Histology Exam 3 Study Guide
Histology Exam 3 Study Guide Bio 405
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 405 at La Salle University taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Histology in Biology at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
MUSCLE Where does muscle develop from? Mesoderm What are the functions of muscle? Movement, posture What are cells of muscle called? Fibers Describe skeletal muscle. Voluntary, CNS, multinucleate, striations, individual cells united for functions Describe smooth muscle. Involuntary, uninucleate, no striations, no nervous innervation, ANS, hormones, ions, stretch Where is smooth muscle found? Bladder, uterus, blood vessels, digestive system Describe Cardiac muscle. Involuntary, no nervous innervation, striations, ANS, uninucleate (ovoid, central), unit, branch What is a group of fibers called? Fascicle Describe the structure of muscle fibers. Sarcolemma (plasma membrane) - encloses muscle Sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER) – encloses myofibrils Transverse tubules- invaginations of sarcolemma Many mitochondria What is the functional unit of a muscle fiber? Sarcomere Describe the CT layer of skeletal muscle. Endomysium- encloses each fiber Perimysium- encloses each fascicle Epimysium- encloses each muscle Describe smooth muscle. Single cell, tapered at ends, central nucleus, no striations, gap junctions Describe drifting potential. Resting membrane -70mv Sodium drifts into cell Cell depolarizes opening sodium channels reaches threshold action potential What can the rate of depolarization be altered by? Hormones, ions, stretch, ANS What slows/speeds up contraction of cardiac muscle? Slows- acetylcholine Speeds up- epinephrine/norepinephrine What are purkinji fibers? What is their function? What do they form? Modified cardiac muscle cells; they conduct action potentials through the heart; form Bundles of His (major electrical systems) BLOOD VASCULAR SYSTEM What are the two closed systems of blood vessels? Pulmonary and systemic What is the function of systemic circulation? Exchange of nutrients, oxygen, water, waste (in capillaries) What type of epithelium makes up a capillary? 1 layer of simple squamous cells from mesoderm (endothelium) What supports capillaries? Reticular fibers What supports the endothelium of capillaries? Basal lamina What is found in conjunction with the endothelium in capillaries? Fixed macrophage, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells What are the three types of capillaries? Continuous, fenestrated, sinusoids Where are continuous capillaries found? Muscle, CT, CNS What are the defining characteristics of continuous capillaries? Cells thickened in region of nucleus and thin at periphery Fuzzy coat on plasma membrane Small invaginations on surface Interdigitated junction of adjacent cells Marginal folds that retard flow near edge of cell What do the invaginations on the surface of capillaries allow for? Formation of vesicles, movement across membrane Where are fenestrated capillaries found? Renal glomeruli, endocrine glands, lamina propria of intestine What are the characteristics of fenestrated capillaries? Porous- limits size of material transferred; random or regularly placed Enclosed by diaphragm (thin, controls movement) Moves material more quickly and efficiently Cell junctions interdigitated Why is the basal lamina in glomeruli very thick? Higher blood pressure in kidney What happens to 20% of the blood that goes through the capillaries? Filtered out (plasma) and replaced Where are sinusoids found? Liver, spleen, bone marrow, some endocrine glands What is the function of sinusoids? Slow blood flow for exchange of material Describe characteristics of sinusoids. Thin walled vascular channels, large, thin layer of CT covering, no basement membrane, Macrophage line in capillary What is the general structure of a blood vessel? Tunica adventitia- outside; dense irregular CT Tunica media- middle; smooth muscle or elastic fibers or mixture of both; external and internal Elastic lamella Tunica adventitia- inner; endothelial layer on lumen and subendothelial CT Describe the two layers of the Tunica intima. Endothelium- simple squamous Subendothelial layer- most dense irregular CT; varies in size; may be invisible Describe the layers of the tunica media. Internal elastic lamella Smooth muscle- circumferential (controls diameter) External elastic lamella Describe the tunica adventitia. Dense irregular CT Blood vessels supply nutrients (vasa vasorum) Merges with loose CT What is an example of an elastic artery? Aorta Describe an elastic artery. Visible