CHurch of Rome Midterm Study Guide
CHurch of Rome Midterm Study Guide TRS 362R
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Borges on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TRS 362R at Catholic University of America taught by Dr. David Dawson Vasquez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Church of Rome in Humanities and Social Sciences at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
TERMS ○ Religion ■ means the voluntary subjection of oneself to God. ■ the notion of being bound to God. ○ Denomination ■ A Denomination is an established religious group, which has usually been in existence for many years and has geographically widespread membership. It typically unites a group of individual congregations into a single administrative body. ○ Sect ■ any Christian denomination which has set itself up independently of his own Church is a sect. A sect is a small religious group that is an offshoot of an established religion or denomination. It holds most beliefs in common with its religion of origin, but has a number of novel concepts which differentiate them from that religion. ○ Romanitas ■ is the collection of political and cultural concepts and practices by which the Romans defined themselves. It is a Latin word, first coined in the third century A.D., meaning Roman-ness and has been used by modern historians as shorthand to refer to Roman identity and self-image. ○ Petrus Legislator ■ The pope’s decisions affect all of the church. Major cases should be reserved to the apostolic see ■ Pope as lawgiver ● The pope’s decrees have the same force as the synod because it is with him the church is entrusted. ○ Sollicitudo omnia ecclesiarum: care for all churches ○ Extra ecclesiam nulla salus: outside of the church there is no salvation ○ Plenitudo potestatis: The fullness of power of the pope over the church ○ Patriarch ■ Head of the church (bishop) ■ 5 patriarchs any of the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem ○ Archbishop/metropolitan ■ The entire body of rights and duties which canon law attributes to the metropolitan, or archbishop as such, i.e., not for his own diocese, but for those suffragan to him and forming his ecclesiastical province, is called the metropoliticum. ○ Primacy of honor vs. jurisdictional primacy : ■ Primacy of honor: Primus inter pares ■ Jurisdictional primacy: obedience of all the faithful; binding power of the authority which Christ has conferred onto the Pope ○ Primus inter pares: “ first among equals” ○ Ecumenical council: “universal” councils that included all the bishops of the Church. ○ Prima sede a nemine iudicatur: “ the principal see is judged by no one.” HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT ○ Significance and when it was applied to the bishop of Rome ■ Pope: 384 - Pope St. Siricius ■ Vicar of Peter: Leo the Great - saw himself as the representative of Peter on earth ■ Servant of Servants of God: added to the title of the Pope by Gregory the great after re-establishing the power and respect of the papal bishops in Rome ■ Pontifex Maximus: Gregory the Great, temporal power ● When did the first Christians come to Rome? Who founded the Church of Rome? The first Christians came to Rome sometime before/around 49 AD. We see this in the Letters to the Romans from Paul in the 50’s and the event in which Emperor Claudius expelled Jews from Rome because of a discrepancy with the Christians. The Church of Rome was founded by excited Christians coming to Rome, spreading the Good News. Peter and Paul are also known as the founders in a sense, because they were both martyred in the first Christian persecution by Nero. ● In what sense are Peter and Paul called the founders of the Church of Rome? Peter and Paul are only spiritually the founders of the Church of Rome since the Church was here before they arrived in Rome. Rome is the spiritual anchor because of the bishop of Rome is the successor of St. Peter. ● What evidence is there of Peter and Paul in Rome? Their heads are in St. John Lateran in Rome…? Um they were killed in rome….it told me so in the Bible ● How did the persecution of the Christians by the Roman Empire increase nd the size and prestige of the roman church? How did Christians of the 2 and 3 rdcentury understand martyrdom? The persecution of the Christians by the Roman Empire was a witness to the truth of Christianity. If there were men and women who were willing to die, brutally, then Christianity must be something very substantial. Those who witnessed the martyrdom of Christians were amazed at their attitudes of bravery, fortitude, and love, and in this way, were converted. Those who saw were astounded, and wanted to share in this kind of life: loving a God who saved you from death to live forever with him. Death was no longer against humanity, but for it. “The oftener we are mown down by you, the more in number we grow; the blood of Christians is seed.” - Ignatius The Christians of the 2nd/3rd centuries understood martyrdom as suffering that was not wanted, but embraced all the same in hopes that it would bring victory, i.e. eternal union with God. Death was conquered by Christ in his Resurrection, and therefore there was nothing for a Christian to be afraid of in sight of it. ● What influence did the Church of Rome have over society before the time of Constantine? …. By the middle of the 3rd century, the Church of Rome made up about 5% of the population (30K people). Its care for the poor and the poorer churches throughout the Roman empire were considered exemplary, and it internal life was well-organized. The Church of Rome was seen as very important to be in communion with by all other churches, mostly because of its premium apostolic rank, in being the place where Peter and Paul were martyred. The entire Roman