Psy 155 Exam 2 Study Guide
Psy 155 Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 155
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 155 at La Salle University taught by Vincent Tarducci in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Developmental Theories Prenatal development stages and teratogens o Germinal stage Week 1 to 3 Zygote Embryo Placenta Amnion Yolk sac o Embryonic stage Week 3 to 8 Basic body plan and organs are created Critical period Teratogens- anything harmful that gets passed from mother to child Alcohol, smoking, medicine, raw fish (mercury), hair dye, topical ointments, sunburn, caffeine, stress Fetal alcohol syndrome- birth defects o Facial- cleft pallet; mental retardation o Fetal stage 3 month after conception to birth Cartilage hardens, eyelids open Organ systems functional by 7 months Can hear, remember and learn in 8 to 9 months Attachment theories o Bowlby worked with WW2 orphans 50 kids to every 2 caregivers needs of each kid are not met Showed effects of separation Research after kids were out of orphanage Emotional disturbances, depression, suicide, addiction Critical period o Harlow Motherless monkey experiment Experience of being fed- food Warm, comforting contact from mother- cloth Monkey got something to eat then went right to the cloth Scare monkey runs to cloth, comfort is more important than food o Ainsworth Strange situation experiment Securely attached Insecure attachment Avoidant- no reaction when mom leaves or returns Anxious/ambivalent- baby becomes angry when parent leaves baby with someone baby doesn’t know Disorganized- sometimes they’ll be angry, sometimes they’ll cry, sometimes they’ll seem securely attached Attachment you have as a child impacts ability to interact with others later in life Diana Baumrind Parenting Styles o Parenting research o Different parents have different traits impacts how child develops o Authoritarian Stern, strict, cold Don’t question rules Get an A on a test “that’s what you’re supposed to get” o Authoritative Have rules and regulations but give a little bit of a leash/independence If you do mess up, privileges are taken away because there are rules If you come home late, you can’t stay out late again o Permissive Want to be kids friends; “cool” parent Lets kids and their friends drink at their house; do their laundry all the time Do whatever the kid wants to do o Neglectful Parents aren’t around Kids are in charge Kids cook their siblings dinner Thomas and Chess Temperament Theory o Temperament- precursor to personality; innate behavioral style or characteristic emotional response o 3 types Easy- scheduled, happy, love to sleep and play Easy going adult Difficult- cry nonstop, bad digestive systems, don’t eat or sleep when supposed to Struggle to get along with people/make friends Slow to warm up- take an adjustment period; clingy to mom and dad at beginning of party then come out of shell Shy, hesitant, might not like new things o Goodness of fit- between child’s nature, parental behaviors, and social and environmental setting Temperaments are part of a puzzle Parent’s style and environment also may have an effect Parents may need to adjust schedules to care for the baby Kubler Ross’ Theory of Death and Dying o You or loved one diagnosed with terminal condition o Denial o Anger- why me? o Bargaining- pray to God to give them a second chance o Depression- realize the end is near and it is not going to change o Acceptance- try to live out last phase of life as best as possible Freud’s Psychosexual Stages o Unconscious; sex/aggression drives/instincts; early childhood experiences o Levels of consciousness- conscious (aware of), preconscious (easily brought to mind), unconscious, nonconscious (physiological) Stage Age range Pleasure Key events Potential name center fixations (erogenous) Oral stage- 0 to 18 Mouth Eating, sucking Cursing, nail id is months biting, over present eating/drinking, talking too much, chewing objects, sarcasm Anal stage- 18 months Anus Toilet training Anal retentive- ego forms to 3 years neat freak; anal expulsive- slob Phallic 3 to 6 Genitals- Oedipus complex- Problems with stage- years gender role boy falls in love authority superego formation with mother; rear Hard time forms castration; give forming up on mom; relationships become like dad Electra complex- girl falss in love with dad; penis envy; give up on dad and become like mom Latency 6 to 12 None Same sex peer stage years relationships Genital Adolescen Genitals Loving, sexual stage ce to relationships death o Parts of the personality Id Present at birth Spoiled brat Driven by two instincts o Eros- sex o