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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kiara Lynch

Exam 2 Study Guide His 155

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Kiara Lynch
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These notes cover information on exam 2. Some topics include slavery, Elizabeth Blackwell, Mercy Otis Warren, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Seneca Falls, Women and higher education, cars, the City Beaut...
Themes in American History
Dr. Ryan
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 155 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Ryan in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Themes in American History in History at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
HISTORY TEST 2 Slavery  Canery Islands- 60 miles off the coast of Africa  Spain and Portugal- first two European countries involved in slave trade  1619- first dutch ship transferred 20 African Americans to Jamestown, VA; first appearance of blacks in N. America  1660- slavery becomes legalized in VA  John Punch o indentured servant from Virginia o working Hugh Gwyn (white) welsh on plantation o worked with two other people: Victor (Germany) and James Gregory (Scotland) o all 3 go to MD but were found and brought back to VA  Victor and Gregory- 4 years extended; Punch- bound for life o Had children with another indentured servant (mixed children) o Ancestor to Ann Durham (Barack Obama’s mother) o 1 legally recognized slave in U.S. history 1676- Virginia  Gidden multitude: blacks and whites who were given land to farm in the West part of the colony; were often attacked by Indians while transporting their crops o Asked Gov. Berkeley for help against Indians  Nathanial Bacon o (white) lived in Jamestown nd o Sympathetic for gidden multitude and met with themgrounds for 2 amendment o Bacon’s rebellion- led western settlers; 1 time blacks and whites ban together and attack the capital  Berkeley lives and Bacon dies  Berkeley comes back with reinforcement and takes control  Legislature passes a series of laws that start a biracial society to keep blacks and whites separate in hopes to minimize chance of another rebellion o No marriage, couldn’t hold meetings, blacks had unequal freedoms, slave markets increased David Walker (1796-1830)  Wrote “the Appeal” to the colored citizens of the world  African American abolitionist  Born in NC to free mother and slave father  slavery was matrilineal (traced through mother)- Walker was free  goes to Boston (1820) and settles and marries Eliza Butler; 1829 publishes The Appeal  calling for black unity and self-help (no help from whites)  fighting oppression and injustice  dies suddenly in summer of 1830 (white plague- tb)  Lydia Ann (daughter) also died of tb  Unmarked grave- not enough money  Abolitionist vs. black nationalist  The Appeal o Stirred up feelings amongst literate blacks o GA offered $10000 reward for Walker alive; $1000 to kill him o Fall 1829 o Only 7 copies o Inspired blacks and whites in abolitionist movement o “America is more our country than it is the whites. We have enriched it with our blood and tears.” Elizabeth Blackwell  1 female physician- denied from med school because of gender  Sex vs gender: sex- organs (biological), gender- roles, society, dictates (social)  Coverture- roots in English common law; could not own property, no rights over children, could not sue in court or be in jury, couldn’t make legal contracts, could not initiate divorce, any money she might make belongs to her husband  1787 Constitution o John Adams and Abigail Adams  Letters between them- as you prepare to develop constitution, “remember the ladies” (wanted the right to vote)  Only colony that allowed women to vote- NJ (Quakers), prohibited after formation of US Mercy Otis Warren  Born in Cape Cod, MD  Self-educated- autodidact  Brother went to Harvard- read his and her father’s books, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, John Locke  Parallels with Abigail Adams- couldn’t go to college; read books  Wrote to Abigail Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Hamilton (1 sec. of treasury- $10 bill)  Aware of natural rights argument  Women have the same rights as men  1805- 3 volume history of the American Revolution o Eyewitness account of things in MD o “The history of the rise, progress, and termination of the American Revolution” o Sets stage for future women to become writers (public figures) o Separation of spheres- man outside home, women inside Linda Kerber  U.S. is a democratic republic  1980 “Republican motherhood” o During Colonial times, women knew they couldn’t vote but they played a part by their influence on their sons  Cult of Domesticity- women love and accept their role Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)  Daniel Cady o Father; lawyer in NY legislature and then in Congress in D.C. o Supreme court justice for NY state o Social activist and abolitionist- influences on daughter  Irritated by coverture  Goes to Johnstown Academy in NY until 16 yrs old o Coed school o Won prize for Greek at graduation  Applies to Troy female seminary- school of higher learning for men and women o Founded in 1821 by Emma Willard o Studied to become a teacher  Emphasized pedagogy (methods to teach) and content  History, geography, math, science  Gets married 1840 to Henry Stanton (attorney) o Wouldn’t say she will obey him in her vows at their marriage o “I promise to treat you as an equal in this relationship” o On honeymoon in London  International antislavery convention  Runs into an American- Lucretia Mott (Quaker and abolitionist)  All males were running the convention and they told her she couldn’t participate  Two groups of abolitionists- 1 just men (coverture); 1 men and women  William Lloyd Garrison (wrote Liberator) sits with the women in protest  Go to US- inspired to take on coverture  1848 Seneca Falls o Convention- beginning phase 1 of women’s movement o Leader- invites 250 women and 40 men o Declaration of sentiments  Framework of Declaration of Independence- elevates role of women, summary of coverture: ignorant men and foreigners can vote but not women, tyranny over her (p. 235, 236) o Depriving women of the right to go to school  Joan Burston  Men and physicians argued against women’s schooling; did not want women to challenge authority; female