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Geology II test 1 Study Guide

by: Vaibhav Notetaker

Geology II test 1 Study Guide GEOL 1122K

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Vaibhav Notetaker

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Study guide for geology 2 test 1.
Introductory Geosciences II
Nathan Michael Rabideaux
Study Guide
Rock. Deposition. Uni-formation. Sedimentation. Environment. Etc
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vaibhav Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1122K at Georgia State University taught by Nathan Michael Rabideaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geosciences II in Geology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Geology II Test 1 Chapter 6 -Sedimentary Rocks • Igneous are the most abundant rock type, but are not the ones we see the most… • Sedimentary rocks cover approximately 5% of the earths surface, and cover over the majority of the igneous rocks What is sedimentary rock and why are they important? • Comprises 5% of Earths upper crush • Contains evidence of past environments o Records how sediment is transported and deposited o Often contains fossils Why do we care about sedimentary rocks? • They are important for economic reasons because they contain o Coal, Petroleum and natural gas, iron, aluminum, uranium and manganese. Geologist use them or read Earth’s history 1.Describe how a clastic sedimentary rock forms from its unweathered parent rock • Weathering> erosion>transportation>deposition>lithification (process in which sediments compact under pressure) Sedimentary Cover • Earth is covered by a thin “veneer” of sediment o The veneer caps igneous and metamorphic “basement” o Sediments cover varies in thickness from 0 to 20km o Thinner or missing where ig and meta rocks out corp o Thicker in sedimentary basins Sediments are the building blocks of sedimentary rocks • Sediments are diverse, as are the rocks made from them • Four classes: o Clastic- made from weathered rock fragments( clasts) o Biochemical- cemented shells of organisms o Organic- The carbon- rich remains of plants o Chemical – Minerals that Crystallize directly from water Clastic sedimentary rocks reflect several processes • Weathering - Generation of detritus via rock disintegration • Erosion – Removal of sediment grains from rock • Transportation- dispersal by wind, water and ice • Deposition- settling out of the transporting fluid • Lithification- transformation into solid rock Lithification: Transforms loose sediments into rocks • Burial: More sediments is added onto previous layers • Compaction- Overburden weight reduces pore spaces • Sand – 10 – 20 % Geology II Test 1 • Clay -50- 80 % Cementation mineral grow in pores “gluing” sediments Clast (grain) size – the average diameter of casts • Range from very coase to very fine • Bouder, Cobble, pebble sand, silt and clay • With increasing transport average grain size decreases Angularity and sphericity: indicate degree of transport • Grain roundess and sphericity increases with transport o Well rounded = long transport distances o Angular = negligible transport Mineral identities provide clues about: The source of sediments and the environment of the deposition Art: Marble Architectural uses: Shale: for roofing Sandstone: for load bearing buttresses Ceramics and industrial materials: clay for pottery and ceramics including bricks; cement and lime derived from limestone Economic Geology: ore deposits of lead-zinc-silver, large deposits of copper, deposits of gold, tungsten, uranium, heavy mineral sands, ect. Energy: coal and oil shale and uranium are found in sedimentary rocks Groundwater: Sedimentary rocks contain a large proportion of the Earths groundwater aquifers Clastic sedimentary rocks • Coarse clastic gravel sized clasts • Breccia: comprised of angular fragments, angularity indicates a lack of transport processing. Deposited relatively close to source • Conglomerates: comprised of rounded gravel: indicates water transport o Clasts bang together forcefully in flowing water o Collisons round angular corners and edges of clasts • Conglomerates are deposited at a distance from the source o Arkose: sand and gravel with abundant feldspar o Sandstone: clastic rocks made of sand-sized particles • Fine Clastics: composed of silt and clay • Fine Clastics are deposited in quieter waters o Silt sized sediments are lithifed to form siltstone o Clay- sized particles form shale o Floodplains, lagoons, mudflats, deltas, deep-water basins o