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USC / History / HIST 111 / Which war is the bloodiest war in american history?

Which war is the bloodiest war in american history?

Which war is the bloodiest war in american history?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: United States History to 1865
Professor: Eric rose
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history
Cost: 25
Name: HIST 111, Week 3
Description: These have supplemental readings, reading from the book, and in class notes. Posting this today so you can look over it before a possible in class quiz!
Uploaded: 02/03/2016
12 Pages 62 Views 8 Unlocks
Reviews

Alexandro Adams (Rating: )

You're awesome! I'll be using your notes for sure moving forward :D



Hist 111: United States History to 1865


Which war is the bloodiest war in american history?



2/2/16

Review 

• Describe recent theories on the origin of “red” as racial category: way to  differentiate between slaves and white men. Some Indians have considered  themselves red before European contact.  

• Indian Slave Trade: in 1708 enslaved Indians composed as much as 14% of the  South Carolina population, which was a result of the ready market for war  captives in Charles Town. Some native groups used the slave trade as means of  ridding themselves of real or potential rivals.  

• Metacomet or Metacom: Indian chief of the Wampanoag tribe, also known as  King Phillip, and the King Phillip war was the bloodiest war in American history  o Race was hardened in the wake of king Phillips war


Why was status more important than gender in the 17th century?



• The picture: some type of ritual, john Lawson and Gaffenright are depicted as  prisoners, therefore this picture took place in Carolina, start of the Tuscarora  war  

Did women exist in colonial North America? 

• Well Behaved Women Seldom Make History – Laurel Thatcher Ulrich  Gender during the 17th Century 

• Mrs. Anne Hutchinson  

o She was a woman from a noble family  

o She was the reason her family moved to Massachusetts Bay  ???? Followed famous Reverend John Cotton  

o Husband acknowledged her as superior spiritually  

o Used the context of childbirth to spread her theological and ideological  thoughts


Who was the first woman executed in connecticut for being perceived as a witch?



???? During labor women go into transition (which is very painful) and  at that point the women would be questioned as to who the father  of the child is  We also discuss several other topics like In the study of human species, what does holism mean?

o Used this time to start preaching to the women, she thought you could  have a direct relationship with god and Jesus  

o Brought to court to explain what she is teaching

???? Therefore she is banished  

o Took family and settled in Brooklyn  

???? Family was attacked by native Americans and all killed  

• Mrs. Margaret Brent  

o Part of a prominent family who came to Maryland

o Became first female landowner after her brother died, he attended the  assembly and requested a vote during the proceedings  

o Leonard Calvert’s last wishes, naming Margret Brent as is Executrix, 1647 o This led to her being named the agent of his estate

???? This called his brother lord Baltimore to be extremely annoyed  o She chose to raise taxes in order to save Maryland financially  • Brent and Hutchinson Compared

o Brent: single women, made her way in owning land and through legal  ways

o Hutchinson: fictive widow who revolutionized religious understandings  in Puritan colonies If you want to learn more check out Which schema classifies people based on social behavior?

o Can they be called colonial feminists? Neither of them extended to other  women what they sought for themselves. So not really.  

o In 17th century their status was more important than their gender  (important!!!)  

Witchcraft and Women 

• First woman executed was Mary Johnson in Connecticut in 1650 • Witches believed to be visited by familiars  

o Witches get powers from a pact with the devil

• Idea of race in Salem  

o Tituba was an Indian slave (a Spanish Indian from the Tuscarora wars or  Caribbean) who many believed was married to the devil  

o Mary Black and Candy were both African Slaved who were accused of  witchcraft  

???? Found not guilty or confessed, but all lived  

• Many things are incorrect about the Salem Narrative  

o Not all accused were women  

???? 25% of all people accused were men  

???? More than half the men accused were high status (ministers, ect)  o Accusers were all girls If you want to learn more check out What are examples of abiotic organisms?