Thanatos- death, aggression Pleasure principle- all about gaining pleasure Root of anxiety Ego Balances id and superego Reality principle- can’t always get what you want Reasoning Conscious of Tools called defense mechanisms o Protect you from the outside world (from id’s anxiety and superego’s guilt) o Displacement- finding an easier target for aggression Ex: bad day, yell at roommate for tripping over their shoes o Regression- acting like an earlier age Ex: don’t get your way, stomp up stares and slam door If you don’t do that you could hurt somebody o Denial- refusal to admit something exists Ex: parent ignoring kid’s drugs while cleaning their room; terminal illness, pretend you didn’t hear you only have a few months to live Superego Morality principle Perfectionism Causes guilt Created by parental and societal standards- different for everyone Intrapsychic conflicts Best case scenario, ego wins the battle (socially acceptable) Kohlberg’s morality theory o 3 levels with 2 stages in each o Heinz dilemma o Preconventional- most common among children under 9 yrs old Self-centered Stage 1- obedience and punishment Behave according to socialy acceptable norms because they are told to do so by a teacher/parent Gain reward, avoid punishment Don’t get caught stealing drugs “yes, can’t live without her” Stage 2- individualism/exchange Behave in accordance with one’s own best interest Quid proquo- this for this; bargaining o Conventional- most common in children 9-19 yrs old Other-centered Stage 3- good boy/good girl Behave and hold an attitude that will gain the approval of others Approval of others “no because my parents said not to steal” “yes because if he doesn’t people will think he is disgusting for not saving her” Stage 4- law and order Abide by the law and respond to the obligations of duty Rules “no, stealing is illegal” o Post-conventional- reached by people after adolescence World-centered Stage 5- social conflict Genuine concern and interest in the welfare of others Rules exist but sometimes bust be broken “yes, it’s his wife and he needs to save her life” Stage 6- principles conscience Universal principles- equality and justice, respect for human life “yes, all people deserve to live” o Freud said women never made it to stage 6 o Carol Gilligan said if you rephrase it, females reach equally high levels; compassion and care for all Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory o Sensori-motor o Preoperational o Concrete operational o Formal operational o Schemas- mental files; have to constantly be reorganized Accommodation- modifying an existing folder or making a brand new one Assimilation- fitting information into a folder that already exists Ex: little kid learning about the world; comes in contact with different dogs; puts in dog file; sees a cow (resembles Dalmatian) assimilating by putting into existing folder; parent corrects child and child creates new folder by accommodation Ex: call vitamin candy assimilate; correct child and tell them it’s a vitamin accommodate o Object permanence- know something exists when it is gone (peek a boo) o Egocentric- blocks tv, he can see so you should be able to see; one point of view; don’t understand sharing o Animism- thunder is God bowling; emotions of stuffed animals o Lack reversibility and conservation- objects spread out looks like more of the object to them; don’t understand volume o Simple logic with concrete ideas- what is love- mommy, heart, hugs, kisses; cannot use abstract terms o Hypothetically- what if….what would you do? 4 stages- Qualitatively different person at each stage; not quantitatively Stage Age range Description/key characteristic Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years old Object permanence Schemas developed by sensory and motor activities Preoperational 2 to 7 years old Learning language rapidly Egocentric- only understand their point of view Animistic- give lifelike qualities to inanimate objects Lack reversibility and conservation Concrete operational 7 to 11 years old Siple logic with concrete ideas Can’t use abstract terms Understand conservation Organize things into categories Formal operational 11 years and beyond Can think abstractly and hypothetically Can plan for the future Erikson’s Psychosocial stages Time period Ages Stage Important Summary event Oral-sensory Birth to Trust vs Feeding Infant must form a first 12-18 mistrust loving, trusting months relationship with caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust Need max comfort w minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself/others and the environment Muscular-anal 18 Autonomy Toilet training Child’s energies