Psy 155 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psy 155 Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 155
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 155 at La Salle University taught by Vincent Tarducci in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Psych exam 1 study guide History and Research Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Nature/Nurture debate- dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment); interactionist approach- both affect it Psychological subfields o Physiological- neurons, hormones, brain, nervous systems, genetics, chemistry o Psychodynamic- treat mental illnesses, addiction, marriage, and family o Developmental- life span o School- student, learning disabilities, struggles with classes o Educational- environment, curriculum, products, books o Cognitive- thoughts, perception, information processing, dreams, memories, problem solving, feelings, intelligence o Forensic- psychology and the law, behavioral analysis o Social- how a person or group influence the behaviors and thoughts of another person or group Operational definition- precise definition so it can be repeated Experiment- cause and effect o Independent variable- manipulated o Dependent variable- measured o Control group- does not receive independent variable o Experimental group- does receive independent variable o Placebo effect- fake substance, allows you to combat participant expectations Naturalistic Observation- studying things in their natural environment; advantages- genuine look at them in natural environment; disadvantages- when you know you’re being watched you act differently, have to make sure no one sees you Survey- asks about attitude toward something Case Study- in depth research study on something very rare and usually biological; Phinneas Gage- pole through head Correlation- scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find the relationship between the two; no cause and effect o Correlational coefficient- a number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables, r, ranges from +1.00 to -1.00 o Positive correlation- both go up or both go down o Negative correlation- one goes up and one goes down o Strength of the correlation- r=1 perfect, r=0 no relationship, r=0.1-0.3 weak, r=0.7-0.9 strong, r=0.4-0.6 moderate Physiological/Biological Psychology Neuron- cell of the nervous system responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information; basic building block of the nervous system; each one sends and receives signals; held together by glial cells The Neuron’s major parts and their functions o Dendrites o Axon o Cell body o Nucleus o DNA o Myelin o Terminal Branches o Vesicles o Synapse o Neurotransmitters o Receptor Sites o Axon Hillock o Nodes of Ranvier Refractory Period- a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation. Neurotransmitters- regulate actions of glands and muscles, promote sleep or stimulate mental/physical alertness; affect learning, memory, motivation, emotions, and psychological disorders such as schizophrenia and depression o Dopamine- pleasure centers, addiction, schizophrenia and parkinsons o Serotonin- mood, low levels= depression o Acetylcholine- memory and muscle contractions, alzheimers o GABA- #1 inhibitory, anxiety o Endorphins- pain killers Autonomic Nervous System (peripheral) o Sympathetic- mobilizes body; fight or flight o Parasympathetic- calms body, restores energy Parts of the brain and their functions o Medulla- autonomic functions; breathing, heart, digestion o Cerebellum- balance; initiation of smooth movement o Thalamus- sensory relay system; all information from the senses except olfaction goes to the thalamus o Hypothalamus- hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression drives o Amygdala- emotional memories, smell and hearing o Hippocampus- new memory information Lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions o Occipital- vision o Frontal- higher level cognitive functions; emotions, solving complex problems o Temporal- hearing o Parietal- skin senses; temperature, pain, pressure Sensations/Perceptions Sensations vs. perceptions o Sensations- raw data is processed by sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue) o Perception- sensations are processed in the brain Absolute threshold- smallest amount of a stimulus needed to detect that stimulus is present Difference threshold- point of just noticeable difference Sensory adaptation- repeated or constant stimulation decreases the number of sensory messages sent to the brain, which causes decreased sensation (dog smell, watch, glasses) Gate control theory- pain sensations are processed and altered by mechanisms in the spinal cord; the gate keeper allows pain through or blocks it from entering; two mechanisms control the gate- input from other skin senses may take over pathways that pain impulses would have used (rubbing eases pain, scratching relieves itching) and the brain can close the gate by descending signals to the spinal cord Trichromatic theory of color vision- long wavelength cones- blue, medium wavelength cones- green, short wavelength cones- yellow/red; color TV screens, can’t