???? 3 groups of afflicted females and men  

• What actually happened in Salem?

o Many people believed that the trials started due to PTSD from Indian  wars  

o England was embarrassed by the colonies so created the “young girls  gone crazy” narrative  

Changing roles in the 18th Century  Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to uniform distribution among society's members?

• Alida Schuyler was born into a wealthy Dutch family in upstate New York o At 16 she married a wealthy 39 year old heir to a landed estate, who died  and left her a considerable fortune  

o Married her husband’s business manager, a Scotsman named Robert  Livingston

o Dutch women were able to inherit and hold property

o Her business skills were so shrewd that she ran the manorial estate in the  Hudson valley and raised several children while her husband resided in  NYC Don't forget about the age old question of Which punctuation is used for possessives?

o Yet, by the time her eldest son Philip came of age, Alida became less  active in the business affairs, a pattern that reflected the diminished  activities of elite women during the 18th century If you want to learn more check out What energizes the climate system?

• Dynamic of power shifted after Salem Witch Trials  

o Power no longer rests with family but rather with group of men who  govern

o Role of the father of the family is seen less as a ruler and more as  someone loving  

• Runaway Women  

o Could run away from husbands  

???? Husbands would post advertisements for runaway wives  

o Divorce was still very rare and difficult  

???? Low chances of being able to remarry  

o Husbands couldn’t completely mistreat their wives  

???? If you were known to beat your wife the women and children  would get together and beat the man senseless in public  

• Eliza Lucas, Indigo and changes for women at the dawn of the Revolution o Was born in Antigua in the British West indies in 1722 and emigrated to  South Carolina in 1738, after her father inherited plantations

o Knowledge of slaves and overseers from the Caribbean, Eliza Lucas  developed the planting and processing techniques in the 1740s later  adopted throughout the colony

o Wanted something to plant opposite to rice, started experimenting with  Indigo

Chapter 4: Colonial Society  

Introduction

• While life in the thirteen colonies was shaped in part by English practices and  participation in the larger Atlantic World, emerging cultural patterns  increasingly transformed North America into something wholly different  

Consumption and Trade in the British Atlantic  

• Britains role in transatlantic slave trade created high standard of living for many  north American colonists  

• Wasn’t until trade relations became strained in the 1760s that colonists  questioned ties to Britain

• During the 17th and 18th century colonists had the opportunity to purchase  consumer goods  

o As incomes of Americans rose the prices of commodities fell  • Consumer revolution: historians term for the average persons ability to spend  money on consumer goods  

• Despite increased trade there was not a formal form of currency  o “Commodity money” varied from place to place  

• In 1690 Colonial Massachusetts became the first colony, and place in the western  world, to issue paper bills to be used as money

• Currency was not the same from colony to colony  

o Was also often counterfeited  

o British merchants were reluctant to accept the paper  

• Board of Trade restricted the use of paper money in the Currency Acts of 1751  and 1763

• Many Americans lived like aristocrats and some worried about the consequences  of rising consumerism  

o Many Americans found themselves in debt

• 13 colonies were far less profitable than the sugar producing islands of the  Caribbean

o Still relied on American colonies for commerce such as lumber  • By 1680, sugar exports from Barbados valued more than the total exports of all  the continental colonies  

• Trade existed to better Great Britain and therefore Parliament issues the  Navigation Act, placing taxes on trade  

• In order to avoid taxes thousands of dollars of illegal goods were smuggled into  the colonies  

• Parliament levied taxes on sugar, paper, lead, glass and tea  

• By 1775, cities dominated American life and was highly stratified  o Slaves in cities worked as domestic servants and in skilled trades  • Massachusetts was the first slave-holding colony in New England  o Slavery in the north greatly increased due to maritime travel  • Slaves, both rural and urban, made up the majority of the laboring population on  the eve of the American Revolution

Slavery, Anti-Slavery, and Atlantic Exchange  

• By 1750, slavery was legal in every North American English colony but every  colony had their own implications

