His 151 Exam 1 Study Guide
His 151 Exam 1 Study Guide His 155
Popular in Themes in American History
Popular in History
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 155 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Ryan in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Themes in American History in History at La Salle University.
Reviews for His 151 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/02/16
HISTORY TEST 1 1607 Jamsttown, Virginia 1 English settlement in N. America People sought fortune Tobacco crop Polish immigrants- skilled at making glass; used Resin to fill in spaces in log cabins and ships 1619 1 Africans appear- not slaves 1620 Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts 1630 Boston (Salem) Colony Timeline for Europe 1517 Protestant Reformation Germany; Martin Luther/ John Calvin; Whittenburg Cathedral; 95 Theses 1534 King Henry VIII was not granted divorce; breaks away and starts Anglican Church; leader- Archbishop of Canterbury Archbishop William Laud did not tolerate puritan belief; persecuting puritans John Winthrop Leaves England with 11 ships to go to Massachusetts Main ship- Arabella; 700 puritans on board Arrive in 1630 st Anne Bradstreet- 1 female poet in new world Gives sermon aboard Arabella (p29-30) o Covenant between God and Puritans to follow laws through the Bible o Idea of community Coverture- control that men have over women; women are legally dead Hutchinson Kicked out and goes to Rhode Island and stays with Roger Williams (founder of RI) Goes to NY which was controlled by the Dutch- Pelham Bay She and her family (4 of 5) kids are killed by Indians 1987- Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts issued a pardon of Hutchinson; takes back banishment Robert Keayne also was challenging authority in Massachusetts Robert Keayne London butcher who came to Boston Starts importing guns, glass, cloth, and saws from London Starts charging a lot of money for them Brought to trial by Winthrop b/c he violated fair rules of trade; Keayne repents Fan of Hutchinson- individualish Roger Williams Born in England (1603-1683) Went to Cambridge U (spoke Latin, Greek, Dutch, French) Married Mary Bernard, 1629; has 6 kids Studies to become a minister before coming to U.S. o Different views than Archbishop of Canterbury o Criticizes Anglican Church Leaves England and goes to Boston where puritans are and is initially welcomed Develops the “liberty of conscience” o People should have freedom to worship God how they want to o Angers Winthrop Magistrate (civil law, ecclesiastical law) st Argues there should be 2 separate courts ^; 1 time someone mentioned separation of Church and state Banished from Boston and goes to Providence, RI Becomes founder of Rhode Island Colony 1636 o 1 colony in North America to make slavery illegal 1652 Narragansett Indians take him in on the way to Rhode Island st Wrote 1 book of Indian language in the U.S. o “A Key into the Language of America” 1643 o Language, customs, manners, worship Purchases Rhode Island from Indians (opposite of Winthrop) Didn’t try to convert Indians to Christianity Pilgrims 1620- puritans o Went to Holland to escape England than went to North America o 2 ships o Speedwell and the Mayflower o At sea for 3 days and Speedwell was going to sink so they turned around and put everyone on the Mayflower; people were scared there were too many people on it and stayed in England o Sept 16, 1620- leave to North America o Supposed to go to Virginia colony but were blown off course and pull into Cape Cod, Ma Knew they weren’t in Virginia because of their latitude (horizontal parallels; starts at equator) and longitude (vertical meridians; starts at Grenich, Eng (int’l date line) Used astrolabe-> sextant Virginia Colony- 24 parallel, 41 meridian William Bradford o Leader of pilgrims o Develop Mayflower Compact; agree on laws, vote together for the common good; emphasis on community o Plymouth plantation- Bradford gives accounts of people who signed the compact Timelines 1775 War 1776 Declaration of Independence 1783 War ends 1787 Constitution st Bill of Rights (1 10 amendments)- protect individual from state Rhode Island is last to sign because Roger Williams wanted individuality and didn’t want all 13 colonies together 1492 Columbus 1497 Giovanni Cabotto (John Cabbot) Born in Venice and goes to England Commissioned by King Henry VIII of England to search out land- go to Canada and Maine and claimed North America for England Gets to North America and sees Inuits (eskimos) and brings 3 back to England Within 3 years, Indians speak perfect English and wear English clothes This shows they are able to be Anglicized and they can transform them Salt was used to preserve food o Slaves were given food preserved