SOC 101 Final Study Guide
SOC 101 Final Study Guide SOC 101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Borges on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at Catholic University of America taught by Hanson, S. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Orientation: What is Sociology? Common sense barriers o Seeing is believing o The logic trap o Social pressures/authority Sociology study of human society and social behavior o Micro: one on one; small group o Macro: large groups, institutions, organizations Assumptions of sociological perspective o Individuals are social beings o Individuals are socially determined o Individuals create, sustain, and change the social forms which they conduct their lives 3 major orientations o Pure science Dominant view that looked at human behavior o Applied science Subjective Deals with social problems Symbolic interaction o Critical science Want to create social change Looking for improvement to society Status o Ascribed Born into Gender Race Social class o Achieved Earn it Education Career Important Sociologist o August Comte Coined the word sociology Emphasized positivism Father of sociology Functionalist o Emile Durkheim Emphasized social facts Published a book about suicide and how rates varied Egoistic suicide: people lacking social ties to social groups are more susceptible to suicide then those with strong group attachments. Altruistic suicide: the sacrificing of one’s life for the good of the group. Anomic suicide: the absence of norms or conflicting norms. The person is unaware of how they should act which leads to a high risk of suicide. o Karl Marx Developed social class Class inequality Bourgiuose o Capitalist/owners Proletoprint o Owned/working/ sold bodies o Max Weber Said that structure of society comes from: political, economic and cultural sphere Vorstehen: won’t ever truly know someone until you walk around in their skin/shoes o Theories Evolutionary Oldest Macro sociology Comte was an evolutionist Comes from Darwin’s survival of the fittest Modernization theory o Herd/hunting gathering industrialized Functionalist Comte, Darson Macro sociology Seeing society as interconnected o Family o Religion o Health o Politics We need laws and routines, without them we would have chaos and not know how to act or speak Conflict Marx Macro sociology Conflict and change When there is surplus there is inequality “society in prison” o We are constrained by the social class we are born into Symbolic Interaction Micro sociology Sociology of drama o Front stage behavior: Your following the group because you are in the group(representing them) o Backstage behavior: how you act when you’re by yourself or with your close friends and family Mead, Cooley “looking class self” society is a mirror, we can view ourselves by looking at reaction of people “Taking role of others”: play/learn our roles. Happens throughout our life. Rational choice theory o We do behavior based on reward(love, favor, positive images Methods o Conceptualization: putting data into words o Operationalization How we measure date Reliability: consistency Validity: are we measuring what we think we are Data Collection o Survey Random sample: representative of the population Population: group you are interested in Social desirability: people write what they think is best and what the survey wants Problem: not always valid o Experiment Used to understand cause and effect Experimental group vs control group Problem: somewhat artificial o Participant Observation Observes social action of others Can be an insider, act as if a member or act as an outsider Problem: cant generalize Culture and Society: Norms: rules, expectations o Folkways: manners, etiquette; not essential o Mores: rules that are essential and are strictly sanctioned o Value: things that people hold important to them o Ethnocentric: when you think your society is best o Material vs. nonmaterial culture Material: physical evidence(flags, cellphones) Nonmaterial: shared ways of doing things(language, beliefs, ideas) o Subculture vs. counterculture Subculture: one specific group that has something unique and are in agreement with the larger population, i.e. elderly Counterculture: goes against larger culture and is focused on and against the rules,etc. i.e promalition groups(against government) Culture shock personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life Elements of culture: o Symbols: anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture. o Language: the key to the world of culture; system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another Cultural transmission: the process by which one generation passes culture to the next Nonverbal language: beware of using gestures(they mean different things in different places) Hawthorne Effect: study of productivity and how the subjects knowing they were being studied affected the outcome Sigmund Freud o Id: selfish part of our drive; biological o Ego: “mediator”; conscious mediation between the id and superego; rational o Superego: internalization of societies norms, values, morals Manifest vs. Latent o Manifest: an intended consequence of an action o Latent: an unintended consequence of an action Socialization Unique culture o Culture/ socialization is relative Kibbutz: agricultural, communal, in Israeli desert, Jewish Rotation of jobs Child centered culture o Children are aware of biological parents but everyone loves everyone else’s children o Child home is separated by age Children have high IQs, personality, confidence scores No one has more money, all equal; all based on needs o We are all the product of nature and nurture. o We develop our sense of self in interaction with other people. o Socialization starts before birth Names Decorations of nursery o Boys are not held as often as girls are Helps explain why girls have more emotional needs o Charles Cooley Used the looking glass selfmetaphor o George Mead Selfdevelopment stages Imitation: children to learn to internalize the feelings of others Play: children role play to develop ideas of gender roles and future adult roles Game: children play at structured games requiring teamwork o Albert Bandura Children observe behavior of others and the feedback they receive from it Serves as a guide for their actions o Significant Socializing Institutions The family The school Peers The media Toys TV Language Lens through which we see a culture Women use more supportive behavior and language o Title 9 Women athletes have to be treated the same as male athletes Allows girls to play on male varsity sports Gender Gender stratification: the ranking of sexes in a way where women are unequal in resources, power and opportunities Male