intuition + higher education dilutes and compromises female intuition and would leave them less of a woman Elizabeth Blackwell  Separation of spheres- Jean Jacque Rousseau- French philosopher  Alexis deToqueville- visited US in 1820s o Went home and wrote the book “Democracy in America”  Huge separation of males and females  American legal system, crime, employment opportunities st  McGuffey Reader- 1840s; stories about drinking “Beware the 1 drink”  Logan circle (Northwest Square) o Swann statue- named after Dr. Wison/William Swann  Leading temperance advocate in Philadelphia  Said people should drink water instead of alcoholfountains  Founder of Philadelphia fountain society  Chronic uterine cotar- Blackwell’s friend had it o Many women at this time had it o British medical journal- inflammation of the uterus  Back pain, irregular menstruation, ill health  JAMA- journal of American medical association o Doctors diagnosed women with this even though it might be something else o Medicine was not as sophisticated o Bed rest and sedatives were prescribed o Laudanum- aspirin of the time; opium and alcohol; addictive o Prescribed leeches- put them on foreheads and stomachs to get rid of the “bad blood” o Vaginal depositories- cotton and iron Women and higher education  Women’s intuition  Deductive vs. inductive logic o Deductive- general to specific which women were good at o Inductive- specific to general which people said women were bad at o The scientific method is inductive so people said women can’t be doctors  Women lack physical and moral stamina for statesmanship and politics o Physical- fatigued, stay up late o Moral- women are too emotional and reluctant (war, death)  Dr. Clarke said women who went into higher education would damage their reproductive organsdeleterious effect; become sterile  Classics o Exams to get into college that emphasized classics (Harvard, Yale) o Shakespeare, Iliad and Odyssey (Homer), Aeneid (Virgil); great works of literature an educated person should know o In the 19 century men believed women should not read the classics because they referred to violence, sex, and bodily functions  Thomas Bowdler wrote the family of Shakespeare- took out phrases that were inappropriate for women so they could read it; sensor- bowdler  Ex: MacBeth- cut out knocking at the door scene- what kind of a man are you (convo of alcohol of men) o Women didn’t do well on entrance exams  Darwin- Origin of Species o Survival of the fittest, natural selection o Convolution- women have less and a smaller brain o If women went into higher education they would gain more convolutions which would make it more like the male brainviolation of evolution o If you look at west Europe and the U.S. it is scientifically and technologically more advanced than any other placesuperior cultures: steel bridges, trains, cathedrals, paved roads o Separation of spheres dominates in W. Europe and U.S. but not in Asia and Africablurred separation of spheres o Women in college would remove the separation of spheres and make the society less superior and make them go backwards o English government prohibited women and children to work in mines; rider- prohibit higher education for women for protection Seven sister schools  Schools for women- liberal arts st  1. Mount Holyoke- Mary Lyons, 1836, 1 and oldest sister school, Ma  2. Vassar- 1861, NY, only 7 sister school that is coed  3. Wellesley- 1870, Ma  4. Smith- 1875, Ma  5. Bryn Mawr- 1880, Pa, let men in their grad school; only 7 sister school to open with a grad school  6. Barnard- 1889, NYC, sister school to Columbia  7. Radcliff- 1893, Ma, on Harvard’s campus Progressive Reforms  Good roads movement- 1880-1920s o Getting people to use bikes more; need for government to improve roads o Brick roads begin o People got sick from horse manure in cobblestoneasphalt o Good Roads Magazine- better roads; how to take care of a bike  Lincolnstighway o 1 major highway in the US o 1 national memorial for Lincoln o 3389 miles long o Starts in times square and ends in Lincoln Park, San Fransisco o Inspired by the Good Roads movementcars o Economic boost- tolls, tourism, motels, restaurants  Clara Barton o Civil war nurse o Angel of the battlefield o American Red Cross founder  Cars o Internal combustion engine- engine propelled by gas in car  1885 in Europe st  1 car- 1886 (Mercedes Benz) Germany o Henry Ford (1863-1947)  Brought cheap cars to U.S.  Ford motor company 1903  1 of the 1 people to perfect the assembly line for cars  Model T  Appeared October 1, 1908  Most popular; 4 cylinder  Steering wheel on left hand side- set standard for U.S.  $825- every year the cost dropped  By 1914, 250,000 Model Ts were sold  By 1916, cost dropped to $360  By 1918, ½ of all cars in U.S. were Model T cars  All original Fords were black  On assembly line cars were sprayed with paint and black paint dried fastest o 1913 the Lincoln Highway is finishedmany cars o Gasoline alley  Comic strip in Sunday newspaper- Nov 1918  By Frank King  Row homes did not have garages so there was a lot with garages to rent  Hangouts for men with cars  Gasoline alleys  Characters in comic strip went up to the 1960s (2 ndlongest comic strip in US)  Talked about cars  Women talked about the interior, ex: seat covers  Parallel to Dear Abby- q’s and a’s about cars  Main character- Walt Wallet  Married, car, gasoline alley  Skeezix- orphan left on Wallet’s doorstep and raised by him  In WWII; kids are referred to as skeezix  Sarge- in WW, knows the most about cars, mechanic; tells people how to fix cars  City Beautiful Movement 1890s-1920s o Settlement houses- white educated college women lived here and took care of immigrants; 6 or 7 families in 1 house o Knocked down tenement houses and built nicer houses o Beautifying the citypeople were more sentiment to the environment; civil virture- pride in city o Chicago 1893- Columbian Exhibition thorld’s fair)  Celebrated Columbus’ 400 anniversary of sailing to America  Was actually the 401 anniversary- wasn’t built in time  Filled in swamp area and built structures  Start of the city beautiful movement o Philadelphia  Knocked down houses and built the parkway  Art museum at end of parkway  Roosevelt Boulevard  Mayor 1903- authorized building  Torresdale boulevard- Broad st to lower NE  Samual Ashbridge- mayor of Philadelphia o Politician o Road bends b/c he had a friend with his