Organic-rich shales are the source of petroleum Chert: rocks made of cryptocrystalline quartz • (SiO2) skeletons • Silica Dissolves • Solidifies into a gel Chert found as nodules or beds Organic Rocks: Geology II Test 1 • Made from organic carbon o Coal: Altered remains of fossil vegetation Organic rocks accumulate in lush tropical wetland settings, requires deposition in the absences of oxygen Oil Shale: Shale with heat altered organic matter Organic- cells of plants, algae, bacteria and plankton Black combustible sedimentary rock: over 50-90% carbon Chemical sedimentary rocks: comprised of minerals precipitated from water solution Evaporites: created from eVaporated seawater Evaporation triggers deposition of chemical preceipitates Examples include halite*(rock salt) and gypsum Chemical sedimentary rocks • Comprised of minerals preceipited from water solution o Have a crystalline(interlocking) texture § Initial crystal growth in solution § Recrystallization during burial • There are several classes o Evaporites: rock from evaporated sea or lake water o Travertine: Precipitated from ground water o Dolostone: forms from dolomite (kind of rock) o Replacement chert: Non biogenic, replaces calcite Sedimentary structures § Features imparted to sediments at or near deposition § Help decipher conditions at or near time of deposition § Sedimentary rocks are usually layered or “stratified” § Bedding reflects changing conditions during deposition Bedding and stratification § Why does bedding form ? o Bedding reflects changing conditions during deposition o Bedding forms due to changes in Climate, water depth, current velocity, sediment source, sediment supply Current deposition § Water or wind flowing over sediment creates bedforms o Ripple marks: CM scale ridges and troughs § Dunes are similar to ripples, just larger § Cross beds are created by ripple and dune migration Bed surface markings § Occurs after deposition while sediment is still soft (mud cracks, scour mark and fossils: evidence of past life ) Depositional Environments § Locations where sediments accumulate § Environments range from terrestrial to marine Geology II Test 1 § Terrestrial environments o mountain streams o Alluvial Fan: Is created when sediments are traveling at velocity and reach a flat point and sediments pan out o Sand Dunes: Wind blown piles of well sorted sand o Dunes move account to the prevailing winds, result in uniform sandstones with gigantic cross beds o Rivers: Sand and gravel fill concave upwards channels, Fine sand, silt and clay are deposited on nearby floodplains o Lake: large ponded bodies of water; Gravels and sands trapped near shore; well-sorted muds deposited in deeper water o Delta- Sediment piles up where a river enters a lake § Marine environments- Deposited at or below sea level o Shallow Marine: Finer Version of beach sediment o Deep Marine: Fines settle out far from land o Shallow water carbonates: Tropical § Sedimentary basins o Basins form where tectonic activity creates space § Passive margin basins: Non plate boundary continental edge § Sea level changes o Sedimentary deposition is strongly linked to sea level o Changes in sea level are commonplace geologically. Depositional belts shift landward or seaward in response. Layers of strata record deepening or swallowing upward. o Transgression – Flooding due to sea-level rise. Sediment belts shift landward; strata “deepen” upward o Regression: Exposure due to sea level fall o Sea level rise and fall creates a predictable pattern o Exposure due to sea level fall. o Depositional belts shift seaward; strata “shallow upward.” Regression tied to erosion; less likely to be preserved. Chapter 10 § Understanding time permits assigning an age to: Rocks, Fossils, Geologic Structure, Landscapes, tectonic events. § Two ways of dating Geological Materials: Relative ages, numberical or absolute ages § Uniformitarianism: The present is the key to the past, Processes seen today are the same as those in the past, Geological change is slow large change requires a long time, there for there must have been a long time before humans Geology II Test 1 § Original Horizontality: Layers of sediments are deposited initially in an horizontal fashion § Superposition: In an under formed sequence of layered rocks…. Each bed is older than the one above and younger than the one below § Original continuity: Layers can be continuous over broad areas when first deposited § Strata often forms laterally extensive horizontal sheets


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