dominance: the beliefs and placement that value men over women and that institutionalize male control of socially valued resources o Language o Interpersonal behaviors o Mass media o Religion o Law o politics Patriarchy: forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women Gender inequality is tied to other inequalities: o Race o Class o Sexuality Gender Theories: o Order perspective: Biology, history and society’s needs combine to separate men and women into distinctive gender roles o Conflict perspective: Gender roles are not neutral ways of meeting societies’ needs but are part of the larger system of power and domination Learning Gender o Children at home: Boys and girls are treated differently ever since birth o Children at play Toys play a major part in gender socialization o Children in school: Girls are shortchanged in every dimension of education Curriculum Teacherstudent interaction Sports Female role models Socialization as blaming the victim Gender Inequality in the Workplace o Women make up nearly ½ of the workforce o Women make 80 cents for every dollar a man makes o Women of color have even greater earning discrimination and are concentrated in the least paid, least status jobs o Many organizational features block women’s advancement Dual labor market Glass ceiling: almost at the top but won’t get there because it is filled by a male Less than 4% of top management positions are held by women Sponsorprotégé systems Informal interactions The Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it illegal to pay women less for doing the same work as men but it is hard to enforce this. Deviance The study of who makes the rules It is socially constructed, determined by the majority, and an integral part of all societies. There are no cultural universals. SES doesn’t determine who will commit a crime. Conflict vs. Functionalist o Conflict: everyone breaks the rules all the time o Functionalist: points out rule breakers so we are good people Theories of Deviance: o Individual Blaming: Biological: Blames mental illness or disease Assume problematic conditions in the mind or personality Sociological Anomie: why do some people break the rules and some don’t? o Merton: means and ends (goals and values): Do we have the means to achieve this? Culture of poverty o Value system that sometimes runs culture to the main stream o People with status and power determine rules Differential Association o Who you hang out with o Choose your friends wisely, you become what they are Psychological: Freud: Oedipus ego(overactive ego) Will often see abuse or a dysfunctional family o Blaming the Victim: Labeling theory: Deviant behavior that stresses the importance of the society in defining what is illegal Primary: rule breaking we all do all the time o I.e. speeding Secondary: once you get caught and labeled you forever hold that labeled o Murderer People labeled as deviants tend to become locked in a deviant behavior pattern Conflict theory All views of rule violations have political implications Punishment of deviants reflects a conservative bias Support of the deviant behavior is political Corporate and political crimes Race Race is learned Racism: o Individual: prejudice or discrimination on the part of the individual Not deeply embedded Seen as intentional o Institutional: corporations, schools, etc. and their actions Routine, continued Deeply embedded Can be intentional or unintentional Types: o Direct: School segregation o Indirect: Not established with negative impact 2 types: Side effect: prejudice/ discrimination from one condition affects another Past in present: practice with no intent but eventually become discriminatory o Laissezfaire: shift in racial attitudes(Jim Crow) More subtle: people claim to be more racially equal but do still hold stereotypes Theories: o Individual racism: Deficiency Cultural: argue group inequality arises from deficient cultural beliefs and practices Biological: argue group inferiority is the result of flawed genetic traits Bias: place the blame for inequality on the prejudiced attitudes of the dominant group o Institutional racism: Structural discrimination: argue that inequality is the result of external constraints Racial and Ethnic Minorities o Size is not crucial in determining whether a group is the most powerful o Concept of race is a social invention DNA evidence shows that humans are all one race. o Ethnicity: a social category that allows for a broader range of affiliation Based on national origin, language, religion, and culture Facts About Racism: o Black youths arrested for drug possession are 48 times more likely to wind up in prison than white youths arrested for the same crime under same circumstances o Black and Latino men are 3 times more likely than white men to be stopped by [police and have their cars searched o White men with a criminal record are more likely to be called back for a job interview than black men with no record. o Children of color are nearly 9 times more likely than economically advantaged children to be exposed to lead levels so high that they can cause severe learning disabilities and neurological disorders. o Whites and blacks with similar qualifications and experience are paid differently White doctors and white accountants earn 1/3 more than African Americans Social Stratification Theories: o Order Argue that social inequality is universal and natural Argue that inequality serves as a critical function o Conflict Oppressed often accept their deprivation as the result of false consciousness Powerful use ideology to make their value system predominant in society Class: o Rich get richer and poor get poorer o In US Upper class Middle class Lower class o Social Mobility Caste System Determines status by heredity Allows marriage to occur within one’s status group Determines occupation by heredity Social Mobility: refers to individual’s movement within the class structure of society Vertical Horizontal Intergenerational: across generations o Where you start(your parents) and where you end up Intergenerational: within generation o Where you start( your first job) and where you end up 3 factors that determine class Wealth Status Power Gini index: compares crossnational and how many people you would have to move around in occupations for it to be equal Wealth fare: o Society believes most government money goes to the poor This is not true Poverty: o Functions Creates jobs Subsidized by buying poorer quality products Guarantees the status of others Homelessness: o Places are doing everything they can to get them off the streets Privatize sidewalk Sprinklers Making benches uncomfortable or unable to sleep on
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