farm to sell so the road bends through the farm  1914- extended to Pennypack creekNE boulevard  1918- went to Bucks CountyRoosevelt boulevard The West  West started to become completely settled  Frederick Remington 1861-1909 o Brought West to life through his paintings; friend of TR o Born in NY; had sketches of the west in Harper’s weekly o Native americans, buffalos, cowboys; popularized “buffalo soldiers” o Buffalo soldiers  African Americans stayed in the army after the civil war b/c it was a steady job  Went west to protect builders of the transcontinental railroad from Indians  Indians never saw blacks before and referred to them as buffalo soldiers  Curly hair like buffalos; buffalo skin coats o Short stories of buffalo soldiers o Did not like newly arriving immigrants (Italians, Jews) but liked African Americans because of their bravery in fighting o Covered the span-am war o Self-portrait on a horse- sent back East so people knew what the West looked like  Horse, dirt, rocks, cowboy, sunburnt, chaps- go over jeans (leather) to protect from horns of cattle and cacti, rifle- Winchester (have to cock it) most popular weapon for cowboys in the West- it is in front of him which shows the west is unstable and dangerous and you always have to be prepared  People in the east were scared o 4 sculptures of cowboys  Art of the West o “The Apache”  Native American tribe in SW of US  Indian is wearing a headband and is on a horse; he is about to ambush a Conestoga wagonIndians would wait for the settlers to break free of the wagon and then they would shoot the first horse so that it stops them and then he would shoot the driver  Depicts a developing countrynot a flattering image o “His Last Stand” 1890  2 cowboys with dogs are about to kill a bearit might have attacked their home or animals  The men are sunburnt, have kerchiefs on their face which they use to wipe off sweat and protect them from sandstorms o “The Apache Medicine Song” 1908  Apache are sitting around a fire; they are wearing loin cloths; they are medicine men  Depicts cultural hegemony- Indians are inferior to cultures of the East and have a low level of sophistication; Med schools in the West were professional o Thomas Moran (1837-1926)  Painted landscapes; first did engravings  Born in England, raised in Philly  Artwork of the Hudson river in NY; went out West and did paintings there  Ferdanand Hayden- led the geological (study of the earth) survey in 1871 to see what rocks were there and how big they wereshowed how old earth was  Sponsored by US gov  Invites Moran to go with him to do sketches of his investigations  Wyoming-yellow stone region- Moran goes back East and does paintings  National parks begin at this time  Yellowstone National Park 1872; opens right after Moran went there o “The Grand Canyon of Yellowstone”  Influenced the congressional bill initiating National Parks  Part of the conservation movement of the progressive era o “American Progress” John Gast 1872  Also called Manifest Destiny- East to West cultural and religious takeover of European America  Person floating over landscape symbolizes the US  Lady liberty/ lady Columbia  In right arm she has a book that is either the Bible or a symbol of education and civilization  Woman is the civilizing feature of American society o Take care of children, heart stone of family  Telegraph line in right arm that is parallel to the train o Communication  People are moving West  Various stages of development o Pony-express for mail; farmers; buffalo driven West by English- shows Indians will be destroyed b/c they rely heavily on the buffalo; Indians being driven off land into reservations  Indian sled- did not have wheels until the English introduced it  Bare breasted Native American vs. covered Lady Liberty o Two theories of how Native Americans came to America  Landbridge from Russia to Alaska then traveled to south America  Came by boat from pacific DNA evidence o TR wrote a book called the Ranch Life about experiences out West and Remington did the illustrations Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)  Born into slavery in VA on a plantation owned by James Burrough  Mother- Jane, black; father- white, know nothing about him (nothing in biography)  Stepfather- Ferguson  After civil war (1865) his mother and step father are set free  They go to West VA and Washington starts getting odd jobs, he is a bright kid  His parents decide he needs to go to a formal school  Goes to Hampton Institute in VA o Founded in 1865 o practical subjects, curriculum for teachers and agriculture o After the civil war, many black colleges opened  General Samuel Armstrong o Parents were missionaries, he was raised in Hawaii o Parents opened school for Hawaiians and taught practical subjects o Armstrong goes back to US and is supportive of the abolition movement o Founded the Hampton Institute o Studies mechanical skills, carpentry, farming (and liberal arts) o Becomes spokesman for African Americansthey need education of practical subjects o Founder of Tuskegee Institute (1881) in Alabama  Wanted people to get practical knowledge men and women  Home economics, consumer science o Wrote “Up from Slavery” (1901)  Invited to speak at convention in Atlanta (1895) o Atlanta Compromise Speech  Convention of mostly white men  Social aspectsblacks and whites as separate as the fingers on a hand Mutual progressone as the hand  White people should not worry about forced integration  Blacks will work for them and they will all make money  Whites will get to know workers and won’t mind them  Separate but equal  Whites loved his speechdoesn’t try to overcome Jim Crow laws right away  Accommodation Approach- long view  After the civil war, blacks were treated well for 5-10 years but then the KKK and the Jim Crow laws (segregation) arose  Story- sea captain is sailing off the coast of S. America and doesn’t have any water; sees another ship passing by and they tell them to cast down their buckets because there is fresh water in the Amazon b/c of the salt line  Just as the captain didn’t know the water was fresh, immigrants don’t know American culture so they should hire blacks to work instead  Endorses Plessy Ferguson  Must be separate accommodations on railroad cars but equal ones  Head of railroad didn’t like this because they lost money  Citizens Committee to test the separate car act o Homer Plessy- octaroon (1/8 black, looks white) sits in white car and gets kicked off and arrested o Case goes to supreme court and they rule that this th th does not break the 13 and 14 amendments (bans slavery, equal protection)  Overturned in 1954 by Brown vs Topeca (school board) o Chose Plessy b/c it challenged separate but equal and raised the issue of what it meant to be black W.E.B. DuBois  Born in MA in 1868; not a slave  Grew up in an integrated community  20 years oldFisk University (black university in Tennessee)  Ph.D. at Harvard- 12st African American  Came to philly with his wife and was an adjunct professor at Penn o They would not give him a full time job or tenure but did publish his book  The Philadelphia Negro- 1899 o UPenn Press published it o Philadelphia had the highest concentration of African Americans of all northern cities th o DuBois moved to the 7 ward and studied it o His book included the numbers of African Americans that lived there, their conjugal condition (number married, number having kids), occupations, health, literacy, statistics (new history), church, crime, pauperism, alcoholism, interracial marriage o Used a map like in Hull House Maps and Papers  Difference between Washington and DuBois o DuBois wanted equality now not long term change o Talented tenth- the 10% of educated, top, smartest African American males that DuBois said all blacks should identify with and subsidize  Give them an education so that they can become their voice and leaders to become integrated and their inspiration to penetrate the glass ceiling  Niagara Movement  Institute of Negro literature and art o Black cultural naturalism through black arts o Emphasizing Harlem Renaissance  1920s-1930s; place and period of time where African Americans began congregating (writers, poets, musicians)  The New Negro- edited by Alain Locke  Contributed to it (essays; ex: “The New Negro”)  Not looking back at slavery but forward to art and literature  Collection of info of black arts  The Great Migration 1917  Blacks go to cities from the south  Magazine luring blacks out of the south  Agriculture was becoming mechanized o No jobs o Ball weevil insect attacked cotton crop  Albert Barnes  `Barnes museum- art collector; 100s of paintings by French impressionists  Doctor  Put paintings on display in house o Law suit to move them to center city (2 years ago)  1 of the only white people to write about African Americans o “Negro Art in America”  “The Souls of Black Folk” o Written in 1903 right after the Philadelphia Negro was published which was written for black and white academics o collection of 14 stories o This was written for the average black  Marcus Garvey o Black nationalist; said people should identify with people in Africa Handout  May 1919 o Fought in France vs Germany o US in war in 1917; Pres Wilson o Blacks were forced to fight for the US even though they were put through lynching and disfranchisement and were put in castes and denied the right to vote o When they returned from the war, where they wore uniforms, they were in civil guard and still were put through the prejudice toward African Americans o DuBois attacks lynching and how blacks are denied education o He says they are cheated and then given charity and are derived of their property o Whites say it’s the blacks fault for all of this o Blacks were not allowed to travel where they wanted, to live or work where they wanted and were segregated o DuBois said its time to fight the war against segregation and to make way for Democracy Nat Turner Focus Questions 1. Incentives that slave masters used to establish and maintain discipline and cooperation included extra food, time off, hiring out, and the like. Punishments included liberal use of lashing. 2. Southampton County, VA had a population that consisted of 60% blacks, but whites still owned slaves. 1700 were considered free blacks. Blacks still could not receive an education. The slaves in this area revolted under the lead of Nat Turner. 3. Nat Turner was an African American who was born into slavery. From a young age, his mother knew he was brilliant. His parents tried to raise them as religiously as they could. Nat Turner was short, slender, and broad shoulders, and had a mustache. 4. The Black Church in Turner’s community was a slave church “beyond the white man’s control.” It was a center for underground slave plottings against the master class but a focal point for an entire alternate culture- subterranean cultures that the slaves sought to construct. 5. Turner’s visions began when he thought judgment day was quickly approaching. He saw drops of blood on corn and hieroglyphics etched on leaves. 6. David Walker’s appeal called the slaves to actually revolt. The VA legislature made a law against teaching the slaves to read and write. 7. The 1 house attacked by Turner and his band of slaves was the Travis homestead. They arrived at the house and drank (except turner) and went with axes throughout the house. Will killed Travis. The others killed the other 4 whites in the house. They then attacked other houses but spared a few whites because Turner believed the poor white inhabitants “thought no better of themselves than they did of the negroes.” 8. Nat Turner killed only 1 person. His band of slaves killed the rest. He killed Margaret Whitehead by beating her to death with a fence. 9. John Floyd responded by saying an insurrection never occurred. 10.White vigilantes responded to the insurrection by holding intense searches and offering rewards for Turner’s death. 11.Floyd also believed black ministers as well as Yankee agitators probably because of the civil war. 12.On Nov. 5 , Turner went to trial and was found guilty for the insurrection. He was sentenced to be hanged. 48 other slaves were also tried along with Turner for various accounts. 18 of them were convicted and hanged. 10 were convicted and transported. 13.Some southerners believed Garrison was ultimately responsible for the insurrection because he was a Boston writer who demanded that all slaves should be set free immediately. They wanted future revolts to be prevented so some whites in VA petitioned to end the slave system and colonize the Blacks together. 