GEO_1110_Minerals_and_Igneous_Rocks_Study_Guide GEO 1110
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ang Judd on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 1110 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. John Mac Lean in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Minerals Must be: Naturally occurring Inorganic (not carbon based) Solid Have a specific chemical formula Have a specific internal structure Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness: resistance to scratching Mohs Hardness Scale 10 Diamonds 9 Corundum 8 Topaz 7 Quartz Glass 6 K-Feldspar 5 Apatite Steel Nail 4 Flourite 3 Calcite Penny 2 Gypsum 1 Talc Fingernail Breakage Patterns Cleavage: break along planes of weakness Fracture: broken randomly Habit or Crystal Form How the crystals grow when they have enough space Density and Specific Gravity The "heftyness" of a speciman- how heavy it is Magnetism If it's magnetic Miscellaneous Properties Smell- sulfar Taste- salty Texture- wet/soapy feel Optical Properties of Minerals Color Streak: the color of the powder produced when a speciman is rubbed on a piece of white Luster: metallic, earthy, pearly Chemical Properties of Minerals Reaction with Acid: some minerals react to weak acids Variability: Hardness and color vary from sample to sample Igneous Rocks Olivine completely crystalizes, then Pyroxene crystalizes and so on. As temperatures decrease there is less and less Ca Plagioclase in the rock Coarse Crystals: Big; Phaneritic; Intrusive Rock, made from magma cooling slowly Fine Crystals: Little; Aphanite; Extrusive Rock, made from lava cooling quickly Magma: inside of the earth Lava: outside of the earth Texture Chemistry Coarse Crystal Fine Crystal Ultramafic ≤40% silica Peridotite Kamatite Green/Black Mafic ≈50% silica Gabbro Basalt Intermediate ≈60% silica Diorite Andesite Felsic ≈70% silica Granite Rhyolite Pink/White Textures Examples Glassy Obsidian Fragmented Tuff Coarse Crystal Granite Fine Crystal Basalt Porphyritic Porphyry
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