with salt- African Americans have higher chances of having high blood pressure Psindamoakan- food that hunters from Lenni Lenape tribe would eat- corn meal and maple syrup In England, if you were accused of capital crime you were beheaded or drawn and courtered (hang you w/o dying and then drop you and take each limb and tie to horse to dislocate joints, put on table and cut open stomach and pull out intestines and burn them, then decapitate them) Puritans saw decapitation in England all of the time (part of culture) th 8 amendment- ban on cruel and unusual punishment (result of above) Primary material- recorded by eyewitnesses Handout Mortality rate in England vs. New World o Lived longer in new world (lived to see grandchildren) o Not as densely populated, not as much disease, clean water unlike in England Marriages lasted longer in the new world o No place to go (Indians surrounded them) o Puritans were strict religious people and divorce was rare Infant mortality rate o Declined in new world; lived longer Strong emphasis on paternal control Individuals moved as a group; families lived close; law forbid people to live alone Poems East (China) had riches; people knew this because when in England that’s where they got their riches; Marco Polo went to China and wrote about it Anne Bradstreet o happy with marriage; marital love o Right before giving birth in case she dies o Death is inevitable o Stepdan (grandmom)- didn’t get along well; protect kids from what mother in law says about her Puritans and Education st 1642- 1 colony to pass laws on education Have to teach kids English language so they can read laws and Bible Emphasizes you have to learn a skill that is profitable to self and community Apprentice- like an intern; shorter apprenticeships because of colonies’ needs o Silversmith, saddlier, leathersmith, carpenter Monitor behavior- men and women had to be careful about hair length Kids who were rude could be taken out of their house and put into a strict house and if continued to misbehave, family was fined or kids were whipped in public Old Deluder Satan Act 1647 o Read English-> Bible and Civil law o 50 households -> primary education o 100 households -> secondary education (math, hist, fundamentals of science) Grammar school-> Latin o If you could not send your kids to school- pay 5 lbs to go to neighboring school Historiography- history of a historical event Puritan 19 Century New England 1520s- Progressive Historians Intolerance of Puritans o James Truslow Adams puritans repressed private choice Ruling orthodoxy; against deviation from orthodoxy Will of God controlled life of Puritans o Vernon Parrington Puritans were repressive; reactionary theology 2 people he pointed to – Hutchinson and Williams o Mary Dyer Adams and Parrington pointed to Dyer Quaker (Society of friends; believe in inner light) George Fox- founder of Quakers Leaves Boston and follows Hutchinson to Rhode Island Becomes a Quaker and returns to Boston and starts preaching Quaker religion Puritans said they’ll expel her-> she leaves but goes back and continues to preach Is hanged- becomes one of first major Quaker martyrs 1930s o Samuel Eliot Morison and Perry Miller Sympathetic of Puritans Morison humanizes Puritans- humans not against basic pleasures of life Drink, sex, colorful clothes Puritans were trying to serve God- Bible Emphasis on education and learning Miller Puritans were a part of Renaissance Humanism- rebirth in learning and knowledge began in Europe Logic and reason Queen Elizabeth->James I->Charles I Charles I- argument with Parliament (English congress) House of Lords and House of Commons (more people) In US congress and president In Eng parliament and prime minister Oliver Cromwell Member of Parliament (90% Puritan) Civil war over who will run country- King Charles vs Parliament o 1642-1649 st o Parliament wins- 1 time in history king is not in charge o Kill king o 1649-1660 Puritans run England (Puritan commonwealth- Cromwell is head) No king Charles II Sent to France when father died 1660 comes back to England- Restoration (restores throne) Throw out Cromwell, Puritans lose power Parliament still has about 60% of power Constitutional democracy Penn’s Frame of Government 1681 Bicameral- 2 houses; one with 72 people (passes laws with governor) and one with 500 people (accepts or rejects laws) 1701- 2 ndframe of government; lower house has ability to make laws Sets up blueprint for U.S. constitution William Penn Had a house in Bucks County named after Buckingham Shire (his ancestral home) Jersey used to be split East and West (Quakers in West) 1665- Bubonic plague in London 1666- Great London Fire Wanted to build a “Greene Countree Toune” o Single homes; spread out; gardens o Did not happen o People built houses