14.S 15.D Elizabeth Blackwell Focus Questions 1. ---Some women mobilized to turn the doctrine of separate spheres to their own ends… “by using it as a pretext for an expanded public role.” They campaigned against prostitution (purity) because it spread diseases and caused husbands to cheat. They mounted an attack on intemperance (domestic violence) and this was part of the temperance movement (no alcohol). They also added their voices to the growing crusade for abolition (slavery). They confronted male domination. 2. ---Blackwell had an extraordinary perfect feminist upbringing. She was born in England and was the 3 of 9 children. Her father taught equality for all people: workers, slaves, and women. She and her brothers had the same opportunities. She became interested in the abolition. Some irony was that her father owned a sugar-refining business and the sugar was made by slaves and he was an advocate for equality. His daughters would not eat the sugar. 3. Blackwell was opposed to slavery. Escaped slaves hid at their house. She joined the Abolitionist Vigilance Society, Anti-slavery working society, the Ladies anti-slavery society, and the NY anti-slavery Society. 4. ---Blackwell considered being a physician after her friend died who told her she was “fond of study and has health and leisure; why not study medicine?” Females were more comfortable around female doctors and more tended to. Her friend who died had a uterine disorder. 5. ---The average woman had 15-20 lbs of clothing with a severely constricted waist with corsets. Women could not do much more than walk. They would become bored and be driven into hysterics. 6. ---The strategy Blackwell used to gain acceptance to Castleton Medical College was to write letters and include names of schools who turned her down and their excuses. It made it seem like those people would be pleased if someone else accepted her. 7. ---Blackwell lost her sight because she was treating a baby who had purulent opthalmia (an acute form of inflammation containing pus, usually of gonorrheal origin) and some of the fluid she was injecting into the baby’s eyes squirted into her eyes. She contracted the same disease and became blind in one eye and had impaired vision in the other. 8. ---The core concepts in Blackwell’s Laws of Life, which was written in 1852 and was based on a series of her lectures, were that the whole development of a female child was toward one goal- motherhood and they should follow 4 rules. Exercise regularly, live in an orderly fashion, try to blend the life of the soul and body, and always put her body to proper use. She doesn’t fracture the separation of spheres. 9. ---The administration and functioning of the NY infirmary for Indigent Women and children was run for women by women. At the time they needed male doctors. Women were on the board of trustees and executive committees, and there were 3 women physicians. 10.The attitude of the US army toward female nurses and physicians during the civil war was hostile. Blackwell said they were too jealous for them to take their true place. 11.---The core concepts in Blackwell’s Counsel to Parents on the Moral Education of their children, which appeared in 1879, were that sexual activity began at too early an age and damaged moral development but girls and boys had a natural passion and there must be a single standard for both. She said sex was noble and should be venerated. She said there should be purity in life of both sexes and that reason should control emotions. The counsel to parents was controversial for being printed. 12.The relationship between Elizabeth Blackwell and Kitty Barry was….. Theodore Roosevelt 1. ---The first 2 decades of the 20 century are often called the Progressive era. There was a diverse group of reformers who sought to correct social, economic, and political problems of the guilded age. The government became more involved in lives. Laissez faire- hands off; unbridled capitalism. 2. ---The progressives operated at all levels of government and brought about various reforms. In major cities, mayors attacked political corruption and instituted a host of measures designed to improve public life: opened parks and beaches, lowered utility rates, regulated transit systems, improved municipal services. Some governors reformed states: reform electoral practices, curb corporate abuses, and protect state forests. Pengring (Detroit)- was one of the top 5 best mayors in the US Johnson (Cleveland)- member of the house of representatives, authorized use of money to pay for Johnstown flood in the 1890s in Pa (dam broke, over 2000 people drowned). The Red Cross mobilized for the first time. There was a tax on liquor imposed to help clean up which was supposed to last 1 year but it was never rescinded. The transfer was invented because they wanted more people to use public transportation. Robert Lafollette protected state forests from developers. 3. ---Roosevelt was short and his chest size was 42 inches. Some people said he was physically and mentally 2 strong men combined, his appetite was enough for 4 people and his mind moved 10x faster than average. He was high wired and was funny and full of electricity. He was awarded the Magna Cumlaude which was given if one had a GPA of at least 3.60. 4. Edmund Morris said “Humor, indeed, was always TR’s saving grace” because if he didn’t have it he would be misperceived as a simple minded, amiable bully. 5. ---Roosevelt was an author of considerable accomplishment. He also loved to read. He wrote biographies, a 4 volume history of the winning of the west, and a history of the naval war of 1812, volumes of history, natural history, literary criticism, autobiographies, political philosophy, and military memoirs. He wrote about 75,000 letters. He read 1 to 3 books a day. He could recite poetry in many languages. Roosevelt was a boxer champ at Harvard, and a cowboy briefly. He was also a police commissioner of NYC. He lead the rough riders in the Span-Am war, was a colonel and designed uniforms, and lead the attack up San Jaun Hill. Roosevelt was also a governor of NY state. He was VP and then became President when McKinley was assassinated. He was also a scientist. He was an ornithologist (birds), a paleontologist (fossils), and a taxidermist. He was an authority on big game mammals- fair chase ethics. He was also one of the founders of the Boone Crockett Club which was a conservationist group in 1887 and focused on monitoring big game hunting. It focused on overpopulation and assessed how many deer a place could hold and had records of how many were killed. He believed in fair chase ethics which said you had to use the proper gun to shoot an animal. Ex: deer hunting with a 22 was illegal because it was hard to kill with that. Roosevelt was a renaissance man (well rounded: scientist, naval warfare, languages, author). 