Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PY 352
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Mitchen on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 352 at a university taught by Dr. Gilpin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 167 views.
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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Ashley for help in class!
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Date Created: 02/03/16
02/03/2016 ▯ Language development is a good example of cognitive development: True ▯ ▯ Themes of Child Development: ▯ Nature vs. Nurture- whether or not your genes or environment has influenced your development ▯ Stability vs. Change ▯ Gene- Environment Interaction- genes and environment are affecting each other and the change causes development. Stability (nature): - development doesn’t change much – highly inheritable Change (nurture): - influenced by environment ▯ Nature: genes ▯ Nurture: environment child is in (parenting, physical and social world) ▯ Food/drugs mother ingests while pregnant is an example of nurture: TRUE ▯ ▯ How children shape their own development ▯ Niche picking: when children seek out activities in environment that compliment their genetics Ex: SPORTS ▯ “Little scientists”: children are not passive in environment; they are ACTIVE Explore Play Talk (like & dislike) Pay attention to interests ▯ ▯ Continuity vs. Discontinuity ▯ Motor development tends to be rather continuous ▯ Conceptual development (understanding concepts: abstracts) tends to be discontinuous ▯ Mechanisms of Development ▯ Mechanisms of change is not always known. ▯ Variation in our individuals was important to the change in the species in correspondence with natural selection (Darwin) ▯ Accomodation: you change your knowledge to fit the new thing. Ex. Changing the though of a whale as a fish to a mammal. ▯ ▯ Sociocultural Context ▯ Social and cultural contexts affects us either directly or indirectly ▯ ▯ Individuals are different: caused by genetics or environment ▯ ▯ METHODS FOR STUDYING CHILD DEVELOPMENT ▯ Scientific Method: Question- because of an observation: Why is this happening Hypothesis- representations: design a study Research Method- test hypothesis Conclusion- consensus on test results ▯ Theories: describes, explains behavior, and predicts future behavior ▯ Hypotheses are drawn from theories : formed in one question, to further explain theories and make them correct ▯ Observational Research: Naturalistic observation- “viewing” in a natural setting with limited bias Structured observation- Collecting systematic observations o Specimen record o Event sampling – longer windows of time/ recording # of events o Time sampling- recording yes or no ▯ Observer bias ▯ ▯ Experimental Designs: ▯ Explores causes, not just relationships ▯ Types of variables: Independent- what you are manipulating Dependent- variable that is expected to change Subject- variable that an individual brings with them that affects the outcome Confounding- did not control results – not excluding ▯ Between subjects- two entirely different groups where you compare between two groups vs. within subjects (same group does twice and compare within) ▯ Experimental Designs for studying Child Development Longitudinal: over time Cross- Sectional: compare different ages with the same study All can be Laboratory or Naturalistic ▯ Reliability: repeating data (test, retest) ▯ Validity: whether or not the data is valid or accurate ▯ “Significance”: ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 2: ▯ Periods of Prenatal Development Germinal- Zygote (conception- 2 weeks) rd th Embryonic (3 - 8 week) Fetal (9 week- birth) ▯ The Cells Four major developmental processes transform a zygot to an embryo and then to fetus ▯ 1. Cell division: results in the proliferation of cells ▯ 2. Cell migration: is the movement of cells from their point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo ▯ 3. Cell differentiation: transforms the embryo’s unspecialized stem cells into roughly 350 different types of cells ▯ 4. The selective death of certain cells, or apoptosis, also enables prenatal development ▯ ▯ clicker quiz: ▯ the heart begins to beat during the embryonic period: true ▯ ▯ Cephalocaudal Development ▯ - prenatal development from the 4 week on is cephalocaudal ▯ - areas near the head develop earlier than those farther away ▯ Teratogens “monster maker” ▯ - Environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development ▯ - Timing is a crucial factor in the severity of the effects of potentially harmful agents many agents cause damage only if exposure occurs during a sensitive period in development ▯ pg. 60 sensitive periods table ▯ 1 trimester could be the most affected by teratogens (most damage) ▯ ▯ clicker ▯ Which are teratogens?: alcohol, cigarettes, chicken pox, all of the above ▯ Birth of the baby is only the middle stage of labor: true ▯ ▯ Approximately 38 weeks after conception, contractions of the uterine muscles begin, initiating the birth of the baby ▯ 3 stages of labor: labor (new mom- roughly 12 hours/ 2 - 6 hours) nd delivery of baby delivery of placenta (roughly 10 min after baby is born- most dangerous part) ▯ APGAR Score: how is the baby? Appearance (is baby blue- no oxygen or pink) Pulse Grimace (are they pissed?) Activity (are they moving/kicking or still?) Respiration (breathing) ▯ Score of 0-2 for each category. 2 is better. ▯ 1 minute test (score of ~6) 5 minute (9s and 10s) ▯ ▯ Biology and Behavior (ch 3) ▯ Exam Friday ch 1,2, &3 study guide and practice exams on BBL ▯ Learn concept, make own examples, make own questions… reference textbook: 50 questions ▯ ▯ Genes make us different ▯ During mitosis mutation can occur: random spontaneous error can be through mitosis process or through environmental influence but it causes changes in sections of DNA/genetic code. usually harmful but can change species over time. ▯ 23 pairs of chromosomes- randomly shuffled to form egg (over 8 million combination of shuffles- basically 0% likelihood of alikeness except in twins) ▯ crossing over between mom and dad chromosomes occurs giving half and half ▯ - a lot of variation in genes due to shuffling and crossing over which creates a lot of different people ▯ Genotype: actual gene- genetic contribution Genes that contribute to eye color ▯ Phenotype: the expression of your gene The actual eye color ▯ ▯ Genetic Expression Dominant vs Recessive Genes Mendelian Pattern: not polygenetic only one gene contributes Homozygous: two of the same alleles Heterozygous: different alleles Polygenic inheritance: multiple genes contribute to your phenotype Alleles: variant form of a gene Norm of Reaction: continuous reaction between environment and our genes and the expression of genes is usually polygenic, so norm of reaction is ALL of the potential phenotypes ▯ Genetic Abnormalities ▯ Caused by: Dominant Recessive Abnormalities o Cooley’s anemia- affects hemoglobin & reduces O2 in body o Cystic Fibrosis- increased mucous in lungs and digestion o Phenylketonuria (PKU)- survivable if you know about it; body cant break down that amino acid (aspartame) o Sickle Cell Anemia- more common in black people, blood disorder, shape of red blood cells o Tay-Sachs disease- destroys nerve cells in brain and spinal chord, eastern European jews (typically die by age 4) o Huntington disease- dominant (few examples) onset is in 30s, neuro degenerate disorder that affects brain and muscles (cant move and cant control) o Marfan Syndrome- recessive, mutation that causes issues with body’s connective tissue rd Sex-Linked Diseases (male) – affected by genetic code on 23 chromosome- 104 boys are conceived for every 100 girls- loose about 4 boys though bc of sex linked diseases – expressed in males more significantly or only in males o Duchenne muscular dystrophy o Hemophelia o Diabetes insipidus o Red-Green color blindness o Fragile X syndrome- autism like symptoms, facial abnormalities, heart defects, and mental retardation but both males and females have it but expressed more significantly in males Chromosomal Abnormalities – errors or mutations in mitosis- missing chromosomal information (down syndrome) o Down’s Syndrome: occurs approx. 