on land and sold them Designed a colony with religious toleration; no wall around it because he made peace with Indians Thomas Holme o Surveyor- plot out land o Based city on grid o 1 purchasers were Penn’s friends Prime land on fronts because of trade o All streets named after trees 5 squares in Philadelphia o Center square is now city hall o Washington, Writtenhouse, Franklin, Logan Circle (Logan- Penn’s secretary) o Wanted places for recreation and places to go for safety and security in case of fire Penn and Indians o Village above Philly on Delaware River o Village of Shackamaxon- the place where chiefs are made Headquarters of Lenni Lenape tribe o Treaty with chief of Lenni Lenape tribe Buys land from them (Pennsylvania) Exchanged land for blankets, combs, kettles, woolen coats, fish hooks, saws, axes, scissors, shirts, and awls (tool to drill timber or poke holes in leather) o Tammamend- Chief of Lenni Lenape Meeting between he and Penn 1682 Painting by Benjamin West- “Penn’s Treaty with Indians” Commissioned by Penn Jr 1771 One of the first multicultural paintings Quakers, Indians, merchants No weapons- shows trust 1810 elm tree blew down John Locke o Penn’s friend o English philosopher o Influence on Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Penn’s Frame of Government o When born, mind is a blank slate- “tabla rasa”- and all experiences are placed on brain Benjamin Franklin o Born in Boston, moved to Philadelphia o Apprenticed to his brother (printer) o Poor Richard’s almanac (pseudonym: Richard Saunders) Prediction of weather, when to plant things, phases of moon, high and low tides Best seller; 1732-1758; economic success o Proved lightning is electricity Key on end of a silk kite Put lightning rods on buildings and ships o Bifocals, franklin stove, eruption of volcano in Iceland (had effect on winter in Europe in 1984, ash was in the atmosphere and affected cloud formation), said storms move in the opposite direction of the wind near the ground, charted the gulf stream (if you leave England to US make sure boat is above gulf stream and you will shave off 2 weeks) o Honorary doctorate from Oxford, St. Andrews, and Harvard for work with electricity o Junto Meeting Club of tradesmen Discussion of ways they could imporove themselves professionally and personally Practical knowledge; problem solvers Influenced the first lending library Evolved into American philosophical society Self- reliance o Autobiography Loved to read (travel books- practical knowledge; books on divinity; Plutarchs lives; “human understanding” by Locke Read almost every book his brother printed- autodidact (self- taught) Told about how he wrote ballads and poems His dad told him it was a waste of time and couldn’t make a living o Realized this and eventually wants his son to realize he’s right too Father makes suggestions about his prose style Fond of arguing Argued for women’s education for the sake of arguing Times are changing from coverture Important to win arguments o Socratic method- asking questions Admits he had trouble with math when he was younger but eventually masters it Never too late Fascination with navigation Humble enquirer Plan for moral improvement 13 virtues (in almanac, taught in school) Worked on one at a time Focus Questions Chapter 2 1. “Woman in her greatest perfection was made to serve and obey man, not to rule and command him.” Women were allowed little education and few rights; in church women sat silent and listened; women took care of the home and children. Coverture 2. Hutchinson was the second of 13 children; born into a spiritual but nonconformist household; her father was a minister who battled the English church until removed from the pulpit. Hutchinson followed in his ways; rejected rulers, expected a lot from herself and others, was obstinate, independent, moral, and contemptuous of the establishment. 3. Hutchinson was prompted to believe that the Puritan notion of good works was spiritually dead because she got a message saying “He that denies the testament denies the testator” and thought that the Antichrist lived in those who refuse the covenant of God 4. Winthrop and church leaders thought women were by nature indecisive and emotional- thought of to a lesser degree today 5. Hutchinson’s house: 2 stories, cellar, centered around a chimney and fireplace, garden, orchard, stable 6. Hutchinson gradually challenged church authority and started preaching herself. She began by interrupting sermons that she thought were false, then invited neighboring housewives to her home and would repeat John Cotton’s sermons of that day. These sessions were then opened up to men. She not only repeated Cotton’s sermons but also criticized orthodox preachers. She then traveled to neighboring communities to preach. 