6. ---Morris said the first major character theme for TR was aggression. He could never get enough air (asthma), said disease had to be destroyed, and read big textbooks to gain knowledge. TR had asthma and would sleep sitting up. He took up boxing to overcome his asthma, and he watched animals fight each other. From this, he learned about survival of the fittest. He was also a cowboy after his wife and mother died and became a conservationist. TR went to Harvard and then Columbia University law school where he was taught by John W. Burgess. Columbia was an anglosaxon school of history. The anglosaxons were white protestants who went from Germany to England and became the English. Columbia emphasized Darwin’s idea of survival of the fittest. TR believed that domination was inevitable and certain nations are destined to rule others. Manifest destiny was the belief that the US had a God given right to go across the country from coast to coast and impose American culture and religion (Anglosaxon, Protestantism). John L. O’Sullivan (1813-1895) was born on a ship and his father was a naturalized citizen. He went to Columbia University. In 1837 he founded the magazine the Democratic review. It contained political essays and literature. Annexation means to merge or take over. US was at war with Mexico and in 1845 when the war ended, O’Sullivan said the US had the right to take over the western part of Mexico (California, Arizona, Nevada). This was the first time the term manifest destiny was used. 7. ---TR was also self-righteous. He entered adolescence with no sexual or psychological doubts at all. His 3 great bereavements came too late and reminded him to be strong, honest, clean-living, and industrious. 8. TR was known for his pride. He had great pride as an American and an aristocrat. He preferred to work with those who were coarse but efficient rather than polished but weak. He wanted to be a member of the governing class even though it was socially beneathe him. He believed in the “aristocracy of worth” and cherished the revolution. 9. He was also known for his militarism. He loved war but was not associated with it. He won the Nobel peace prize for bringing the war to an end. He had military influences and developed an interest in strategy and tactics. He understood that great battles were fought by thinking men and that mental courage is superior to physical bravado. He also said the pen was mightier than the sword. 10.Roosevelt assumed the presidency in 1901 by his aggression, righteousness, pride, and militarism. He assumed it “strongly, as befits a strong character and a strong chief executive.” 11.The 4 character themes manifested themselves immediately after being sworn into presidency. Aggression: raised his hand high above his head and repeated the oath confidently. Righteousness: “And so I swear”. Pride: said his two senior cabinet officers promised him loyalty even though they were thinking of resigning. Militarism: armed escort of cavalrymen, seen with NY state adjutant general. 12.The political benefits and liabilities of Roosevelt dining with the Black educator and activist, Booker T. Washington were that the public was horrified but 9 million negroes became loyal to Roosevelt overnight. This was aggressive because he overcame a 100 year prejudice. It was righteous because it was for moral reasons and he was proud of it and advertised it. 13.Roosevelt prided himself in inviting an interesting mix of dinner guests to the White House. He invited Rough Riders, poets, British viscounts, wolf hungers, Roman Catholic cardinals and treated them all with gentlemanly respect and naturalness. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for successfully bringing the war to an end. The Teddy Bear: There was a dispute between Mississippi and Louisiana and their border and Andrew Longeno, the Mississippi governor invited Roosevelt to hunt with him to resolve the dispute. Longeno tied a small bear to a tree so TR could shoot it but he wouldn’t because he was a conservationist and a supporter of the fair chase ethics. In 1902 Clifford Berryman made a cartoon in the Washington Post about the event called “Drawing the line in Mississippi.” Someone sold bears in their candy shop and started calling them teddy bears after TR. The first measured century th 1. 1893 Columbian Exhibition (Chicago)-world fair celebrating the 400 anniversary of Columbus’ arrival to the new world (actually the 401 st anniversary b/c it wasn’t built in time); 27 million visitors; displayed achievements of the country; largest world fair up until that point; meeting of the American historical society. It began in the 1880s and was a professional organization. It was a group of academics that met once a year and presented papers and panels. The Turner Thesis was presented here. 2. Frederick Turner Jackson- Professor from the University of Wisconsin; 1861- 1932; talked about the disappearing frontier; Wisconsin was unpopulated at the time; he studied with Herbert Baxter Adams at Johns Hopkins which was one of the first universities to offer a Ph.D. Adams studied in Germany and developed the Germ theory of American History. It said that when the first European settlers came to the US they brought with them their culture and institutions so the east of the US was a carbon copy of England. They had the same ideas of family, court system, and institutions. Turner was a student of Adams and disagreed with his Germ Theory. He presented a paper about it at the world fair called the Turner Thesis also called the frontier thesis. This said that when the English came, they dealt with challenges such as geography, weather, food, and the Indians that weren’t present in England. This forced their culture to change. By the second generation, the culture was different. Each movement across the US changed people even more and the American character developed. Three characteristics developed: individuality, creativity, and practicality. Individuality developed because as they went across the unsettled west they improvised as they moved. Women’s role also became different. They dressed differently and had equal jobs to men. The separation of spheres began to break down. Creativity developed because they came up with new inventions. Practicality developed because they had to be simple and start from scratch. They were also not artistic because of this. There was a nervous energy about the settlers because they were always on the move. People were upset about the 1890 census (happens every 10 years for the electoral college, 1 one in 1790). Turner worried that if the frontier line disappeared and challenges disappeared then America would become more like Europe. America began industrializing which made new challenges arise. John Kennedy had a policy of the New Frontier. Cities had the most growth and immigrants had social and economic freedom. 