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Bio 220 Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Kiara Lynch

Bio 220 Exam 3 Study Guide Bio 220

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > Bio 220 > Bio 220 Exam 3 Study Guide
Kiara Lynch
La Salle

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These notes provide questions for possible exam 4 questions covering material on cell compartmentalization, transport, cellular respiration, and replication.
Structure and Function of Organisms
Dr. Mickle
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 220 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Mickle in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of Organisms in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
1. What is the purpose of compartmentalization? It prevents things from moving freely throughout the cell 2. What is diffusion? the movement of substances through a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration 3. What is osmosis? The diffusion of water through a membrane 4. What are two types of passive transport? Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. In simple diffusion, substances pass right through the lipid bilayer but in facilitated diffusion, substances go through channel and carrier proteins. 5. Describe the differences between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic. A hypertonic solution is a solution with a greater concentration on the outside of the cell. A hypotonic solution is a solution with a smaller concentration on the outside of the cell. An isotonic solution is a solution that has an equal concentration on the inside and outside of the cell. 6. What is active transport? Active transport uses ATP to move substances across a membrane against its concentration gradient. 7. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? Endocytosis is taking something into the cell and exocytosis is secretion out of a cell. 8. What are the three types of endocytosis? Receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis 9. What are the two phases of photosynthesis? Explain what happens during them and what is produced. Photophosphorylation- light reactions; cell converts light energy to usable chemical energy and stores it in molecules of NADPH+H+ Calvin cycle- dark reactions; CO2 is reduced to glucose using ATP from NADPH+H+ 10.What are the stages of cellular respiration? Explain what happens during them and what is produced. Glycolysis- glucose is reduced to 2 pyruvate molecules; 2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH+H+ Linker reaction- 2 pyruvate forms 2 acetyl CoA; 2 CO2, 2 Acetyl CoA, 2 NADH+H+ Krebs cycle- acetyl CoA joins with oxaloacetic acid and citric acid is formed; 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH+H+, 2 FADH2 ETC- electrons are transferred from 1 substance to another and the substances are oxidized and reduced as the electrons are passed along; energy is released each time an electron is passed. 11.What is fermentation? Fermentation regenerates NAD when there is no O2 present so that glycolysis and the Krebs cycle can continue 12.How is NAD regenerated? By the Krebs cycle or fermentation 13.What are the three theoretical ways DNA can replicate? Conservative model, semi-conservative model, dispersive model 14.Define origin of replication. The place at which replication begins 15.Define replication fork. The place at which two new strands of DNA are being synthesized 16.Define helicase. It unwinds the two parent DNA strands 17.Define single strand binding proteins. They bind to the two separated strands of DNA so that they do not recoil 18.Define topoisomerases. They prevent the strands from getting knotted and twisted 19.Define RNA primase. It synthesizes the primer so that DNA can replicate 20.Define DNA primase. Reads parent strands so that new DNA strands can be synthesized, adds nucleotides to the 3 prime end 21.Why is replication different in the lagging strand from the leading strand? Because you can only add nucleotides to the 3 prime end of the strand 22.What is an Okazaki fragment? The fragments made on the lagging strand of DNA due to the synthesis away from the replication fork 23.Define DNA ligase. It joins together the Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand 24.What are examples of non-chromosomal DNA? Mitochondrial, plasmid, chlorophyll 25.What is transcription? The replication of DNA 26.What is the TATA sequence? It is the promoter sequence for starting synthesis of DNA 27.What are transcription factors? Proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter 28.What is the transcription initiation complex? The transcription factors and promoter together 29.How is transcription terminated? In eukaryotes, the RNA polymerase continues to replicate until it eventually falls off; in others, there is a stop codon (AAUAAA) 30.What is the difference in structure between pre mRNA and mature mRNA? Pre mRNA has introns and mature mRNA does not because they are spliced out 31.What is a gene? Codes for a specific protien 32.What is the catalyst that promotes splicing? Ribozymes


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