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BIOL 1050, Test reviews and guides

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BIOL 1050, Test reviews and guides BIOL 1050

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These are notes taken during review sessions held out of class time for the third exam and the final exam. They may also help with previous exams because these exams are cumulative and review mater...
General Biology
Heather Vance Chalcraft
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1050 at East Carolina University taught by Heather Vance Chalcraft in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Biology 1050 Fall 2014 Dr. Vance-Chalcraft Final Exam Study Guide Review the following topics to prepare for the Final Exam. Do not only memorize information, but understand it enough to be able to apply it to a situation and make inferences based on your knowledge. For approx. 50 cumulative questions:  What is biology? - Biology is the scientific study of life  What is life? - No single definition for life, anything that holds this set of characteristics is living  A chemical makeup of carbs, lipids, and proteins  Requires energy  Responds to stimuli  Can reproduce and grow  Contains molecules (smaller units coming together to make larger units)  Life is hierarchical  What is science? - Science is a way of knowing that limits knowledge to observations and measurements - In science new facts supersede old ones - Things are natural not supernatural - Science greatly influences society  Hypotheses, theories - A Hypothesis is a statement about what you expect the outcome of an experiment/ observation to be.  A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable - A theory is a broad idea that has been widely supported by evidence with none against it  Variables, controls, replication, sample size - Two variables in an experiment  Dependent variable- “response variable”, what you are actually measuring in the experiment  Independent variable- “ predictor variable”, what you hypothesize is responsible for the variation in the dependent variable (what you personally manipulate/change) - Control is the dependent variable group that does not get effected by the independent variable so you have a group to compare your results to (how much did the independent variable really effect the dependent variable) - Replication is necessary for a good experiment to ensure accurate results. The more replications the more accurate the information - Sample size is how you find replication, the number of subjects in an experimental group (plus the control)  A larger sample size (more replication) means you will have more reliable results  If you have two groups (control and experimental) and 200 subjects total then 100 is your sample size (100 in each group)  Peer review, pseudoscience - Before a scientific paper is published as a primary source it undergoes peer review to ensure its findings are accurate. - Pseudoscience is when a collection of ideas/ beliefs are mistaken as being based on the scientific method when they are not  People make scientific claims that sound reasonable but have no evidence or basis what so ever  Often contain anecdotal evidence (evidence from one person’s experience)  Just bc it is true for one person does not mean it is true for everyone  Cell theory - Says that all living things are made up of cells  Prokaryotic cells versus eukaryotic cells - Prokaryotic cells  Are found in bacteria and archaea, therefore older  Simpler in structure and therefore smaller  Contain no nucleus and no organelles bound by membranes  The basic structure of a prokaryotic cell is  Outside membrane (plasma membrane)  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  DNA - Eukaryotic cells  Are found in all other living organisms  Much larger in structure- containing a nucleus and bound organelles  Younger  The basic structure of a eukaryotic cell is three main sections  Plasma membrane (which all cells have) o Gatekeeper o Selectively permeable  Nucleus o Stores genetic material o Controls most of cells main functions  Cytoplasm o Contains organelles and is located between the plasma membrane and nucleus  Producers, consumers - Producers make food using light energy from the sun in photosynthesis - Consumers eat other organisms for food  Function of and equation for photosynthesis - Photosynthesis produces food for plants/producers  Sunlight + CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (water) = Sugar and O2 (oxygen)  Function of and equation for cellular respiration - Cellular respiration makes ATP  Sugar + O2 (oxygen) = ATP and CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water)  Importance of ATP - ATP releases energy which all organisms need for survival  Calorie, Recommended Calorie intake - A calorie is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree celcius  A kilocalorie is what we call food calories, a kilocalorie is equivalent to 1/1000 regular calories - The number of calories an individual should take in each day varies by gender, age, and genetics  Men typically require more calories than women bc of their higher rates of testosterone  Also tend to have more muscle mass which requires more calories to maintain  The older you are the slower your metabolism