Christian community was held in high esteem. ● How did Constantine change the Church? What were some new things he introduced? What stayed the same before and after Constantine? Constantine, first of all, made Christianity legal, completely re-vamping the life of the Church, which had started to suffer from the fear of Christians far removed from the witnesses of the Apostles and afraid of death. He also limited the primacy of the Church of Rome and neutralized its influence in the East when he moved the capital of the Holy Roman Empire to Constantinople. With his rule came the formalization of synods/ecumenical council and a more hierarchal structure of the clergy, as well as issued decretals (official decrees). The Church wanted the pope to start recognizing the election of all bishops, and have a clear voice on the law and tradition of the Church. ... ● Describe the steps by which the pope came to take on temporal power drawing from the New Testament, the claims of Gelasius I, the understanding of Leo and Gregory. When the Western Roman Empire fell, there was a power vacuum that was left behind. Pope Gregory the Great took temporal power out of necessity because if he had not Rome would have been sacked by the Lombards. Pope Gregory the Great took on temporal power; starting to pay for employed people, and sending out missionaries. When he dies, there are a few problems between the church community and church law, including confession, excommunication, and heresy. The Church starts to need jurisdictional power to make its decisions effective - just enough to remain one, holy, Catholic, and Apostolic. Gelasius said that there were 2 powers in the world: political/temporal and spiritual. Of the two, the spiritual was more important, and the Pope must consider this and look after the salvation of all. Leo the Great recognized the fact that he had to decide how to be the leader of the Christian world and answer the question “what is the character of faith?” He saw himself as the representative of Peter. Also, during this time, the pope and the church of Rome saw and had great respect for the emperor as the defender of the faith. How did Gregory the Great contribute to the formation of a Christian Europe centered on Rome? … Gregory the Great contributed to the formation of Christian Europe by reforming many of the problems with the current Church while he was the bishop of the Church of Rome. Pope-wise, he re-established the power and respect of the papal bishops in Rome. He said that bishops should recognize the weight of the burden of being pope, not enjoy its power, and that the leader of the church should live a monastic life, centered on prayer. Gregory also took on a temporal role as Pope (because there was a need for it after the fall of Rome and the attacks of the Lombards) - he started to pay those that were employed by the church, and started sending out missionaries to evangelize. From his seat in Rome, he created the driving force for Christianizing all of Europe. He also called for a more monastic way of life from the clergy, i.e. celibacy, prayerful, contemplative, and simplistic lives. ● How did the Donation of Constantine come about? What was its use? Why was its authenticity challenged? The Donation of Constantine established Byzantium. It talked about Constantine’s dream of the victorious cross, Peter and Paul, and Pope Sylvester. It gave Sylvester and all popes supremacy (because Sylvester baptized him and cured him of leprosy). Essentially, it gave the papacy power over the entire Western Empire. The entire document was a forgery. It came into question because it was surfaced during a time in which the Lombards were attacking Rome repeatedly, and Peppin, son of Charles Martel, says he will help Rome if he is made King of the Franks. In order to secure his help, Pope Stephen III has the donation written and then proceeds to make Peppin king, under “permission” of Constantine. Peppin then gives the pope Central Italy, and the pope becomes (like) a king. (circa 756). ● How did Charlemagne transform the Church? When Charlemagne came to power, he was very enthused with the idea of Romanitas; he decided he wanted the church to have complete uniformity, inspired by Roman stability and example. Until this time, local churches were in communion with Rome, but had their own local traditions and character. Charlemagne therefore imposed Roman practices on the whole kingdom, creating a jurisdictional uniformity that was rooted in Rome. He also started the laicization (withdrawing clerical power from a person) of the church. …. He wanted an “obedient and tightly organized imperial church.” To attain this, he established new ecclesial provinces that were more easily maintained and controlled through supervision. He tried to make sure that synodal activity took place at the imperial level, and at the provincial level, a more centralized structure was created. ● How did the jurisdictional power of the Pope develop? With the death of Pope Gregory the Great came the issue of the relationship between the Church community and Church law, especially in regards to Confession, excommunication, and heresy. The Church started to need jurisdictional power to make decisions effective. The question that needed to be answered was: how much jurisdictional power did the Church need to remain one, holy, Catholic, and apostolic? The Church of the West knew through the examples of the East that bishops not having the ability to do anything but suggest things to one another was not enough to keep things running smoothly. Therefore, the idea that it was (jurisdictional) power in the name of Christ, according to the Law of Christ that could keep people in line became highlighted. …. ● What was the significance of Nicholas I and the False Decretals? The