• Virginia first had slaves in 1619, and used primogeniture and entail to make sure  their estates (and therefore wealth) stayed in tact

o Tobacco economy and 100,000 African slaves by 1750

???? 40% of colony’s total population  

o 1705 laws were passed to protect slave owners, the slaves couldn’t gain  freedom and there was no punishment for killing a slave  

• South Carolina and Georgia  

o Slavery was initially illegal in GA but this was overturned  

o South Carolina had a majority enslaved African population in 1750 ???? Banned freeing of slaves unless slave left the colony

???? Murdering a slave was a misdemeanor  

???? Many of the slaves grew rice but fields were hotbeds for disease so  landowners lived in Charles Town

• Many West Africans were immunity to malaria  

???? Didn’t have as much direct supervision and therefore could use  spare time as they pleased

• Underground economic autonomy  

???? Low country slave culture contributed to Stono Rebellion in 1739 • Marched for floridas Fort Mose, a free black settlement on  

the GA-FL border, while owners were in church

o Burned fields and killed 20 whites

• Slavery was also important in mid-atlantic colonies growing cereal grains  o Worked alongside owners on patroonships and in maritime trade and  domestic service  

o In NY the high density of slaves and diverse European population  increased the threat of rebellion  

• Quakers were the first group to turn against slavery

o Non-violent group and said slavery originated in war  

o Also believed that every soul was equal  

• Free black population in northern cities were also against slavery  • Slavery never took off in Massachusetts, Connecticut, or New Hampshire  o Absence of cash crops  

Pursuing Political, Religious and Individual Freedom  

• Whereas trade and slavery linked the colonies and Great Britain, government  and politics drew them apart  

o More people were involved in American politics, and the government had  more power in a variety of areas

o Americans also sued which led to more judges and lawyers who played a  greater role in the political system  

• Biggest difference between colonial politics and now was the lack of political  parties

• Political structure in the colonies fell under one of 3 categories o Provincial

???? New Hampshire, NY, VA, NC, SC, GA

???? Most tightly controlled by the crown – king appointed all  

governors  

o Proprietary

???? PA, Delaware, NJ, MD

???? Here governors were appointed by a lord proprietor, who had  purchased or received the rights to the colony from the crown

• Typically led to more freedoms  

o Charter

???? Mass, RI, Conn

???? Had a 3 branch government and had property owning men choose  governors  

• After gov, colonial government was broken into 2 main divisions o Council

???? The gov cabinet made of prominent individuals within the colony  ???? Appointed by gov

o Assembly  

???? Elected, property-owning men whose official goal was to ensure  that colonial law conformed to English law  

???? Approved new taxes and colonial budgets  

• Thomas Hobbes and John Locke pioneered the idea that government was put in  place by the people  

• Women’s role in the family became more complicated – time of transition  o Smaller family sizes as women asserted more control over their body o Marriage was now considered emotional too instead of just economic  • Elopement notices and divorces were on the rise  

o Due to abuse and inequality  

• Many elites were scared of print culture – namely political print  • Puritans respected print from the beginning  

• Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson published the first bible to be printed in  American in 1660

o Same year the Eliot Bible was printed in the Natick dialect of the local  Algonquin tribes  

• Mass remained the center of colonial printing until Philly overtook boston in  1770  

o Ben Franklin greatly supported print in 1723

o 1775 Thomas Paine had his Common Sense printed in hundreds of  thousands of copies with Philly printer Robert Bell

• 1711 a group of New England ministers published a collection of sermons  entitled Early Piety

o Claimed forefathers came to America to test their faith against the  challenges of American and win  

• Great Awakening began unexpectedly in the Congregational churches of New  England in the 1730s

o Spread to Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists in the other 13 colonies  o Preachers became key figures in encouraging individuals to find a  personal relationship with god  