gets which means you will start requiring fewer and fewer calories  Another factor is genetics because certain people genetically have higher metabolisms and will require more caloric intake than others  BMI – what it is, what BMI numbers mean - Body Mass Index which is used to determine ideal weight  Body mass index correlates with health risks, is an easy calculation, and correlates well with total body fat - Women need a higher BMI than men to maintain fertility, and also because they have a thicker layer of tissue under their skin for when they are pregnant - The equation for calculating BMI is  (Weight/(height^2))x 703  BMI under 18.5 = underweight  BMI 18.5-25= healthy  BMI over 25 = overweight  BMI over 30 = obese  Health consequences of anorexia and bulimia - Health consequences of anorexia and bulimia are those that come with being underweight such as  Altered heart rhythm  Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation)  Osteoporosis (weakened bones)  Dental/gum problems  Ruptured stomach  dehydration  Health risks of obesity - 1/3 of all Americans are obese generally due to environmental and genetic factors and having a caloric intake that exceeds your physical activity - Consequences from obesity are  Adult onset diabetes (type 2 diabetes)  Diabetes is a condition where the body cannot breakdown sugars properly or respond to insulin  Hypertension (high blood pressure, 140/190)  Heart attack  Stroke  Joint problems  What are carbohydrates? - Carbohydrates are our bodies main energy source in the form of sugar and starches (fruits, vegetables, and grains) - Almost all carbs are macronutrients and hydrophilic  Water loving and adhere quickly to water - Contain about 4 kilocalories of energy - Broken down into glycose  Simplest type of sugar  Once in the blood forms into ATP  If there is excess it is stored in the form of glycogen and can eventually turn into fat if stored for too long - Carbohydrates can come in many forms  Monosaccharides – simple sugars  Polysaccharides – complex carbs  Better than simple sugars (fruits and vegetables)  Starch – how plants store excess energy  Glycogen – how animals store excess energy in short term  Cellulose – main structural component of plant cells - Some indigestible carbs  Cellulose and chitin (two polysaccharides)  Dietary fiber  Cannot be digested or absorbed but are good for the digestive tract  Benefits of dietary fiber - Good for the digestive tract - Lower chances of cancer and other digestion problems - Polysaccharide (complex carb)  Saturated versus unsaturated fats - Fats contain 9 kilocalories per gram - Their functions include  Long term energy storage, cushioning vital organs, and insulate the skin - Their structure is triglyceride  Meaning they have 1 glycerol head and 3 fatty tails  They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - Saturated fat  Saturated if it has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons  Each carbon in the hydrocarbon chain is bounded to two hydrogens  Three straight fatty acid tails  Can be packed together tightly making it so saturated fats are solid at room temperature - Unsaturated fats  Unsaturated if it has at least one carbon to carbon double-bond  This causes the fatty acid to have a crooked shape and be liquid at room temperature (like olive oil)  Trans fats - Newer than saturated and unsaturated fat - They are produced in food manufacturing by hydrogenation  Hydrogenation is the artificial addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fats, which can improve the foods taste, texture and shelf-life - This is the worst of the three fats  Cholesterol - Cholesterol is a sterol (along with estrogen and testosterone) - Cholesterol is a base steroid from which our bodies produce other steroids  Anabolic steroids  Synthetic form of testosterone that mimics some of testosterone’s effects leading to serious mental and physical problems o Violent mood swings, depression, high cholesterol, reduced sex drive and infertility  Functions of proteins - Proteins are the main structural component of life - Proteins contain 4 kilocalories per gram - Kids who are growing, pregnant women, and anyone recovering from an injury require more protein than others/ they usually do  Structural  Hair, fingernails, feathers, horns, etc  Protective  Help fight invading microorganisms, coagulate blood  Regulatory  Control cell activity, constitute some hormones  Contractile  Allow muscles to contract, heart to pump, sperm to swim  Transport  Carry molecules such as oxygen around the body - Enzymes are proteins that assist in chemical reactions made up of amino acids  Proteins as chains of amino acids - An amino acid is a long chain, there are 20 common types of amino acids - Each unique sequence of amino acid leads to a different shape protein  Normal protein (like a big clump)  With extreme environment (heat, Ph) the protein shape and function is disrupted resulting in a Denatured protein (like a long chain intermingled (with space)) - Essential amino acids are those that must be acquired through diet (8 of them)  Animals, egg white, shrimp, tuna, poultry, meat, grains and vegetables (beans)  Do energy drinks provide energy? - No, because the main ingredient is caffeine which is not a nutrient that can be converted into ATP and