New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

SOC 101 Final Study Guide

by: Anna Borges

SOC 101 Final Study Guide SOC 101

Marketplace > Catholic University of America > Sociology > SOC 101 > SOC 101 Final Study Guide
Anna Borges

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the study guide for the final!
Introduction to Sociology
Hanson, S.
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Sociology

Popular in Sociology

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Borges on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at Catholic University of America taught by Hanson, S. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Catholic University of America.

Similar to SOC 101 at CUA


Reviews for SOC 101 Final Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/16
Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Orientation: What is Sociology?  Common sense barriers o Seeing is believing o The logic trap o Social pressures/authority  Sociology­ study of human society and social behavior o Micro: one on one; small group o Macro: large groups, institutions, organizations  Assumptions of sociological perspective o Individuals are social beings o Individuals are socially determined o Individuals create, sustain, and change the social forms which they  conduct their lives  3 major orientations o Pure science  Dominant view that looked at human behavior o Applied science  Subjective   Deals with social problems  Symbolic interaction o Critical science  Want to create social change  Looking for improvement to society  Status o Ascribed  Born into  Gender  Race  Social class o Achieved  Earn it  Education  Career  Important Sociologist o August Comte  Coined the word sociology  Emphasized positivism  Father of sociology  Functionalist o Emile Durkheim  Emphasized social facts  Published a book about suicide and how rates varied  Egoistic suicide: people lacking social ties to social groups  are more susceptible to suicide then those with strong  group attachments.  Altruistic suicide: the sacrificing of one’s life for the good of  the group.  Anomic suicide: the absence of norms or conflicting norms.  The person is unaware of how they should act which leads  to a high risk of suicide.  o Karl Marx  Developed social class  Class inequality  Bourgiuose  o Capitalist/owners  Proletoprint o Owned/working/ sold bodies o Max Weber  Said that structure of society comes from: political, economic and  cultural sphere  Vorstehen: won’t ever truly know someone until you walk around  in their skin/shoes o Theories  Evolutionary  Oldest  Macro sociology  Comte was an evolutionist  Comes from Darwin’s survival of the fittest  Modernization theory o Herd/hunting gathering industrialized  Functionalist  Comte, Darson  Macro sociology  Seeing society as interconnected o Family o Religion o Health o Politics  We need laws and routines, without them we would have  chaos and not know how to act or speak  Conflict  Marx  Macro sociology  Conflict and change  When there is surplus there is inequality  “society in prison” o We are constrained by the social class we are born  into  Symbolic Interaction  Micro sociology  Sociology of drama o Front stage behavior:   Your following the group because you are in  the group(representing them) o Backstage behavior: how you act when you’re by  yourself or with your close friends and family  Mead, Cooley  “looking class self”­ society is a mirror, we can view  ourselves by looking at reaction of people  “Taking role of others”: play/learn our roles. Happens  throughout our life.  Rational choice theory o We do behavior based on reward(love, favor, positive  images  Methods  o Conceptualization: putting data into words o Operationalization   How we measure date  Reliability: consistency  Validity: are we measuring what we think we are  Data Collection o Survey  Random sample: representative of the population  Population: group you are interested in  Social desirability: people write what they think is best and what  the survey wants  Problem: not always valid o Experiment  Used to understand cause and effect  Experimental group vs control group  Problem: somewhat artificial o Participant Observation  Observes social action of others  Can be an insider, act as if a member or act as an outsider  Problem: cant generalize Culture and Society:  Norms: rules, expectations  o Folkways: manners, etiquette; not essential o Mores: rules that are essential and are strictly sanctioned o Value: things that people hold important to them o Ethnocentric: when you think your society is best o Material vs. nonmaterial culture  Material: physical evidence(flags, cellphones)  Nonmaterial: shared ways of doing things(language, beliefs, ideas) o Subculture vs. counter­culture  Subculture: one specific group that has something unique and are in agreement with the larger population, i.e. elderly  Counter­culture: goes against larger culture and is focused on and against the rules,etc. i.e promalition groups(against government)  Culture shock­ personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of  life  Elements of culture: o Symbols: anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by  people who share a culture.  o Language: the key to the world of culture; system of symbols that allows  people to communicate with one another  Cultural transmission: the process by which one generation  passes culture to the next  Non­verbal language: beware of using gestures(they mean different things in different places)  Hawthorne Effect: study of productivity and how the subjects knowing they  were being studied affected the outcome  Sigmund Freud o Id: selfish part of our drive; biological o Ego: “mediator”; conscious mediation between the id and superego;  rational  o Superego: internalization of societies norms, values, morals   Manifest vs. Latent o Manifest: an intended consequence of an action o Latent: an unintended consequence of an action Socialization  Unique culture o Culture/ socialization is relative  Kibbutz: agricultural, communal, in Israeli desert, Jewish  Rotation of jobs  Child centered culture  o Children are aware of biological parents but everyone loves everyone else’s children o Child home is separated by age  Children have high IQs, personality, confidence scores  No one has more money, all equal; all based on needs o We are all the product of nature and nurture. o We develop our sense of self in interaction with other people. o Socialization starts before birth  Names  Decorations of nursery o Boys are not held as often as girls are  Helps explain why girls have more emotional needs o Charles Cooley  Used the looking glass self­metaphor o George Mead  Self­development stages  Imitation: children to learn to internalize the feelings of  others  Play: children role play to develop ideas of gender roles and  future adult roles  Game: children play at structured games requiring  teamwork o Albert Bandura  Children observe behavior of others and the feedback they receive  from it  Serves as a guide for their actions o Significant Socializing Institutions  The family  The school  Peers  The media  Toys  TV  Language  Lens through which