explain after image Opponent process theory of color vision- color sensitive visual elements are grouped into 3 pairs: red-green, blue-yellow, black-white; each of the three color sensitive elements are organized as pairs where each pair member opposes or inhibits the other; each element signals one color of the other but never both Conduction deafness- the middle ear bones fuse so they cannot properly amplify vibrations; break bones apart and replace with plastic; use hearing aids Nerve deafness- damage to the hair cells of the auditory nerve, often after intensive vibrations from very loud sounds; hearing aids do not help Olfaction and gustation and flavor- sense of smell and sense of taste= flavor; most of the properties that make food taste good are actually odors detected by the olfactory system Overt versus covert orienting- overt- listening intentionally; covert- shifts one’s focus, unintentional Voluntary versus involuntary attention- voluntary- deliberately focusing on something; involuntary- attention is shifted toward another activity without conscious effort or against will Inattentional blindness- when you are so keened into something that you don’t notice something else Figure-Ground organizational visual cliff- figure is what you can see/the meaningful information; the ground is everything else Bottom up vs top down processing o Bottom-up- feature detectors, specialized neurons, step by step process, look for specific detailed info and pull all the pieces together o Top-down- schemas (files of the brain), prior knowledge, past experience, expectations; based on past experiences, know/assume States of Consciousness 4 levels of consciousness- iceberg o Top, peak above water= conscious level o Right below water= preconscious level (easily brought to the mind; memories) o Big part= unconscious level, fears, wishes, wants, drives (unaware) o Part that goes through all three sections= nonconscious (physiological processes) Sleep disorders o Insomnia- can’t fall or stay asleep o Apnea- difficulty breathing; disrupts sleep cycle o Narcolepsy- randomly fall into REM sleep o SIDS- sudden infant death syndrome, sleeping baby stops breathing and dies o REM behavior disorder- don’t have paralysis during REM and act out dreams; dangerous Drug terminology o Substance abuse- problems associated with use of drug; ex: fighting, late to work, etc. o Withdrawal- vicious symptoms when you stop taking the drug o Tolerance- need more and more of the drug over time for the same effect; can lead to overdose o Psychological dependence- use to gain a sense of well-being; need it to feel good and you’re preoccupied on how to get the drug o Physical dependence- addiction; get withdrawal symptoms without it Drug categories o Stimulant- increases NS activity; caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, MDMA (meth, ecstasy) o Depressant- decreases NS activity; alcohol, barbiturates, GHB (date rape drug) o Opiate- mimics endorphins (pain killers); heroin, morphine, opium, codeine o Hallucinogen- makes one hallucinate; LSD, shrooms Dream theories o Wish-fulfillment/Psychodynamic- dreams were the road to the unconscious o Activation synthesis- dreams are meaningless; random neurons firing presenting images o Problem solving- “just sleep on it”; look at problems while you’re sleeping o Fundamental process- dreams serve as mental house cleaning Manifest versus latent content o manifest-what you dream o latent content- what your dream means, hidden interpretation Sleep stages and REM stages o 4 or 5 90 min cycles o Alert/awake- beta waves o Drowsy/relaxation- alpha waves o Hypnagogic state o Stage 1- asleep o Stage 2- deeper sleep; sleep spindles o Stage 3 and 4- deep sleep; delta waves o Rapid eye movement- lengthens over time; more likely to wake up the longer you sleep; where most of dreams happen; paralysis; correlated with learning/development (infants have the most REM sleep) Stress, Health, and Coping Eustress and distress o Eustress- pleasant, positive o Distress- unpleasant Sources of stress o Cataclysmic events- personal stressors and background stressors o Chronic- cancer o Life-changes/strains- moving, having a baby, new job, new school, vacation SRRS- subjectivity, not accurate o Daily hassles- woke up late o Burnout o PTSD- flashbacks; ex: think fireworks are gunshots o Frustration 4 types of conflict o Approach-approach- must choose between two or more favorable alternatives o Avoidance-avoidance- must choose between two or more unpleasant alternatives both of which lead to negative results Hans Syle’s general adaptation syndrome- reaction to chronic stress o Alarm reaction o Resistance o Exhaustion Emotion focused coping vs problem focused coping o Emotion focused- when dealing with stress, you use techniques that change your mood but don’t really deal with the issue; ex: watching TV or exercising and putting off studying; sometimes if used too much it can lead to addiction and coping with drugs, alcohol or smoking o Problem focused- actually deal with the problem head on; emotion changes once the problem is solved so this is the best coping method
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