we get energy from ATP - Caffeine is simply a stimulant increasing blood pressure and heart rate, which is not a true energy source - We can get energy from carbs, lipids, and proteins  DNA, genes, chromosomes - DNA  DNA provides instructions for building almost every organism on earth  DNA determines our traits by determining our makeup of proteins  DNA is a double helix (two strand) chain of nucleotides made up of three things: structure made of deoxyribose sugar and phosphates (handrails) and nitrogen (rungs/steps)  Found by James Watson and francis Crick  Every nucleotide is identical except for its base (nitrogen base)  Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine  Complementary pairing o A – T o G – C  There are coding and non-coding DNA  Most DNA in eukaryotes do not code for any proteins  Non-coding DNA sometimes controls transcription and translation - Genes  Gene expression makes it so cells become different from eachother, since we all have the same DNA we would all be exactly the same without gene expression  Each type of cell has a different pattern of active genes – some are turned “on” while others are turned “off”  Genome – a complete set of an organism’s DNA o There is a lot of variability in genome size, how complex a genome is is not related to its size (humans don’t have the biggest genomes but we’re one of the most complex organisms)  Sequencing – determining the order or bases on DNA and where genes occur - Chromosomes  DNA is carried in chromosomes  In humans, all cells (except gametes – sperm and egg) have 46 chromosomes/ 23 pairs  Autosomes have 22 pairs and then 1 sex chromosome pair  A diploid is when there is a pair of homologous chromosomes ( a cell has two of the same type of chromosome)  A haploid is a cell that has only one of each chromosome type  All human cells are diploid except gametes which are haploid  How DNA determines our traits - DNA determines our traits by determining our makeup of proteins  Function of transcription - Transcription is the process that uses the instructions in DNA to make RNA  RNA helps pass information from DNA to the ribosomes who then make proteins  Function of translation - Process that uses the instructions in the RNA to make proteins - Groups of 3 RNA bases are called codons which specify all amino acids (proteins)  This is done by using the Genetic code  There are multiple codons that code for the same amino acids but no codon codes for more than one amino acid  The genetic code is universal and is used by all living organisms on the planet (which is what allows us to transfer genes from one species to another)  What allows us to transfer genes from one species to another? - The genetic code being universal  Mutation – define - Any change in the order of bases on a strand of DNA - Mutations can result from  Harmful conditions, certain viruses, errors in DNA replication, and inheritance - The effects of a mutation can vary (being negative or positive) – usually negative  Sometimes no effect at all will occur – a neutral mutation- this happens when the change in DNA does not change the amino acid  How do cells become different from each other? - Cells become different from each other through gene expression  Real world applications for genomics - Solve bioterrorism crimes - Track diseases - Study evolution  Embryonic stem cells versus adult stem cells - Stem cells are cells that can become any (or many) type of specialized cell type - Embryonic stem cells  Can become virtually any cell in the body and are much easier to grow in lab, they can also divide an unlimited number of times  Some are against this however because some lab techniques cause embryo to die when the stem cell is removed  Embryonic stem cell research is done through IVF, umbilical cords, and cloning - Adult stem cells  Are already partially specialized so they can only become a related cell type and are much more difficult to grow in labs. The can also only divide a limited number of times  More people prefer this over embryonic research because there is fewer/ no ethical problems  Adult stem cell research is done mainly in bone marrow  Whole organism versus therapeutic cloning - Whole organism cloning is making an entirely new organism exactly like an already existing one (cloning the whole organism) - Therapeutic cloning is cloning a desired cell and then injecting it into an organism  Real world applications for biotechnology, DNA fingerprinting - Biotechnology is when organisms, cells, and their molecules are modified to achieve practical benefits - Real world applications for biotechnology are  To improve human health and agriculture  Genetically modifying something can produce better medicines (vaccines) and cure diseases (gene therapy) o Vaccines are harmless forms of bacteria or virus injected into your body so the body can make a specific defense to fight it off in future harmful forms  Ex. Diabetes, we used to have to get insulin from cows and pigs but now insulin can be made by genetically modifying bacteria o Gene therapy seeks to cure disease by inserting a functional gene into an individual’s cells that have a defective version  Used for SCID  Gene therapy does have many difficulties such as  Getting the functional gene into the cells where it is needed and into enough of