1 in 1,000 live births (occurs more often but usstlly miscarries- 1 in 5)- 3 chromosomes on the 21 pair (Trisomy 21)- most common cause of mental retardation Mosaisism- when break has happened later in division so fewer cells contain the mutation o Edward’s Syndrome: (Trisomy 18) affects 1 in 6,000 live births. Usually miscarried. Usually die within a year due to bad heart & nervous system defects o Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13) severe heart and nervous defects o Cri-du-Chat (missing short arm of Chr. 5) – usually live w/ facial abnormalities Sex-Chromosome Disorders – come on sex chromosome- errors on the 23 pair. o Turner Syndrome (X0)- missing chromosome 1 in 2500 females but 90% miscarried o Triple X Syndrome (XXX) o Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY) o XYY Syndrome ▯ Prenatal Testing Methods Non-Invasive (no harm) o Genetic counseling – family history o Triple screen test (tetrascreen test) – blood test o Ultrasound Invasive (cause pain and/or miscarriage) o Chorionic Villa Sampling o Amniocentesis o Fetoscopy ▯ Amniocentesis allows doctors to perform genetic testing on a fetus, whereas ultrasound only shows structural deformities TRUE ▯ ▯ Heredity influences on Behavior ▯ Hereditability: amount of variability due to genetic factors ▯ Estimating: Concordance rates Correlations ▯ Gene-Environment Interactions Canalization Range-of-reaction Niche-picking Passive vs. Evocative ▯ ▯ ▯ PY 352 Study Guide: Exam 1 I. Periods of Prenatal Development a. Prenatal, Infancy and Toddlerhood b. Early Childhood i. Parallel Play ii. Socio-dramatic Play c. Middle Childhood d. Adolescence II. Domains of Development a. Domain b. Physical Development c. Physical Development d. Cognitive Development e. Metaknowledge f. Emotional and Social Development III. Themes of Child Development a. Nature v. Nurture i. Gene-Environment Interaction b. How children shape their own development i. Active ii. “Little Scientist” iii. Niche Picking c. Continuity v. Discontinuity i. Quantitative v. Qualitative d. Mechanisms of Development i. Mechanism ii. Brain Maturation iii. Variation and Selection iv. Assimilation and Accommodation e. Sociocultural Context i. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Theory f. Individual Differences IV.Research and Methods for Studying Child Development a. Scientific Method i. Theory v. Hypothesis b. Research Methodologies i. Naturalistic Observation and Interview ii. Structured Observation and Interview iii. Systematic Observation iv. Specimen Record 1. Event Sampling 2. Time Sampling v. Survey c. Limitations to Observational Research i. Observer Influence ii. Observer Bias 1. Blind Study 2. Double Blind Study d. Correlational Research vs. Cause and Effect i. What is a correlation? ii. Positive v. Negative iii. Weak, Moderate, Strong e. Experimental Design i. Variables 1. Independent (Predictor) 2. Dependent (Outcome) 3. Subject 4. Confounding ii. Between Subject v. Within Subjects iii. Longitudinal iv. Cross-Sectional v. Naturalistic v. Lab f. Research Validity i. Reliability 1. Test-Retest Reliability 2. Inter-rater Reliability ii. Validity iii. Significant v. Meaningfulness g. Ethical Guidelines V. Video Notes – See Study Guide VI.Birth and Newborn a. Periods of Prenatal Development b. Germinal i. Zygote ii. Blastocyst c. Embryonic d. Fetal e. Cell Division f. Cell Differentiation g. Cephalocaudal Development h. Teratogens and Examples i. Sensitive Periods j. The Birth Experience k. Stages of Labor l. APGAR Score VII. Biology and Behavior a. Individual Differences i. Genotype ii. Phenotype iii. Environment b. Dominant v. Recessive Genes c. Homozygous v. Heterozygous d. Alleles e. Norm of Reaction f. Polygenic Inheritence g. Genetic Abnormalities h. Dominant Recessive Abnormalities i. Cooley’s Anemia ii. Cystic Fibrosis iii. Phenylketonuria (PKU) iv. Sickle Cell Anemia v. Tay-Sachs Disease vi. Huntington Disease vii. Marfan Syndrome i. Sex-Linked Disease (males) i. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy ii. Hemophelia iii. Diabetes Insipidus iv. Red-Green Color Blindness v. Fragile X Syndrome j. Chromosomal Abnormalities i. Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21) ii. Edward’s Syndrome (Trisomy 18) iii. Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13) iv. Cri-du-Chat (missing short arm of Chromosome 5) k. Sex-Chromosome Disorders i. Turner Syndrome (XO) ii. Triple X Syndrome (XXX) iii. Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY) iv. XYY Syndrome l. Prenatal Testing Methods i. Non-Invasive 1. Genetic Counseling 2. Triple Screen Test 3. Ultrasound ii. Invasive 1. Chorionic Villa Sampling 2. Amniocentesis 3. Fetoscopy m. Heredity Influences on Behavior i. Estimating Hereditability 1. Concordance Rates 2. Correlations ii. Gene-Environment Interactions 1. Canalization 2. Range-of-reaction 3. Niche Picking 4. Passive v. Evocative n. Neuron o. Structure of the Cortex
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