we see a culture  Women use more supportive behavior and language o Title 9  Women athletes have to be treated the same as male athletes  Allows girls to play on male varsity sports Gender  Gender stratification: the ranking of sexes in a way where women are unequal  in resources, power and opportunities  Male dominance: the beliefs and placement that value men over women and  that institutionalize male control of socially valued resources o Language o Interpersonal behaviors o Mass media o Religion o Law o politics  Patriarchy: forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women  Gender inequality is tied to other inequalities: o Race o Class o Sexuality  Gender Theories: o Order perspective:  Biology, history and society’s needs combine to separate men and  women into distinctive gender roles o Conflict perspective:  Gender roles are not neutral ways of meeting societies’ needs but  are part of the larger system of power and domination  Learning Gender o Children at home:  Boys and girls are treated differently ever since birth o Children at play  Toys play a major part in gender socialization o Children in school:  Girls are shortchanged in every dimension of education  Curriculum  Teacher­student interaction  Sports  Female role models  Socialization as blaming the victim  Gender Inequality in the Workplace o Women make up nearly ½ of the workforce o Women  make 80 cents for every dollar a man makes o Women of color have even greater earning discrimination and are  concentrated in the least paid, least status jobs o Many organizational features block women’s advancement  Dual labor market  Glass ceiling: almost at the top but won’t get there because it is  filled by a male  Less than 4% of top management positions are held by  women  Sponsor­protégé systems  Informal interactions  The Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it illegal to pay women less for doing the same  work as men but it is hard to enforce this. Deviance   The study of who makes the rules  It is socially constructed, determined by the majority, and an integral part of all societies.  There are no cultural universals.  SES doesn’t determine who will commit a crime.  Conflict vs. Functionalist o Conflict: everyone breaks the rules all the time o Functionalist: points out rule breakers so we are good people  Theories of Deviance: o Individual Blaming:  Biological:  Blames mental illness or disease  Assume problematic conditions in the mind or  personality  Sociological  Anomie: why do some people break the rules and some  don’t? o Merton: means and ends (goals and values): Do  we have the means to achieve this?  Culture of poverty o Value system that sometimes runs culture to the  main stream o People with status and power determine rules  Differential Association o Who you hang out with o Choose your friends wisely, you become what  they are  Psychological:  Freud: Oedipus ego(overactive ego)  Will often see abuse or a dysfunctional family o Blaming the Victim:  Labeling theory:  Deviant behavior that stresses the importance of the  society in defining what is illegal  Primary: rule breaking we all do all the time o I.e. speeding  Secondary: once you get caught and labeled you forever  hold that labeled o Murderer  People labeled as deviants tend to become locked in a  deviant behavior pattern   Conflict theory  All views of rule violations have political implications  Punishment of deviants reflects a conservative bias  Support of the deviant behavior is political  Corporate and political crimes Race  Race is learned  Racism: o Individual: prejudice or discrimination on the part of the individual  Not deeply embedded  Seen as intentional o Institutional: corporations, schools, etc. and their actions  Routine, continued  Deeply embedded  Can be intentional or unintentional  Types: o Direct:  School segregation o Indirect:  Not established with negative impact  2 types:  Side effect: prejudice/ discrimination  from one condition affects another   Past in present: practice with no intent  but eventually become discriminatory o Laissez­faire: shift in racial attitudes(Jim Crow)  More subtle: people claim to be more racially equal but do still  hold stereotypes  Theories: o Individual racism:  Deficiency  Cultural: argue group inequality arises from deficient  cultural beliefs and practices  Biological: argue group inferiority is the result of flawed  genetic traits  Bias: place the blame for inequality on the prejudiced attitudes of  the dominant group o Institutional racism:  Structural discrimination: argue that inequality is the result of  external constraints  Racial and Ethnic Minorities o Size is not crucial in determining whether a group is the most powerful o Concept of race is a social invention  DNA evidence shows that humans are all one race. o Ethnicity: a social category that allows for a broader range of affiliation  Based on national origin, language, religion, and culture  Facts About Racism: o Black youths arrested for drug possession are 48 times more likely to  wind up in prison than white youths arrested for the same crime under  same circumstances o Black and Latino men are 3 times more likely than white men to be  stopped by [police and have their cars searched o White men with a criminal record are more likely to be called back for a  job interview than black men with no record. o Children of color are nearly 9 times more likely than economically  advantaged children to be exposed to lead levels so high that they can  cause severe learning disabilities and neurological disorders. o Whites and blacks with similar qualifications and experience are paid  differently  White doctors and white accountants earn 1/3 more than African  Americans Social Stratification  Theories: o Order  Argue that social inequality is universal and natural  Argue that inequality serves as a critical function o Conflict  Oppressed often accept their deprivation as the result of false  consciousness  Powerful use ideology to make their value system predominant in  society  Class: o Rich get richer and poor get poorer o In US  Upper class  Middle class  Lower class o Social Mobility  Caste System  Determines status by heredity  Allows marriage to occur within one’s status group  Determines occupation by heredity  Social Mobility: refers to individual’s movement within the class  structure of society  Vertical   Horizontal  Intergenerational: across generations  o Where you start(your parents) and where you end up  Intergenerational: within generation o Where you start( your first job) and where you end  up  3 factors that determine class  Wealth  Status  Power  Gini index: compares cross­national and how many people you  would have to move around in occupations for it to be equal  Wealth fare: o Society believes most government money goes to the poor  This is not true  Poverty: o Functions  Creates jobs  Subsidized by buying poorer quality products  Guarantees the status of others  Homelessness: o Places are doing everything they can to get them off the streets  Privatize sidewalk  Sprinklers  Making benches uncomfortable or unable to sleep on


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.