subendothelial layer Elastic fibers (verhoff’s or silver stain) Some smooth muscle fibers Describe a muscular artery. What is its function? Reduced subendothelial layer Large T media (almost all smooth muscle) Controls blood pressure (ANS) Describe an arteriole. Smaller artery; only media is prominent (smooth muscle) What runs alongside arteries to the same location? Veins What is different in a vein from an artery? Larger lumen, irregular shape Smaller wall (media- smooth muscle) LYMPHOID SYSTEM What is the function of the lymphatic system? Protect against foreign macromolecules Nonliving Living- bacteria, viruses, transplants Endogenous What organs are part of the lymphatic system? Spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils What else is included in the lymphoid system? Non-lymph organs, lymphocytes (blood and lymph, in epithelium) What cells are part of the lymphatic system? Lymphocytes- B and T Monocytes Plasma cells Of the lymphatic vessels what has the highest and lowest pressure? Highest- blood capillaries Lowest- large veins Describe the organization of cells. Diffuse cells in epithelium and CT No particular arrangement Cells wherever there is a potential for bacteria or viruses Numbers vary What do groups of lymph nodules form? Peyer’s Patches Describe lymph nodules. No CT capsule Temporary; more common in disease Cortical area Germinal center What are the differences between the cortical area and germinal center? Cortical- densely packed lymphocytes; stains darkly Germinal- immunoblasts, cytoplasm; stains lightly; where most growing/dividing cells/lymphocytes come from Where is the thymus located? What is its general structure/function? On trachea; attached by CT In mediastinum 2 lobes; dense irregular CT septa divides organ into lobules Produces lymphocytes What happens to the thymus with age? Starts out large in children and gets smaller with age Gets more adipose with age Describe the cortical region and medullary region of lobules of the thymus. Cortical- peripheral zone; T lymphocytes, macrophage Medullary- young lymphocytes; light stain; Hassel’s Corpuscle What are Hassel’s Corpuscles? Layers of epithelial cells that may be keratinized or calcified Stain intensely with eosin What is the function of lymph nodes? Filter out dead parts of cells, debris from tissue, malignant cells, bacteria Where are lymph nodes located? Along lymphatic vessels Describe the general structure of a lymph node. Flattened/ovoid, white, slight indentation where bv leave organ (hilus) Usually occur in groups (along bv of thoracic and abdominal cavities in mesenteries, in loose CT Of neck, groin, and axilla) What supports the parenchyma? Reticular fibers and cells What makes up the lymph node cortex? Single row of lymph nodules Dense layer of small lymphocytes (stains dark) surrounding a germinal center (stains light) What makes up the lymph node medulla? Medullary cord- bundles of unorganized lymphatic cells Medullary sinuses- spaces around medullary cords where lymph fluid flows Where is the spleen located? What is its function? Left side of body below diaphragm Filters blood (removes weak RBCs, RBC particles; stores blood) What is the spleen made up of? White pulp Red pulp What is white pulp? Lymphocytes; forms Periarterial lymphoid sheathes (PALS) Surround arteries May contain germinal centers What is red pulp? Irregularly shaped sinusoids filled with RBCs Cords of biliroth Cells supported by reticular fibers What are the Cords of Biliroth? Lymphatic tissue cords that separate sinuses of red pulp of the spleen from each other Random, no shape, no capsules What are the three types of tonsils? Palatine, Pharyngeal, Lingual Where is the palatine tonsil located? Back of the throat Describe the palatine tonsil. Oval accumulations of lymphoid tissue Stratified squamous epithelium Crypts Single layer of lymph nodules follow contours of the tonsil Traps bacteria, food, moisture, nutrients Infection tonsillitis Where is the pharyngeal tonsil located? Roof and posterior wall of nasopharynx Describe the pharyngeal tonsil. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar Goblet cells Surface folds (no crypts) Nodules unorganized Where is the lingual tonsil located? Root of tongue (nodular bulges) Describe the lingual tonsil. Nodular bulges Small opening leads to invaginations Crypts- stratified squamous epithelium One crypt per tonsil Irregular lymph nodes DIGESTIVE SYSTEM What are the functions of the digestive system? Breaks down food mechanically and chemically Absorbs nutrients Absorbs vitamins and minerals Absorbs water and alcohol quickly Does not digest carbon What are the two sides of the lip and the middle layer made out of? Stratified squamous with keratin (hair follicles, sweat glands) Moist membrane- stratified squamous, mixed glands Skeletal muscle What are the functions of lips? Monitor environment, detect/pick up food; speech What is the structure/function of the cheek? Protection; stratified squamous epithelium with mixed glands What is the structure/function of the tongue? Mixes food, speech Stratified squamous, CT layer, skeletal muscle, glands What are the four types of papillae? Fungiform, filiform, foliate, vallate Describe fungiform papillae. Interspersed b/w filiform Rounded surface, some taste buds Describe filiform papillae. Most numerous Tiny outpushings; point toward rear; make tongue rough Taste buds Describe foliate papillae. Not common in primates; common in herbivores (rabbits) Even in size and arrangement Describe vallate papillae. Largest; about 20 Along sulcus terminalis, 2/3 way down tongue Taste buds on lateral sides Circular furrow (trench) surrounding it Von Ebner’s glands What are Von Ebner glands? Serous glands in the vallate papillae that empty into the furrow Describe the structure/location of taste buds. In epithelium Barrel shaped, curved cells, arranged like staves on a barrel, faint stain Describe the general structure of the digestive system. What is the mucosa of the esophagus made out of? Thick stratified squamous epithelium Lamina propria- cardiac esophageal glands Muscularis mucosae- smooth muscle (longitudinal) What is the submucosa of the esophagus made out of? Loose CT with adipose Esophageal glands, larger bv and lymph vessels What is the muscularis of the esophagus made out of? Interna- circular; externa- longitudinal Upper- skeletal; middle- mixed; lower- smooth What is the adventitia of the esophagus made out of? CT, nerves, bv, adipose Serosa surrounds it in lower portion What is different before and after the esophageal junction? Esophagus- stratified squamous Junction- more glands, smooth muscle sphincter Stomach- simple columnar; new layer of circular muscularis mucosae What are the 3 regions of the stomach? Cardia, fundus/body, pylorus What is the structure/function of the cardia? Simple branched tubular glands Produces mucous Describe the mucosa of the fundus. Epithelium- protection, simple columnar, mucous producing cells Lamina propria- digestion, gastric glands Muscularis mucosa- 2 thin layers What happens to the gastric pits of the stomach toward the pyloric region? They get longer What are the 3 types of gastric glands and their functions? Parietal- produce HCl (regulates pH), eosinophilic, wedge shaped Chief- produce pepsinogen (breaks down protein), basophilic Enteroendocrine- produce serotonin (controls digestion) Describe the submucosa and muscularis of the fundus. Submucosa- dense irregular CT Muscularis- churning; 3 layers: inner (oblique), middle (circular), outer (longitudinal) Describe the glands of the pylorus. Simple branching tubular mucus secreting What prevents movement of stomach contents to small intestine? Smooth muscle sphincter What are the three parts of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ilium What is the function of the small intestine? Digest/absorb nutrients, vitamins, minerals When preparing slides, what is the small intestine damaged by? Enzymes and acids What are Brunner’s glands? Glands in the submucosa of the duodenum What are the villi like in the duodenum? Tongue shaped What is characteristic of the duodenum? Unicellular goblet cells Muscularis mucosa not consistent Crypts of Lieberkuhn with goblet cells Describe the muscularis interna and externa of the duodenum. Interna- circular and thick Externa- longitudinal and thin Describe the jejunum. (villi, glands, cells) Tallest villi in small intestine May sit on plica circularis (circular folds) Goblet cells increase Paneth cells at base of crypts Lymphatic tissue in lamina propria Lacteals for absorption of fats Describe the ilium. Many Peyer’s Patches (closer to colon) Short and wide villi Describe the structure of the appendix. (layers, crypts) Lymphatic nodules in epithelium and submucosa Small lumen and muscle layers complete Crypts- short and far apart List characteristics of the colon. (villi, cells, crypts, muscle) Lack villi Crypts filled with goblet cells Taenia coli- prevents too much stretch Very thin What is the taenia coli? 3 bands of longitudinal muscle in muscularis of colon What is the function of the colon? Movement of materials, absorption of water (conservation) Describe the rectum. (tissue, muscle, vessels) Lack lymphatic tissue Longer crypts External