them  The virus or bacteria infecting unintended cells or being passed to an offspring  Agricultural uses of genetic modification are o Increase of shelf life o Increase of yield o And increase of nutritional value  Highly controversial because  Organisms we want to kill can become invincible  Organisms we don’t want to be killed may be killed inadvertently  There is too little regulation  We don’t know for sure it is safe to eat this food  There is a loss of genetic diversity among plants - DNA fingerprinting  Used to see if 2 DNA samples are from the same person (or closely related individuals)  99.9% of DNA sequences between 2 individuals are the same  There are 4-5 bases of non-coding DNA that repeat over and over called short tandem repeats (STR)  We inherit each STR from each parent there is one on each homologous chromosome – the number of repeats inherited from our mom can differ from the number inherited from our dad  STR’s are located at what is known as its locus  When looking at the STR’s locus you determine their allele o This is the number of repeats given from each parent for the same STR locus (the same STR they have at that sight) o For example inheriting 7 repeats from your mom and 11 from your dad would make your allele 7/11 o Alleles at the same STR locus will have the same base sequence and just repeat a different number of times the same way alleles at different STR loci will have different base sequences from each other  DNA fingerprinting focuses on these STR sights  The probability that 2 people share the same allele for one STR locus is 1 in 100  When using DNA fingerprinting there will be information about alleles for 13 different STR loci o The likelihood then of 2 people having the same DNA fingerprint is 1 in 10^26  DNA fingerprinting is conducted using gelelectrophoresis which sorts fragments based on their length and make it possible to compare them  The length of the alleles will differ because their number of repeats will differ  Genetically modified organisms – define - An organism that carries recombinant DNA  Female versus male sex chromosomes - Females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y chromosome (half of sperm contain an X and half contain a Y- this is how gender is determined depending on what sperm fertilizes the egg)  Haploid cells versus diploid cells - A haploid cell is what all gametes have – they contain a cell having one of each chromosome type, haploid cells are formed during meiosis - A diploid cell is what all other human cells are – they are cells that have two of each chromosome type (homologous), diploid cells are formed during mitosis  Asexual versus sexual reproduction - Whole organisms can reproduce by asexual or sexual reproduction - Asexual reproduction  When an offspring arises from one single parent and is genetically identical to that parent  Bacteria, plants, and fungi will typically reproduce asexually (prokaryotes) - Sexual reproduction  When an offspring comes from two parents and shares the combined genetic information from both parents  How animals and most other organisms reproduce (eukaryotes)  Binary fission - A form of asexual reproduction where an exact copy of the prokaryotic parent cell is created  Function of mitosis - Eukaryotic cell division resulting in four diploid cells - Mitosis is necessary for simple cell division, growth, repair, and asexual reproduction but errors can and often do lead to cancer  Result of errors during mitosis - cancer  Benign versus malignant tumors - A benign tumor is an abnormal mass of cells that stays in the same place - Malignant tumors are lumps of cancerous cells that divide excessively and spread  What makes cancer cells different? - Cancer cells are different because they have no limit to how many times they can divide. Telomeres are what usually limit cells to a certain number of divisions – cancer cells escape this by rebuilding their telomeres and dividing an unlimited number of times  What causes cancer? - Cancer is caused by mutations  Can we inherit cancer? - It is very unlikely to inherit cancer but in some VERY RARE cases mutations can be passed on to offspring  Cancer treatments - Surgery  Will only work if every single last cancerous cell is removed, which can be nearly impossible - Radiation therapy  Cells are struck with radiation to disrupt division - Chemotherapy  A form of using drugs to disrupt division  Function of meiosis - Meiosis is cell division with the strict purpose of creating gamete cells (this is because meiosis forms haploid cells and gametes are the only cells that are haploid)  Results of mistakes during meiosis - Mistakes during meiosis can lead to deformities/disorders in people  Human development - Human development begins with the fertilization of an egg by a sperm cell creating a zygote. The zygote undergoes mitosis and eventually you get an offspring. Later that offspring will join with a partner of the opposite sex and fertilization will occur and the process will start all over again  Basic genetics crosses and terminology (not sexlinked)  What is the process of evolution? - The process of evolution is a change over many generations in the relative frequency of alleles that occur in a population  What is the theory of evolution? - The theory of evolution is that all species are descendants of a single common ancestor, and all species are the result of millions of years of change  Darwin - The scientist who first theorized/discovered/study the idea of evolution  3 major categories of evidence for evolution - Fossil records  A fossil is a reserved remnant of impression left by organisms that lived in the past and have died. This can show evolution through similarities in bone structure/ components from species living millions of years ago to species today - Biogeography  Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of species  Most species are more similar to species in a particular area (even with vastly different ecosystems) then they are with species in a different area (across the world in the same ecosystem).  