7. The birth of Mary Dyer’s child was an evil omen in Hutchinson’s life because she was already depressed and then delivered a dead baby and was afraid of how people would use this against her. 8. Winthrop’s charge against Hutchinson was that she troubled the peace of the commonwealth and the churches there. He said she was believed to be guilty of joining a seditious faction, of holding conspiracies in her house, and of seducing honest people from their work and families. He said she also broke the 5 thcommandment (different orders). Hutchinson was declared a leper and was banished. A group of her sympathizers left Massachusetts on their own and went to Pelham Bay but most people feared Winthrop and feared rebelling. 9. Hutchinson’s last pregnancy was “aborted as a hydatidiform mole.” Winthrop could use this against her and say it was because God didn’t want her to have more children because she is evil and “God’s will manifested itself.” She was attacked and massacred by a band of revengeful Indians. Winthrop said “God’s hand is seen herein.” 10.Hutchinson was one of the earliest feminists in American culture. She stood against coverture and against how women were viewed at the time. Chapter 3 1. Indians initially viewed the arriving Europeans as gods because of their advanced technology. 2. The Europeans displayed “a cultural arrogance that knew no bounds.” Indians held their life in much lower regard. They thought they were more courageous and resourceful than the whites. They thought they were happier and more powerful than the French. The Europeans thought they could lay claim to Native American lands or kidnap Indians to be souvenirs to be put on display in European courts. Hegemony- the domination of one group over another. 3. The first week that Rowlandson was in captivity she ate almost nothing. The second week she ate trash and the third week she ate any scraps she could find. She also ate bear, nuts, peas, trees, dogs, skunk, horse, bark, snakes, frogs, tortoise, deer and pemmican. Pemmican was a way to preserve meat. It is when they take meat and hang it and let it cure (dry) and then pulverize it and mix it with dried berries and animal fat and then roll it up into a ball or link and wrap it in skin. It would last for weeks/months. 4. When the Indians let Rowlandson go, they gave her farewells, gifts, and requests, such as to send them bread and tobacco. Rowlandson said the Native Americans sexually assaulted their captives. 5. The fate of the Native-Americans who were the main leaders of King Philip’s War were bound to be killed. 6. The Puritans felt a need to extract significance from every detail of King Philip’s war. They thought the war was a test of faith and the victory was a sign of God’s favor. 7. In “A Narrative of the captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson” she talked about when the Indians first came and took captives (how they were killed and how some escaped). She then talks agbout how the Indians surrounded the house and shot at it and set it on fire when there were people in it. She tried to escape with her children bvut could not leave. Many were killed but she and her children were pulled away in separate directions. This could be viewed as Puritan Propaganda because God had been on the Puritan side. Her account might have been published anonymously at first because she was a woman (coverture) or because she wanted privacy. Chapter 4 1. The Quakers held beliefs that were largely unacceptable to most churchgoing Britons during the mid-seventeenth century such as how they insisted that one’s inner light furnished the surest source of divine revelation. 2. Commision in the army was obtained by purchase and in the navy, political influence was key. Whenever a naval officer lost a battle, he was usually court-martialed and sometimes executed. 3. Admiral Penn was jailed by Oliver Cromwell because he said the admiral returned home without orders to do so but it was because Penn refused to make Cromwell’s nephew second in command even though the protector had recommended the appointment. 4. William Penn went to Christ Church College in Oxford as a gentlemen scholar. He then enrolled himself in a small protestant seminary in Loire Valley. He was then sent to Lincoln’s inn. 5. The central principles of the Society of Friends were that they rejected outward forms of worship, said trained ministers and religious ceremonies were unnecessary, practiced religion in daily lives not just Sunday. They dressed plainly and said all men and women were equal before God. 6. Penn’s Quakerism attracted more attention than the Quakerism of other members of the Society of friends because they refused to practice their faith in quiet. Penn also published a pamphlet expounding the tenets of Quakerism. 