3. The New History- term given to history studied around 1900; uses statistics and numbers and pointed toward political intervention; history went from storytelling of problems to government intervention and solving problems; history starts studying disenfranchised groups such as labor, African Americans, immigrants, family, and education; based on data and social science. 4. American exceptionalism- America stands apart from the rest of the world because of its beliefs and culture; it was a more unique, open, sociable society affected by class structure. There were great opportunities and was an Agrarian society (agriculture). 5. Eugenics- the belief that you could improve the human condition and improve the human stock by careful breeding 6. Franz Boas- scientist who went to the Arctic circle and studied eskimos; he began to develop the important concept of anthropology and said we have no right to look down on other cultures. All cultures are equally complex and important and the “culturally developed individual” is relative. He was a professor of anthropology at Columbia and a German Jewish immigrant. He is considered the father of American Anthropology (study of culture). He studied 18,000 immigrant children and observed how the environment changed their looks and made them look more American. He said the environment plays a key role in shaping people. 7. H.H. Goddard- American scientist who promoted the new intelligence quotient (IQ test). He outlined a scale for the test and added the moron scale. Morons were still able to function (vote, reproduce) and this upset anti-immigrants. 8. Lewis Terman- from Stanford; He developed the IQ test. It was culturally biased. Gathered a huge sample of people to test it on. He worked with Yerkes a psychologist to give the army recruits the IQ test. There was the alpha written test and the beta verbal and visual test. The test was culturally biased (tennis court, light bulb, rabbit) so immigrants got low scores which suggested low intelligence. 9. Scientific racism- cultural bias, immigrants had low IQ scores so restrictions were put on immigration. It said immigrants were biologically inferior: skin, language, religion, not readily accepted. In 1924, a bill was passed (1924 Immigration act/ Johnson Reed Act) that said the flow of future immigrants should be 2% of the census in 1980. It was lifted in 1965 after 40 years by Linden Johnson. Horace Kallen was the founder of cultural pluralism which said immigrants should never give up their cultural traditions but should also learn how to be an American. One reason he said this was because of pop consumer culture. It was not polished like other cultures. The opposite of cultural pluralism was the melting pot crowd who were assimilationists. Nativists were native to American and were against cultural pluralism. 10.Zangwill, The Melting Pot- Jewish immigrant playwright and political activist; wrote the broadway play the melting pot which was about many groups, languages, histories, hatreds, and rivalries. He popularized terms such as “God’s crucible” saying God is making the American by blending cultures all together. 11.Settlement houses- several families lived in 1 apartment with little sanitation, ventilation, sunlight, and a lot of disease. There was a path for civic improvement. Groups of volunteer educated white women began settlement houses which were like dorms for middle to upper class women to live and work. They began in England and the first one in America was in NYC. Educated white women worked there for a year or two and they were located in areas with a lot of immigrants; women taught immigrant moms how to take care of their kids, had classes at night to teach English and the monetary system, American history and civics (politics). These classes prepared them to take the test to become a citizen. 12.Hull House- 1889; founded by Jane Addams; Chicago 13.Jane Addams- founded Hull House, aided and educated immigrant neighbors 14.Julia Lathrop- appointed chief of the children’s bureau and was the first woman to head a federal agency. She was one of the original members of the Hull House and was also a co-author of Hull House Maps and Papers. This had statistics, interviews, jobs, salary, and religion of those who lived in Hull House. She believed in the need for statistics and the power of data. This was part of the Progressive era. W.E.B. Du Bois 1. ---Du Bois’ accommodation approach was the separate but equal notion. Segregation would eventually end but not yet. He said in social aspects blacks and whites can be separate as the fingers on a hand but with issues dealing with mutual progress they should be one as the hand. He also said whites should hire blacks instead of immigrants. 2. “One ever feels his twoness-An American, A negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings…” When Du Bois says this he meant that as a black he wanted full participation in the larger American society and demanded the abolition of all caste distinctions based simply on race and color but he also exhibited a nationalist side with a strong sense of group pride and racial unity. 3. ---Du Bois was born in MA in 1868 and grew up in an integrated community. He went to Fisk University in Tennessee which was a black university. He was the first African American to get a Ph.D. at Harvard. In 1899, he wrote the Philadelphia Negro. 