This suggests that these species descended from a common ancestor who changed slightly because of things like genetic drift, natural selection, etc - Homologies  A homology is a similarity in structure due to a common ancestry  Homologies have been shown through o Molecular biology  Comparing the gene and protein sequences of different organisms (more similarities more closely related) o Embryology  Comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms (closely related organisms will have similar stages)  Ex. All vertebrate embryos pass through a stage in which it has a little gill pouch on the side of the neck and a stage where it has a long bony tail (even if they go away before they are born) o Anatomy  The comparison of body structures between different species  4 mechanisms that can cause evolution - Natural selection - Genetic drift  Small portion of a population reproducing with each other causing a change in allele frequency for that group - Gene flow  Reproduction between species from a different population - mutation  Natural selection - Requires 3 things  Variation of a trait  Heritability  Differential reproductive success  Survival of the fittest? - The species with the most reproductive success is the “fittest”  What is a species? - A species is a population of organisms that interbreed with each other or could possibly breed with each other under natural condition and are reproductively isolated from other such groups (cannot interbreed with other groups)  Phylogenetic trees - Phylogenetic trees show the evolutionary history of a species  3 domains - Bacteria  Unicellular, prokaryotes, also called a microbe - Archaea  Unicellular, prokaryotes, also called a microbe - Eukarya  Protists, plants, fungi, and animals  Protists showed the first shift to multi-cellularity making it possible for more complex life-forms to form Biology 1050 Fall 2014 Dr. Vance-Chalcraft For approx. 50 questions on information since previous exam:  Ecology versus environmentalism (what each is and how they differ) - Ecology does not have an agenda and environmentalism does - Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment - Environmentalism is looking at how these organisms affect their environment and vice versa  Abiotic versus biotic components of the environment - Abiotic – non- living - Biotic - living  What influences where organisms live? - The largest factor contributing to where an organism lives is the climate - What the physiological constraints  Define population, community, and ecosystem - An ecosystem is all the organisms living in an area plus the physical environment - A community is a group of species living close enough together for potential interactions - A population is members of the same species living amongst each other  Organismal ecology & response to changing environments - Studies the adaptations organisms use to survive in their abiotic environments  Three types of responses that allow organisms to adjust to changing environments  Physiological responses o Short-term, some mammals get cold and stand their har up to trap air between their body and fur o Long-term, acclimation – training your body to do something a certain way so that it will do it for a long period of time (training to run at high altitudes to increase level of red blood cells and have your body use oxygen more efficiently)  Anatomical responses o Change in the body shape or structure  Behavioral responses o Most animals can move to a new location o Going inside if it is cold/ putting on a coat o Going in the shade when it is hot o Migrating long distances (birds)  Factors that cause population sizes to increase or decrease - Population increases due to births and immigration - Population decreases due to deaths and emigration - Population will grow when births and immigration outnumber deaths and emigration  Population growth models (logistic versus exponential) and carrying capacity - Exponential growth model  The larger the population the faster it will grow  J- shaped  Happens under ideal conditions – unlimited food, plenty of space, no disease - Logistic growth model  Environmental factors will cause a population’s growth to level off  S- shaped  Based on practical conditions  Density-dependent & density-independent factors - Density-dependent factors means that risk to the individual depends on the population size  Food supply, habitat for living and breeding, parasite and disease risk, predation risk - Density-independent factors means that risk to the individual is not dependent