directed months vs toward development of to 3 yrs shame/do physical skills; walking, ubt grasping, rectal sphincter control Child learns control but may develop shame and doubt Works to master physical environment while maintaining self- esteem Locomotor 3 to 6 Initiative Independenc Becomes more assertive yrs vs guilt e and take more initiative; may be forceful leading to guilt feelings; begins to initiate not imitate Develops conscience and sexual identity Latency 6 to 12 Industry School Child must deal with yrs old vs demands to learn new inferiority skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence; tries to develop a sense of self- worth by refining skills Adolescence 12 to Identity vs Peer Teenager must achieve 18 yrs role relationships a sense of identity in confusion occupation, sex roles, politics, and religion; tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into self-image under role model and peer pressure Young 19 to Intimacy Love Young adult must adulthood 40 yrs vs relationships develop intimate isolation relationships or suffer feelings of isolation; learns to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent, or partner Middle 40 to Generativi Parenting Each adult must find adulthood 65 yrs ty vs some way to satisfy and stagnation support the next generation; seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests Maturity 65 to Ego Reflection on The culmination is a death integrity and sense of oneself as one vs despair acceptance of is/feeling fulfilled; one’s life reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and preparation for death Learning Theories Classical conditioning- ivan pavlov; relationship between stimulus and response Unconditional stimulus (UCS) –reflex unconditional response (UCR) Food (meat powder) salivating Neutral stimulus (NR) Bell Conditional stimulus (CS) ---–learned conditional response (CR) Bell Salivating o Forward conditioning- NSUCSUCR (bellfoodsalivate) Timing and order are important o Stimulus generalization If you have an unconditioned stimulus similar to original one with same response, it is generalized (ex: door bell, hotel lobby bell; rabbit, cotton balls) o Stimulus discrimination Only responds to one thing (ex: one specific bell) o Extinction- stop giving food after bell stops salivating no more response at time o Reconditioning- relearn a few times then response will happen o Spontaneous recovery- sudden reappearance of extinguished conditioned response Operant conditioning o BF Skinner o Relationship b/w behaviors and consequences of environment o Model Positive (add) Negative (take away) Reinforcement Positive Negative (increase behavior) Reinforcement Reinforcement Add something to Take away something increase likelihood of unpleasant to a behavior increase likelihood of behavior Ex: treat, sticker, applause, money Ex: seat belt beeping, aspirin, Zyrtec, picking up baby to stop crying, take trash out to stop nagging from parents Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Punishment (decrease behavior) Adding something Take away something unpleasant to pleasant to decrease decrease likelihood of likelihood of a a behavior behavior Ex: adding chores, Ex: allowance, $, yelling, spanking, fines, time tickets out/grounded (freedom), cell phone o Primary- basic biological needs met; ex: food o Secondary- rewarding; ex: money, pencil Shaping o Reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response o Used by parents, teachers, coaches, and trainers o Every time you get closer to the goal you get a reward o Ex: making bed Wolfgang Kohler’s Insight research o During WWI- experimented on chimps on an island If given the opportunity would the chimps solve a problem through physical or mental trial and error Insight is all mental trial and error Edward Tolman’s latent learning and cognitive maps o Cognitive map- mental representations of your environment o Created a maze and broke mice into 3 groups 1 group- no reinforcement nd 2rdgroup- reinforcement th 3 group- reinforcement after 11 day 2 and 3 had identical times; 1 didn’t care about rushing Latent learning- learning and not showing it (hidden) Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll study o Observational learning Learning new behaviors or info by watching others o Vicarious learning Watch another person’s behaviors See the consequences Decide whether to do it o Modeling process- 4 steps Attention Retention Production Motivation Memory Information processing theory (IPT) chart*** o Sensory memory- unlimited capacity; ½ to 2 secs o Short term memory- (STM) 7 ± 2, 18 to 30 secs; working memory (can manipulate it), consciousness (aware) o Long term memory- (LTM) unlimited capacity, forget/difficult to recall because too many files o Elaborative rehearsal vs maintenance rehearsal Chunking- 7 ± 2 units of information Types of memory o Semantic- general pieces of info/facts; knowledge o Episodic- memory of an even you were part of; “I remember when…” o Procedural memory- memory on how to do something; usually automatic (ex: eating, talking, writing) o Flashbulb memory- episodic memory but is recalled so vividly that you feel like you’re reliving it o Explicit memory- intentionally trying to recall it o Implicit memory- unintentional recall Context dependence- we can recall info better when we are in the environment where it was learned State dependence- we can recall info better when your mental state is the same as when you learned it Mood-congruency effect- good mood remember positive events; bad mood remember negative events o Ex: laugh at funny story remember more funny stories; negative moods narrow the brain can only tap into bad stuff; not thinking clearly Herman Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve o If you don’t review info 10-11 hours after you learn it, you lose 60% of it o Method of savings- relearning; takes less time to learn that original learning Serial position curve- remember beginning and end of list, harder to remember middle words o Primacy effect and recency effect Retrograde amnesia- injury o Cannot remember things that happen in your past o Can bounce back; brain makes new connections Anterograde amnesia o No short term memory o Cannot form anymore memories o Ex: 50 first dates o Can learn new material but you don’t know you’re learning (puzzle example) Alzheimer’s o 7 yrs until death- neurons are dying; body won’t breathe, heart won’t pump, etc. o Plaques and tangles- dead neurons o Brain gets eaten from inside out o Ways to improve memory- mnemonic device- sentences to remember info Thinking, language, and intelligence Barriers to problem solving Heuristics- mental short cuts that assist humans; however, they are not flawless processes Heuristic Definition st Estmple Anchoring heuristic Get locked in one 1 1 impression of impression someone- if you don’t like them you never will Availability heuristic Misjudging probability of Ex: shark attacks; people an event because it is in the summer will say readily available to you they are common Representative heuristic Misjudging how likely Kidnapper- white van, something belongs to a candy, dog, creepy man, certain group weirdo; but 90% of kidnappings are by parents (misjudged) Benjamin Whorf’s Linguistic Relativity o The language you speak determines your thoughts/how you can think o You have to know language in order to have a thought about it Theories of Language Development o Nature Innate ability Born with ability to speak Noam Chomsky Language acquisition device- built in piece that allows us to learn language Universal grammar- incorrect usage of past tense (ex: “goed” “eated”) o Nurture Case of Genie- girl abused, no contact, can’t speak Environmentally driven Critical period- if you don’t learn language before 7 years old you will never learn it Intelligence theories Theorist Theory Conceptual information Charles Spearman “G” 1 big intelligence ability Based on reason and problem solving School Raymond Cattell Fluid (gf) versus Fluid- reasoning and crystallized (gc) multitasking; goes away intelligence with age Crystallized- knowledge, facts, and skills; can keep increasing Howard Gardner Multiple intelligence 8 intelligencies Linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, bodily, naturalistic, intrapersonal, interpersonal Mental Retardation intellectual disability o IQ under 70 o Deficits in adaptive functioning (communicating, living alone, social functioning) o Mild to profound o Genetics Down syndrome- Extra chromosome Fragile X-syndrome- abnormal X chromosome Phenylketonuria (PKU)- enzyme deficiency; breast milk becomes toxic, can be screened for in womb o Environment- alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy; deprivation or neglect in early life; postnatal accidents that damage brain o Savant syndrome- mental retardation but has exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field (ex: rain man; couldn’t live alone, but could read books and regurgitate them Mainstreaming o No special ed put child with mental retardation into normal classroom o Pros- Helps child be more social; helps others be used to it; “we’re more alike than different”; reduces stigma o Cons- bullying, might be a distraction; other’s education may be slowed
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