not begin until puberty  Continuous throughout sexual life  No set end o Hormonal control  FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)  LH ( luteinizing hormone) o Spermatagonia  diploid stem cells that reproduce to produce diploid cells  always are stem cells in testes  reproduce by mitosis o Primary spermatocyte  Committed cell 2n(#chromosomes)/4n(#DNA)  Begins gametogenesis  Begins at puberty  Reproduce by meiosis o Secondary spermatocyte 1n/2n o Spermatids  Nondescript round haploid cells  Completely haploid  Have to go through anatomical and physiological changes to become sperm  Not yet mobile o Sperm  Acrosome- came from golgi; contains lytic enzymes (degrade) necessary to break down barriers surrounding egg  Neck- connecting piece to let tail move independent of head  Tail- flagellum; mitochondria in upper part of tail for ATP  Female o 1 step  Oogenesis- formation and maturation occur at same time; diploid-> large haploid o Timing  Begins before birth  Arrests at birth (prophase I- primary oocyte)  Picks up again at puberty  Not continuous (monthly)  Set end (menopause) o Hormones  FSH, LH o Oogonia  Stem cells  Reproduce by mitosis  All oogonia are made before birth (embryogenesis)  Every stem cell commits to becoming a primary oocyte  No more oogonia after birth  Every primary oocyte begins oogenesis before birth  first polar body  terminal cell  remove haploid set of chromosomes from cell that will give rise to egg  second polar body  terminal cell  removes chromatid from each chromosome in developing egg o Ovarian/Menstrual Cycle  Triggered by anterior pituitary hormones  Ovarian- changes that take place within ovary to reactivate an immature follicle and have it mature and release its secondary oocyte from ovary (ovulation)  Follicular phase  Luteal phase  Menstrual- changes that occur in the uterus (endometrium) that involves shedding of most of the endometrium and its renewal  Proliferative phase- estrogen  Secretory phase- progesteroneCome from ovaries o Ovarian Cycle  Follicular phase (FSH)  Reactivates several miniature follicles o Follicle cell to proliferate o Follicle cell to produce/secrete estrogen o Primary oocyte completes Meiosis I  When estrogen levels are sufficiently high (normal) all but 1 of the reactivated follicles die corpora albicantia o Remaining reactivated follicle secondary oocyte starts Meiosis II o Mature follicle- Grafian o 1 reactivated follicle won’t produce enough estrogen for menstrual cycle  Estrogen levels toward mid cycle turn off FSH and turn on LH  Luteal phase (LH)  Surge around mid-cycle o Responsible for ovulation (release of secondary oocyte and some of surrounding follicle cells from ovary)  Heals ruptured follicle cell and forms corpus luteum  Corpus luteum produces and secretes progesterone  Toward end of ovarian cycle, whether or not there’s a pregnancy, progesterone turns off LH  If pregnancy:  HCG- human chorianic gonadotropin o Replaces LH o Maintains corpus luteum and keeps it producing progesterone throughout first trimester  If no pregnancy:  Corpus luteum dies  Progesterone levels decrease  Menses- shedding of endometrium o Menstrual Cycle  Proliferative phase  Estrogen proliferates endometrium after menses  Progesterone  Proliferates endometrium to maximum thickness  Maintains endometrium  If pregnancy:  LH levels decrease toward end of cycle  Embryo produces HCG st  Keeps corpus luteum producing progesterone for 1 trimester  Corpus luteum dies toward end of first trimester  Progesterone levels do not decrease o Placenta produces its own progesterone  If no pregnancy:  LH levels decrease toward end of cycle  Corpus luteum dies  Progesterone levels decrease  Menses


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