on the population size  Can cause a population size to increase or decrease but will not hold a population at a specific carrying capacity  Natural disasters  Maximum sustainable yield - Removing as many individuals as possible from a population without impairing its growth  Human population growth - Human population growth has been growing exponentially for a long time  Age/population pyramids - Rectangle  Similar number of young and middle aged  Stable population - Pyramid  More young than middle aged  Growing population, even if birth rates drop - Upside down pyramid  More old than young  Population is decreasing  Demographic transition - As a population shifts from being underdeveloped to more developed  Underdeveloped  Slow growth rate  High birth rates  High death rates  Starting to industrialize  High growth rate  High birth rate  Low death rate  Developed countries  Low growth rate  Low birth rate  Low death rate  Earth’s carrying capacity - Unknown because of technology  Correlation between quality of life and population growth - The better quality of life the less population growth there seems to be  What can be done to decrease human population growth? - Have fewer children as a society - Increase the age at first reproduction  Branching worksheet - More education around the world (especially for women)  What is a community? - A community is a group of species living close enough together for potential interactions  Fundamental versus realized niche - A niche is ways an organism uses the environment, their complete way of living - A fundamental niche  Full range of environments in which a species can live - A realized niche  Where and how they actually are living – usually a subset of a fundamental niche  Competitive exclusion & resource partitioning - When overlap of fundamental niches occurs we see competition leading to two possible outcomes  Competitive exclusion  There is one winner and one loser – one species will drive the other to extinction or out of the niche forcing them to find another  Resource partitioning  The species divide up the niche and one uses one part while the other uses the other part – this is often seen with character displacement (when evolution favors species to develop different traits)  Character displacement - When evolution favors a species to develop different traits  Interactions between species (competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism) - Predation  One animal hunts another (their prey) for food - Competition  The overlap of fundamental niches, when two species with similar eating/ living environments are living in close proximity and compete with each other for survival - Parasites  predators that benefit from a symbiotic relationship with their host  ectoparasites – live on their host  endoparasites – live in their host - mutualism  when both species benefit from their interaction with one another (bees pollinating a flower – the flower can reproduce, the bee gets food - commensalism  interaction in which one species benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed  Keystone species - A species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance  Disturbance, primary versus secondary succession - Disturbance can be good and bad  Good because it prevents some species from eventually taking over and allowing nothing else to survive  Bad because can completely eliminate soil/ecosystems and hurt the things living there - Primary succession is when you actually have to rebuild the soil composition because a disturbance has left the area barren of soil and with no life  After volcanic eruptions making area inhospitable for life  Takes land a long time to recover - Secondary succession begins after a smaller disturbance with growth of species previously outcompeted by other species  A farmer plowing a field  Frog deformities – possible causes - Increased UV-B radiation - Chemical pollution (such as pesticides) - Trematode parasites  Ecosystems, energy flow, nutrient cycling - Ecosystems are all the organisms in an area plus the physical environment  Two major ecosystem processes  Energy flow o Passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem o As energy moves from one ecosystem to another it becomes unusable so there is a need for constant new input of energy o There is only one way to get energy and that is through the sun  Nutrient cycling o Use and reuse of nutrients within the ecosystem o Nutrients are recycled between biotic and abiotic components o The carbon cycle o The nitrogen cycle  Biomes – types, define, what determines where they occur  Global climate and weather  Where energy comes from that enters ecosystems  Food chains  Inefficient transfer of energy through food chain  Limits to food chain length  Energy and human nutrition  Processes that move nutrients around ecosystems  Carbon cycle  Eutrophication  Biodiversity – define  Why care about biodiversity loss  Geographical patterns of biodiversity - Highest amount of biodiversity near the equator  Factors that influence biodiversity - Solar energy available  Greater access to solar energy, the fuel for all life, provides increased species richness - Evolutionary history of an area  Communities diversify over time. The more time that passes without a climatic event the greater