False Decretals were a collection of Church laws that contained a series of forged and authentic papal letters, written in France. They were prepared by a group of Bishops overseen by Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims. They decreed that Rome could be appealed to by bishops at any time during their trials, even after the verdict was reached; this lead to the principle that the deposition of bishops was a right properly belonging to Rome. They also said that all councils and synods could receive their legal authority through being confirmed by the apostolic see, leading to the principle that only the apostolic see possessed authority from its own right. Overall, the False Decretals gave a vast amount of power and authority to the leaders of the Church of Rome, though this was not their original intent. Nicholas I insisted on papal oversight against that of the local ruler; (innocently) he later used the False Decretals to resolve power struggles with other patriarchs. DOCTRINE ● What role does the Church play in God’s plan of salvation, in Roman Catholic Perspective? In God’s plan of salvation, he entered the world in Christ and abolished sin and death (humanity’s ultimate enemies), and because of the Resurrection, we no longer fear death. The Church is the presence of Christ in the world, helping us avoid sin and become truly ourselves, so that we may rejoin him for eternity in heaven. The Church should show people how to be in relationship with God in our humanity as well. ● Give the meaning of each of the marks of the Church: One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic. One- just as there is one body and one spirit, we are one Church Holy- pure, authentic; A holy human being is shown by the way you live; it also shows other people why it’s worth living; to live in love with your whole being-body, soul, & spirit Catholic- universal, includes and reflects beliefs in everyone -not a private truth, but one that speaks to everyone -same anywhere you go Apostolic-refers to the 12 apostles- goes back to Jesus -find community founded by the Apostles ● How is the monastic life an essential part of the life of the Church? The monastic life is the simplest and purest form of a Christian life. It keeps the life of the Church grounded in holiness and simplicity. …. Maybe talk about how family life took time away from prayer and church duties. Also sex is seen as dirty and leaders of the church are meant to be pure. monastic life was a reaction to hereditary offices, simony and lay investitures (politicking) ● What does the Letter of the Church of Rome to the Church in Corinth tell us about the situation of the Church of Rome in the late first century and the role of Rome among other Churches of the world? In the late first century, Clement responds to the problem of envy in the Corinth community. The young people in the community had rejected the authority of the elected elders because they were envious of them. In the letter, Clement talks about pride and humility and the importance of love, i.e. submitting to one another in humility and for love of Christ, setting aside all pride, envy, and one’s own agenda to have faith and trust in your leaders. This letter shows that the bishops of Rome at the time took special care of the communities that were having issues, and had the duty to lead all people in prayer. ... ● What does Ignatius of Antioch’s Letter to the Romans tell us of the Church of Rome in the early second century? In the letter, Ignatius calls the Romans exemplary; in the “belly of the beast” of the Christian persecutions, they have shown nothing but great love. The letter also tells us that Rome has not yet made the transition to having a single bishop of Rome. This is probably because of the persecution and vastness of the city that it lacks enough coordination to be led by one bishop. ● What is the significance of apostolic succession? How does Irenaeus of Lyons discuss it? Apostolic succession is the transfer of spiritual authority of the Apostles to the sequential popes, so that the teachings of the Church are the clear teachings of the Apostles. Irenaeus says to trust the Gospels, but if you are unsure, turn to tradition because in Christianity, things are not hidden. If something is important, it would be handed down from the apostles to the popes. He also says every church must be in harmony with the Church in Rome because of its outstanding preminence. Churches can look to Rome for standards of teachings of the Church. ● Discuss the meaning of the phrase “outside the Church there is no salvation.” How did Cyprian of Carthage understand this principle? How did the Church of Rome receive and modify this principle? The church is an instrument of salvation, so those outside of the Church are unable to have salvation with Christ. Cyprian of Carthage wrote a fiery letter after the schism between Cornelius and Novation. He says the Church is where goodness happens and the unity of the Church comes from God and the Holy Spirit. Disunity is from the devil, and if you break unity, you are on the side of the devil. He says if you rejoin the Church, you’ll rejoin salvation. ● How was the Church of Rome understood in relation to the other Churches of the world at the end of the third century? The Church in Rome had clear continuity from the apostles Peter and Paul and therefore had an outstanding preeminence over all other churches. Authentic tradition was there, as well as the continuity of successors of Peter, which were fundamental aspects to Christian identity. It is the “elder brother” of all other churches, and communion with the Church of Rome becomes the standard for the world. ● What were the claims to primacy of the Church and Bishop of Rome in the fourth century? How were