• First signs of religious revival were in Jonathan Edwards’ congregation in  Northampton Massachusetts  

o Believed that god decides in advanced who was damned and who was  saved  

o Most famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”  • Most famous itinerant preacher was George Whitefield and he invited everyone  to be born again  

• As itinerant preachers became more experimental they alienated as many  people as they converted  

o One preacher from Conn, James Davenport, convinced his congregation  they had to dance naked in circles at night while screaming and laughing  to be saved

• Divide between new lights who believed in the new stuff, and old lights who  thought it was nonsense

• Great Awakening provided a language of individualism and reinforced print  culture

Seven Years’ War

• American militiamen fought for the British against French Catholics and their  Indian allies in all of these engagements  

o Warfare took a toll on colonists  

o Towns were raided and citizens were taken captive  

• 7 years war/French and Indian War  

o British referred to 1759 as “annus mirabilis” or year of miracles  o Ended with the peace treaties of Paris in 1762 and Hubertusburg in 1763 o The fact that France was Catholic was a big issue  

• Missionary organizations were founded at the turn of the 17th century to  evangelize Native Americans and limit them from being converted to Catholics  

Pontiac’s War

• 1761 Neolin, a prophet, revieced a vision from the Master of Life and it told him  to cast off the corrupting Europeans and eliminate them from Indian country  o Preached avoidance of Alc among other things  

o Led to Pontiac’s war  

• Yes war was over Neolin but it was also over the new British land that they took  from the French

o French treated the Indians better than the British did  

• War lasted until 1766 when disease and shortage of supplies undermined the  Indian war effort  

o Pontiac met with British official and diplomat William Johnson at Fort  Ontario and settled for peace  

• Crown issues the Royal Proclamation Line of 1763 which marked the  Appalachian Mountains as boundary between Indian and British land, in order to  try and prevent further conflicts

o Colonists viewed this land as their reward for fighting for the British for  so long and were angry  

Chapter 4 Supplemental

Jonathan Edwards revives Northampton, Massachusetts, 1741 

• Edwards starts the revival known as the Great Awakening  

o Delivered a famous sermon

???? Last part known as the application, where hearers were called to  take action  

• Tells people that God is the only thing keeping them out of hell  • God is angry at the people  

o You have offended him  

• Says some in the congregation will go to hell as soon as tomorrow  • “What would poor damned souls give for one day’s such opportunity as you now  enjoy” to redeem yourselves  

• Then turns attention to “children” unconverted  

Eliza Lucas Letters, 1740-1741 

• Eliza Lucas was born into a moderately wealthy family in South Carolina and  grew her wealthy  

• This is a letter to a friend in London

o Says Charles Town is polite and agreeable  

o Chose to live in the country, 17 miles from Charles Town

o Spends time in the library and the garden  

o Has the business of 3 plantations to transact  

• Letter to her father

o Hadn’t heard from her father in a while then received a letter and was  happy he hadn’t become sick and died

o Her father asked for provisions  

o Had a bad season for crops  

Extracts from Gibson Clough’s war journal, 1759 

• Enlisted in the militia in the 7 years war  

• He enlisted in the service of the English in 1759

• Members of the army were whipped for disobedience of orders • Drummer was shot for stealing a box of soap  

• One corporal stole 6 shirts from his captain and committed suicide  • Very long winter  

• In april he enlisted again for the campaign against Canada  

Pontiac Calls for War, 1763 

• Pontiac, an Ottawa war chief, drew on the teachings of the prophet Neolin to  rally resistance to European powers  

• You must not take multiple wives  

• Bad spirit Manitou speaks to you when you do evil things  

• No need for guns before the whites came  

• They are our enemies, send them back to their country  

Alibamo Mingo, Choctaw leader, reflects on the British and French, 1765 

• End of 7 years war the French left North America and their former Indian allies  were forced to adapt quickly

o Choctaw leader expresses concerns with new political reality  • If you support the white man you will lead a good life  

• Generally states that they should support the white man and do as he says, it will  lead to a better life than if they resist.

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