the diversity in the area - Rate of disturbance  Habitat with intermediate disturbance tends to have the greatest species richness  Background extinction rate versus mass extinctions - Background extinctions are when extinctions occur at a lower rate during times other than mass extinction - Mass extinction is when a large number of species become extinct over a short period of time due to extraordinary sudden environmental change  Current extinction rate - 1000x higher than background rates  Factors that influence extinction risk - Geographic range  Extensive vs restricted - Local population size  Large vs small - Habitat tolerance  Broad vs narrow  4 main causes of biodiversity loss - Habitat destruction (largest single reason why species go extinct) - Introduced species - Overexploitation - Effects of pollution  Acid rain - Any pH of 4.3 or below - Acid rain is caused by gases creating from the burning of fossil fuels mixing with water vapor in the air, when this occurs organisms can be killed directly and indirectly through changes in soil and water  Ozone hole - The ozone layer absorbs UV radiation preventing it from reaching earth’s surface, it however is thinning because of the build-up of CFC’s. If UV radiation gets through it causes increases in rates of some cancers and cataracts and reduces rates of photosynthesis. - Depletion of the ozone layer results in ozone holes, which has already occurred over earth’s polar regions because of human activities  Protecting biodiversity, corridors - Many ways to protecting biodiversity  Enacting legislation  Endangered species act  Creating nature preserves  To preserve individual species or important habitats - Corridors  A part of nature preserve design to connect preserves together and allow gene flow  Buffer zones  Are areas of limited human use that surround preserves  Ecological footprint - How much land and water needed to support what you use and what you discard  Greenhouse effect - The trapping of CO2 to heat the earth  Global warming – definition, causes, effects - Global warming is the increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere creating a slow steady rise in Earth’s average surface temperature  Historic carbon dioxide levels from ice cores - More CO2 in atmosphere now than at any time in the past 400,000 years  Study time change video question sheet  Population growth models o Two general growth models  Logistic  Describes more realistic growth with some limit to it  S shaped curve (leveling off point)  Some limited amount of food or space or competition  Levels off at its carrying capacity o Maximum population size that can be achieved in that environment o Once you reach the carrying capacity growth rate slows and eventually becomes zero (doesn’t mean population size is zero just means birth and immigration= death and emigration) o Earth’s carrying capacity is difficult to determine  We have changed the earth’s carrying capacity with technology  Can have people living in extreme environments where they never would have been able to before  People can also live much more densely than they used to be able to  People are so diverse they can live in many different ways/places  Density dependent factors are environmental factors in which risk to an individual depends on the number present in the population o Ex. Amount of food. If there is little food and a lot of people you could likely starve, but if you’re the only individual you could possibly survive on the little food  Density independent factors are environmental risks that are not dependent on population size o Ex. Natural disasters  Exponential  Describes less common growth under ideal conditions  J shaped curve ( no leveling off)  Unlimited space, unlimited access to food, completely ideal conditions where a population can continue growing indefinitely o What can we do to slow population growth as humans  You can have fewer children as a society  Increase the age at first reproduction  Ex. Branching worksheet were people reproduced every 20 years vs 30 years (population almost doubled just by altering the age and keeping amount of children the same)  Increase education around the world  More educated women are the less likely they are to have as many children or children early in life o Demographic transition  Describes the phenomenon that we see as countries become more developed over time  Under-developed countries  Slow population growth rates o High birth rates o High death rates  Less sanitation, health care  As a country begins to industrialize (more wealth, technology, etc)  High population growth rates o high birth rates o low death rates  better sanitation, medicine, etc  fully industrialized  slow population growth rates o low birth rates  education for women  other options then being a house wife o low death rates  Carbon Cycle o Where is carbon in any given point in time and how does it get to that point (cycle through) o Bulk of available carbon is in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide  Only photosynthesis can pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere  Then it travels through species by feeding (animal eats plant, animal eats animal, then released back into atmosphere) o Carbon is released back into the atmosphere through  Cellular respiration  