7. King Charles owed the elder Penn 1600 pounds because his father financed the Royal Navy out of his own pocket during the civil war. The king gave land to younger Penn because of this and that doing this would show that the Catholics (stuarts) were not popish bigots. It was also strategic and Penn’s new colony would be in a position to help NY with frontier defense and would act as a buffer for the MD-VA frontier. 8. The government and his deputy would rule in conjunction with an elected council of 72 people. They would appoint officials and draft the laws; served as upper house; lower house of 500 people could only approve or reject laws made by governor or council. Members of council were citizens and did not need to be wealthy or have property qualification. All taxpayers voted, even women. Penn called it a “Holy Experiment”, an experiment with religious toleration (permission to worship or not to worship.) 9. Transgressions against law were punished by hard labor or whipping. All offenses were tried in civil courts (domestic relations and moral offenses in Church courts.) 10.The Frame of 1701 confirmed the powers of the assembly to propose, amend, or repeal legislation. It also strengthened the hand of the executive. The governor appointed members of council and set office terms. Council continued to function as upper house. Suffrage confined to rural land holders and urban taxpayers. 11.Compare and Contrast the personalities and religious beliefs of Anne Hutchinson and William Penn. Chapter 5 1. One of the main reasons why so many white colonists continued to view themselves as British subjects before and during the Revolution was because they had pride in the empire. Triumph in the French and Indian war, Britain controlled Canada, Spanish Florida, and Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. They also had many possessions in India, Africa, and the Caribbean. 2. Benjamin Franklin invented bi-focals, electricity, clean-burning stoves, charted the Gulf stream, theories about the common cold, lending libraries, and wove together idealism and balance of power realism. He also had plans to unite colonies. 3. Franklin had a pseudonym “Mrs. Silence Dogood” because he knew his brother wouldn’t print his pieces. She had an aversion to tyranny to make part of the American character. Rights and liberties of her country. Franklin used Mrs. Dogood to attack the theocratic rule of the puritan establishment and the link between church and state. “A man of law and Gospel is able to cheat a whole country with his religion and destroy them under color of law.” 4. The “Apology for Printers” said that the job of a printer is to allow people to express differing opinions, but the rights of printers were balanced by their duty to be responsible. 5. The “Speech of Polly Baker” recounts the speech of a young woman on trial for having a 5 thillegitimate child. He did not like how it subjected her to humiliation but not the men she slept with. The court was moved by the speech and a judge married her. Franklin knew humor was the best way to make political points. 6. Franklin was good at appearing to have humility. Ex: personally carted rolls of paper he bought in a wheel barrow rather than hiring someone to do it. Franklin formed the Junto and decreed people should put forth their ideas through suggestions and questions, using or faking naïve curiosity to avoid contradicting people and offending them. In the newspaper Franklin stressed the importance of deferring or giving the appearance of deferring to others. 7. Franklin cast himself to the French public as a symbol of the virtuous frontier freedom romanticized by Rousseau and of the enlightenment’s reason wisdom championed by Voltaire: he wore a fur cap (badge of homespun purity and virtue) and spectacles (wisdom). This gave the impression he was a noble frontier philosopher with simple backwoods sage. 8. Franklin said that “Both sides must part with some of their demands.” He used this when the Constitutional convention became deadlocked on whether the new congress should be proportioned by population or have equal votes for each state. He said representatives to the lower house would be popularly elected and apportioned by population but in the senate the legislatures of several states shall choose and send an equal number of delegates. 9. Franklin believed in God and in the social usefulness of religion but did not subscribe to any particular sectarian doctrine. He built a hall in Philly for any preacher of any religion who wants to say something. “It would be vain for any person to insist that all doctrines he holds are true and all he rejects are false.”
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'