muscularis complete Folds extended into lumen Blood vessels visible Describe the change from the rectum to the anus. Simple columnar stratified squamous Moist membrane keratinized Blood vessels in rectal area LIVER What are the functions of the liver? Produces plasma proteins Stores vitamins Regulates blood sugar and storage Metabolizes foreign substances Produces bile What are 3 plasma proteins and their functions? Albumin- maintains osmolarity in blood Globulin- circulating antibodies Fibrinogen- clotting protein What is done with water soluble vitamins? Absorbed or stored in adipose What does bile consist of? Few waste products, lipases What do lipases do? Digest lipids; small droplets of fat metabolize faster What are mixed function oxidases? Special group of enzymes in the liver Break down steroids Inducible (exposure to substances) Describe the structure of the liver. 3 lobes CT capsule between front two lobes What is characteristic of the cells of the liver? Can only divide a certain amount of times What is cirrhosis of the liver? When a cell can’t divide anymore and it’s damaged and is replaced with CT Describe the flow of materials into the liver. Mesenteries intestine portal vein/ merge with hepatic artery liver Heart hepatic artery liver What does the portal triad consist of? Portal vein, hepatic artery, common hepatic (bile) duct Describe the structure of a liver lobule. Central vein (blood) Hepatocytes on sinusoids Kuppfer cells on inside- macrophage (pick up bacteria, foreign material, nutrients) Each cell has capillary coming off of it leading to the bile duct How are liver lobules organized? CT capsule that separates lobules Hepatocytes Sinusoids (fenestrated capillaries, Kuppfer cells) How many lobules does every portal triad feed? 4 What is the only way that materials get back into the digestives system? Bile What type of epithelium is the bile duct made out of? Simple cuboidal PANCREAS What makes up the exocrine portion of the pancreas? Serous compound alveolar What composes the endocrine portion of the pancreas? Islets of langerhan Alpha, beta, delta cells What are the islets of Langerhan? Contain the pancreas’s endocrine cells What do alpha cells produce? What is their function? Produce glucagon Stimulates release of glucose and breakdown of glycogen (drives rxn back to glucose) Stain pink, periphery What do beta cells produce? What is their function? Produces insulin Increases uptake and storage of glucose Light stain, central What do delta cells produce? What is their function? Produce somatostatin Inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion What do the ducts in the CT of the pancreas do? Drain exocrine products and deliver back to small intestine Explain the process of antibody staining. An animal is injected with insulin (antigen) and produces antibodies to bind with the antigen. -The dye binds with the antibodies. SALIVARY GLANDS What are the three salivary glands? What is their structure/function? Parotid Submandibular Sublingual Produce saliva Compound alveolar glands What type of glands are salivary glands? Exocrine Compound alveolar- mucous, serous, mixed (demilunes) What makes up saliva? 98% water Electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds, amylase, lysozyme, lingual lipase, enzymes RESPIRATORY SYSTEM What makes up the respiratory system? Trachea, bronchiole tubes, alveolar sac What does the trachea extend from? From larynx to bronchi What epithelium is in the trachea? Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells What is a defining characteristic of the trachea? Cartilage rings of hyaline cartilage; open in back; connected with smooth muscle What are the types of bronchiole tubes? Does gas exchange occur in these tubes? Primary, secondary bronchi; terminal and respiratory bronchioles No gas exchange What is the epithelium in the bronchi? Ciliated columnar What happens to the cartilage rings in the bronchi? They disappear and are replaced by discontinuous cartilage plates What happens to the cartilage as the bronchi deepen into the lungs? Disappears What happens to the epithelium, cilia, and cartilage in the bronchioles? Becomes more cuboidal and eventually flat Cilia are gone Smooth muscle replaces cartilage What is the only place for gas exchange? Alveolar What are the three types of cells of the alveolar? Pneumocytes (Type 1), Septal cells (Type 2), macrophage What is the structure/function of pneumocytes? Squamous epithelium Gas exchange What is the function of septal cells? Produce and store surfactant (lowers surface tension) Repair injured tissue
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