4. In 1903, DuBois publicly attacked Booker T. Washington’s attitudes towards race. He denounced the Tuskegean for condoning white racism and for shifting to blacks the major blame for their deprivation. He charged that the accommodationist Tuskagean had brought together the South, the North, and the blacks in a monumental compromise that “practically accepted the alleged inferiority of the Negro.” He said social justice could not be achieved through flattering racist whites and blacks could not gain their rights by voluntarily tossing them away and belittling themselves. 5. Washington used various strategies to counter the effects of the Niagara Movement. He used political patronage to strengthen their hand and considered having Niagara men fired from their federal jobs. Speeches were regularly monitored and he planted spies to report what was happening at the conventions. Tuskegean subsidized key black journals in cities where his opponents were especially active and justified hammering the movement with the race press. 6. Members of the Niagara Movement attacked President Roosevelt because of his unfair treatment of the soldiers. There was a race riot in Atlanta and then in Brownsville, Texas, three companies of black soldiers were dishonorably discharged on unproven charges of “shooting up” the Texas town. The movement issued an “Address to the World.” 7. DuBois played a major role in the NAACP. He was the only black in the inner circle. He served as the embodiment of militant protest, the link to the small band of black “radicals,” and the symbol to the public of demonstrably successful interracial cooperation. He was also the NAACP’s chief propagandist. As director of Publicity and Research, he founded the Crisis in 1910 8. After the death of Booker T. Washington, DuBois took a more centrist view of race relations, especially in terms of WWI. Yet in the wake of how African- American soldiers were treated after they returned from the war, DuBois changed his position yet again. With increasing urbanization and educational attainment and more migration to the North, growing numbers of blacks by WWI were embracing Du Bois’s doctrine of agitation and protest. However, after Washington’s death his view shifted gears to a more centrist position. He hoped that the return of peace blacks would be rewarded for their contributions to the war and urged blacks to “forget our special grievances and close ranks” with white Americans in the battle against Europe. However, Du Bois became enraged when he learned that black soldiers were being discriminated against by the American military establishment and other white citizens. 9. Pan-Negroism said that regardless of what nation one lived in, Africans and their descendants had a common identity and should feel an emotional commitment to one another. It said American blacks should have a special attachment to Africa as the race’s “greater fatherland” and “the Negro people as a race have a contribution to make to civilization and humanity, which no other race can make” and that blacks’ mission was to soften the whiteness of the culture. 10.---DuBois’ purpose behind the Institute of Negro Literature and Art was that he was determined to harness the race’s creative strivings and said blacks had the power to build a “new and great Negro ethos.” They could bring forth a flood of artistry and literary creation based on themes in black life and black history. Blacks could also enrich themselves and America by defining their own standards of beauty, rather than permitting whites to define them. 11.In 1961, DuBois joined the Communist Party and moved to Ghana. Yet shortly after his departure from the US, his reputation soared. He gradually identified himself with pro-Russian causes and drifted further from the main currents of black thinking at the time. He was tried in federal court on charges of being an unregistered agent of a foreign power. He then became so disillusioned by the US that he officially joined the Communist party and moved to Ghana. After his departure from the US, his reputation soared and he was transformed into a prophet. He had many contributions to the militant integrationist phase of the black direct-action protest movement. He died on August 27, 1963. This date is significant because it was the day that one quarter of a million people gathered at the March on Washington. 12.The Philadelphia Negro (1899)- the first in depth case study of a black community in the US; only through agitation and protest could social change ever come 13.Talented Tenth- the college trained leadership cadre responsible for elevating blacks economically and culturally 14.Niagra Movement- members included people mainly from the ranks of northern college-educated professional men; held annual meetings for 5 years (1905); issued declarations of protest to white America; direct contrast to Washington (denouncing inequalities of the separate but equal doctrine, the unfairness of the disfranchisement laws, and the notion that blacks were contentedly climbing from slavery by “natural and gradual processes”); Niagara platforms wer sharp and vigorous telling whites that they had caused the “Negro Problem” and insisted that blacks should protest; Negros need sympathy, help, protection, leadership; leaders said they wanted to be in close touch with the people and with intimate knowledge of their thoughts and feelings”; believed in freedom of speech and criticism and an unfettered and unsubsidized press 15.NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; hoped to end race discrimination; Du Bois was the principal black founder and the most prominent Niagara veteran connected with the organization; membership was overwhelmingly black but was largely white funded and white-dominated 16.Crisis (1910)- magazine with issues of African Americans; Du Bois wrote an article in it called “Returning Soldiers” 17.“Returning Soldiers” 1919- black units of soldiers were fighting for the US in Europe; they were shocked at how well they were received by Europeans (no racism); when they returned to the US there was a lot of racism even though they were fighting for them 18.Marcus Garvey- famous black separatist leader; black nationalist leader of the 1910’s and 1920’s who advocated racial separatism and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association 19.Negro Cooperative Guild- hoped to set up retail stores, cooperative warehouses, and even banks; Du Bois began advocating black consumers’ and producers’ cooperatives as a basic weapon for fighting discrimination and poverty


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