these received?... Pope makes the law > All Bishops subject to Rome. The Bishop of Rome is the first among equals since he is the successor of Peter. In actuality this was only true in Italy. The bishop of Rome was listened to on issues regarding the administration of sacraments, Christian morality, penitential practices, and Church order. Five patriarchs Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. ● How did Leo the Great understand the relationship of the Roman Empire to the Church? He attributes the extension of the Roman Empire to the Divine plan. It allows grace to be spread to more people throughout the world, and nations can be more connected. The Divine plan allowed many kingdoms to be under one empire, so that the preaching of the world can quickly reach all people. God works through the Roman empire to being good things and prepare the world for Christianity. There is no reason to hold back from accepting God’s gifts. ● How did Leo the Great understand the relationship between Peter and the Pope? Leo the Great was the first to use the title “Pontifex Maximus,” which means high priest. He also considered the pope the Vicar of Peter, meaning that the pope is a true representative of Peter. The Tome of Leo declares that “Peter has spoken through Leo.” He also says the Peter acts in and through the Pope and Rome is elevated because of the apostles. ● What is the significance of the “Formula of Hormisdas?” After Emperor Justin I renounced the Henoticon and restored the ecclesial union with Rome, Pope Hormisdas seized the opportunity to achieve a renewed recognition of Chalcedon and force the East to acknowledge the formal principle that the guarantee of the true faith was only to be found in union with the Roman Church. This was done in the Formula of Hormisdas: it states that Rome is the only ultimate norm for ecclesial communion and the true faith. ● What did Gregory the Great insist upon for bishops? Why did he favor a monastic life for bishops? He thought that bishops should serve as servants. They are Servus Servorum Dei: servants or the servant of God. They should care for the poor and live in the monastic spirit. Gregory the Great thought that a leader should act like Jesus and that includes leading a monastic life, specifically caring for the poor, for example eating with poor people, just as Jesus did. Also, he believed that in order for the community to be holy, each individual had to be holy. ● What are the various levels of primacy in the Church? ● What was the Pentarchy? How was it understood to function in the first millennium? The Pentarchy was the five patriarchs that represented the oikoumene (council?) of the Mediterranean world. They were: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. It was understood that the pentarchy functioned as the five pillars on which the Church was built; the infallibility of the Church rests on them because all five together cannot err (Even if 4 fall away from true faith, one will remain and bring the others back). They were regarded as the true successors of the Apostles. Rome had undisputed first place. Pentarchy is a proposed organisational structure where Christendom is ruled by the heads (or Patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The idea came about due to the political and ecclesiastical prominence of these five sees, but the concept of their universal and exclusive authority was firmly tied to the administrative structure of the Roman Empire. The pentarchy was first tangibly expressed in the laws of Emperor Justinian I (527– 565). The Quinisext Council of 692 gave it formal recognition and ranked the sees in order of preeminence. Especially following Quinisext, the pentarchy was at least philosophically accepted in Eastern Christianity, but generally not in the West, which rejected the Council, and the concept of the Pentarchy. ● What was the understanding of the primacy of Rome among the Churches in the East in the second half of the first millennium? Sometimes jurisdictional power is needed – power to make decisions effective. If universal church is to remain one, you can’t let Churches regulate themselves. Eastern Church believes that the law of Church is enforced by Holy Spirit, not the Pope or any bishop (they can only make suggestions). Papal Primacy in East had doctrinal issues. East thinks Pope is first among equals. There are 5 major patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem), but Rome has the final word. For example, Rome said religious images are okay. ● In what ways was conformity to Rome important for the developing Churches of the West? How did Charlemagne accentuate it? Charlemagne’s idea was to unify the Churches based on Rome. Papal Primacy in West: German evangelization. To be Roman is to be Western. Charlemagne in 9th century: uniformity, laicization of the Church (bishops appointed by local ruler), centralization reduces local control and episcopal governance, false Decretals, sentiment that the power of bishops… Charlemagne’s jurisdiction was good, but too political, and not spiritual. ● How was the Bishop of Rome understood to relate to the other bishops of the world in the following centuries: third century, fifth century, ninth century? Architectural Meaning (WOULD TRULY APPRECIATE IF PEOPLE IN HADLEY’S CLASS COULD TRY TO ANSWER THESE) Discuss how each of the following illustrates a theology of the Church in the related centuries. ● Santa Maria in Navicella ● San Stefano Rotondo ● Sant’Agnese fuori le mura ● Mausoleum of Costanza ● San Giovanni in Laterano ● San Clemente ● Santa Maria Maggiore ● Santa Prassede ● Santa Maria in Trastevere ● San Benedetto ● San Crisogono ● Santa Maria in Ara Coeli ● San Marco Evangelista ● SS Cosma e Damianot
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