Decomposition  Bacteria and fungi break things down releasing carbon  Burning of fossil fuels  The increased burning of fossil fuels has cause a much higher amount of CO2 to be released into the atmosphere  The greenhouse effect is positive o Without it the earth would be so cold that it would not be able to sustain much life o Been in effect for billions of years o But, because CO2 has increased so much it is holding in too much heat creating a negative consequence  How does species biology influence extinction rates o Geographic extent  Does the species live in lots of places on the earth or concentrate in one area  If it is only one or two places the species is more likely to go extinct o Habitat tolerance/ physiological tolerances  If you have broad tolerance you are more likely to survive  If you have narrow/ specific tolerances (can only live in certain conditions) more likely to go extinct o Population size  If all populations tend to be large you are less likely to go extinct  Small populations more likely to go extinct  Diversity o More diversity around the equator and less near the poles  Dietary Fiber o Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) o Doesn’t give us energy or building blocks but is good for our digestive system  Passes through body largely unchanged o Lower rates of cancer with more dietary fiber and other digestive problems  Calories o The recommended calorie intake depends on gender and activity level  Active men = 2800  Inactive men/ active women = 2200  Inactive women/ elderly = 1600  Morals and ethical values and why we should preserve biodiversity o People think we have a moral obligation to protect biodiversity o People say preserving biodiversity can bring inspiration to artists, has a soothing impact to our mental state, etc  Abiotic and biotic environmental components o Abiotic – nonliving (rock, air, temperature, water) o Biotic – living (plants, animals, people) o Biota – life, a – without  The largest single factor that determines where a species lives is climate o The physiological constraints of a place o Abiotic components also impact this to some extent  Organelles o Know which ones prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have and the basic structure of each cell  What allows us to transfer genes from one species to another is that genetic code is universal o If you know the DNA you know the amino acid chain that will result  If you transfer from one species to another that species cell will still know how to read it  ATP o Energy source that our cells use o cells can’t function without it  extinction rate is about 1000x higher than in the past o background extinction – regular rate at which things go extinct o five previous mass extinctions  in which huge numbers of species go extinct in a relatively short period of time  when 50-90% of species go extinct  Eutrophication o Excess nitrogen o Nitrogen is something we need that makes up most of our proteins o Waterways become polluted with too much nitrogen giving algal blooms  As the algae die they have to be decomposed (done by bacteria) who in turn suck up all the water leaving the animals with low oxygen and therefore die  Real world application for genomics o Tracking the anthrax vaccination o Study diseases (ebola investigation)  What was the original source o Test paternity o Gene therapy  Need to know what genes we already have  Ecology vs environmentalism o Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment  Objective, no particular agenda  Ex. Difference in fish and cray fish o Environmentalism  Has an agenda  Someone looking at different fossil fuel records to look at impact in climate change  Food chains o Energy moves from one trophic level to another in an inefficient manner  Only 10% of energy moves from one trophic level to another  90% is lost bc it is used for cellular respiration, daily functions of organisms, and heat  Why food chains cannot be extremely long with many links – not enough energy available to support another level  Length of a food chain is completely dependent on how much energy plants can get from the sun  Disturbance, primary v secondary succession o Some level of disturbance is good because certain species just take over and nothing else can survive there o Some are bad  Completely eliminating soil  Volcanoes erupting making area inhospitable for life  Takes land a long time to recover o Primary succession is when you actually have to rebuild the soil (examples above) o Secondary succession has a much quicker fix  Farmers plowing a field  Cloning o Whole organism cloning  Create an entire new organism exactly like a certain organism o Cell cloning  Clone specific cells and inject them into an organism  Pseudoscience o Studies that sound scientific but have no real evidence to back them up  Small sample sizes  No control group o People making claims without sound data to back it up  Sample size o Experiment with 50 individuals who follow a low carb diet and 50 with a normal diet  Sample size is 50 o Independent variable  Diet you follow o Dependent variable  Weight loss/gain o Control group  Normal diet  Should be treated exactly the same as the control group except for being given the thing of interest (independent variable)


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